Gene Symbol: Mef2
Description: Myocyte enhancer factor 2
Alias: 22.21, BEST:SD04091, CG1429, D-MEF2, D-Mef2, D-mef2, DMEF-2, DMEF2, DMedf2, DMef-2, DMef2, Dmef, Dmef-2, Dmef2, Dmel\CG1429, MEF-2, MEF2, Mef, Mef-2, SD04091, dMEF2, dMEf2, dMef2, dmef2, l(2)46CFr, mb247, mef, mef-2, mef2, mef2c, myocyte enhancer factor 2, CG1429-PA, CG1429-PB, CG1429-PC, CG1429-PD, CG1429-PF, CG1429-PG, CG1429-PH, DMEF2, Drosophila-myocyte enhancer factor 2, Mef2-PA, Mef2-PB, Mef2-PC, Mef2-PD, Mef2-PF, Mef2-PG, Mef2-PH, Myocyte-enhancer factor 2, Myocyte-enhancer factor-2, complementation group C, drosophila myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2, group C, myocyte enhancer factor-2, myocyte enhancing factor 2, myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Mef2

Top Publications

  1. Potthoff M, Olson E. MEF2: a central regulator of diverse developmental programs. Development. 2007;134:4131-40 pubmed
    The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factor acts as a lynchpin in the transcriptional circuits that control cell differentiation and organogenesis...
  2. Lovato T, Benjamin A, Cripps R. Transcription of Myocyte enhancer factor-2 in adult Drosophila myoblasts is induced by the steroid hormone ecdysone. Dev Biol. 2005;288:612-21 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that expression of the muscle differentiation gene Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2) is normally delayed in twist-expressing adult myoblasts until the end of the third larval instar...
  3. Olson E, Perry M, Schulz R. Regulation of muscle differentiation by the MEF2 family of MADS box transcription factors. Dev Biol. 1995;172:2-14 pubmed
  4. Taylor M. Muscle differentiation: how two cells become one. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R224-8 pubmed
    ..Future studies will establish the extent to which the molecular mechanisms of myoblast fusion are conserved between Drosophila and other animals, as found in other aspects of myogenesis. ..
  5. MacMullin A, Jacobs J. Slit coordinates cardiac morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2006;293:154-64 pubmed
    ..This indicates that Slit participates in adhesion or adhesion signaling during heart development. ..
  6. Chen E, Olson E. Antisocial, an intracellular adaptor protein, is required for myoblast fusion in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2001;1:705-15 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that ANTS functions as an intracellular adaptor protein that relays signals from Dumbfounded to the cytoskeleton during myoblast fusion. ..
  7. Galindo R, Allport J, Olson E. A Drosophila model of the rhabdomyosarcoma initiator PAX7-FKHR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13439-44 pubmed
  8. Krashes M, Keene A, Leung B, Armstrong J, Waddell S. Sequential use of mushroom body neuron subsets during drosophila odor memory processing. Neuron. 2007;53:103-15 pubmed
  9. Kim S, Shilagardi K, Zhang S, Hong S, Sens K, Bo J, et al. A critical function for the actin cytoskeleton in targeted exocytosis of prefusion vesicles during myoblast fusion. Dev Cell. 2007;12:571-86 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal a surprising cell-type specificity of Sltr-mediated actin polymerization in myoblast fusion, and demonstrate that targeted exocytosis of prefusion vesicles is a critical step prior to plasma membrane fusion. ..

More Information


  1. Qian L, Liu J, Bodmer R. Slit and Robo control cardiac cell polarity and morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2271-8 pubmed
  2. Lilly B, Galewsky S, Firulli A, Schulz R, Olson E. D-MEF2: a MADS box transcription factor expressed in differentiating mesoderm and muscle cell lineages during Drosophila embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5662-6 pubmed
    ..We have cloned a protein from Drosophila, termed D-MEF2, that shares extensive amino acid homology with the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and serum-response factor) ..
  3. Ruiz Gomez M, Coutts N, Suster M, Landgraf M, Bate M. myoblasts incompetent encodes a zinc finger transcription factor required to specify fusion-competent myoblasts in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:133-41 pubmed
    ..myoblasts fail to express proteins characteristic of the general pathway of myogenesis such as myosin and Dmef2. Thus myoblasts incompetent appears to function specifically in the general pathway of myogenesis to control the ..
  4. Capovilla M, Kambris Z, Botas J. Direct regulation of the muscle-identity gene apterous by a Hox protein in the somatic mesoderm. Development. 2001;128:1221-30 pubmed
  5. Bour B, Chakravarti M, West J, Abmayr S. Drosophila SNS, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is essential for myoblast fusion. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1498-511 pubmed
    ..To these ends, we demonstrate that the presence of SNS-expressing cells is absolutely dependent on Notch, and that expression of SNS does not require the myogenic regulatory protein MEF2.
  6. Lilly B, Zhao B, Ranganayakulu G, Paterson B, Schulz R, Olson E. Requirement of MADS domain transcription factor D-MEF2 for muscle formation in Drosophila. Science. 1995;267:688-93 pubmed
    Members of the myocyte enhancer binding factor-2 (MEF2) family of MADS (MCM1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor) box transcription factors are expressed in the skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle lineages of vertebrate and ..
  7. Taylor M. Muscle development: a transcriptional pathway in myogenesis. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R356-8 pubmed
    ..For body wall muscle, a pathway can now be drawn that links the transcription factor Dorsal, inherited from the egg, with the differentiated-muscle protein tropomyosin. ..
  8. Bulchand S, Menon S, George S, Chia W. The intracellular domain of Dumbfounded affects myoblast fusion efficiency and interacts with Rolling pebbles and Loner. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9374 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest an additive function of the intracellular domain of Duf and an early function of Rols and Loner which is independent of Duf. ..
  9. Lorén C, Englund C, Grabbe C, Hallberg B, Hunter T, Palmer R. A crucial role for the Anaplastic lymphoma kinase receptor tyrosine kinase in gut development in Drosophila melanogaster. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:781-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that the main function of Drosophila Alk during early embryogenesis is in visceral mesoderm development. ..
  10. Mandal L, Banerjee U, Hartenstein V. Evidence for a fruit fly hemangioblast and similarities between lymph-gland hematopoiesis in fruit fly and mammal aorta-gonadal-mesonephros mesoderm. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1019-23 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that there is a close parallel between the molecular mechanisms functioning in the D. melanogaster cardiogenic mesoderm and those functioning in the mammalian aorta-gonadal-mesonephros mesoderm...
  11. Artero R, Prokop A, Paricio N, Begemann G, Pueyo I, Mlodzik M, et al. The muscleblind gene participates in the organization of Z-bands and epidermal attachments of Drosophila muscles and is regulated by Dmef2. Dev Biol. 1998;195:131-43 pubmed
    ..Analysis of mbl expression in embryos that are either mutant for Dmef2 or ectopically express Dmef2 places mbl downstream of Dmef2 function in the myogenic differentiation program...
  12. Gajewski K, Kim Y, Choi C, Schulz R. Combinatorial control of Drosophila mef2 gene expression in cardiac and somatic muscle cell lineages. Dev Genes Evol. 1998;208:382-92 pubmed
    The Drosophila mef2 gene encodes a MADS domain transcription factor required for the differentiation of cardiac, somatic, and visceral muscles during embryogenesis and the patterning of adult indirect flight muscles assembled during ..
  13. Cripps R, Olson E. Twist is required for muscle template splitting during adult Drosophila myogenesis. Dev Biol. 1998;203:106-15 pubmed
    ..The function of Twist in larval muscle splitting is likely mediated by myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) since in Mef2 hypomorphic mutants splitting is also reduced and Mef2 expression is dependent upon Twist...
  14. Honkela A, Girardot C, Gustafson E, Liu Y, Furlong E, Lawrence N, et al. Model-based method for transcription factor target identification with limited data. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:7793-8 pubmed publisher
    ..chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip) and loss-of-function mutant expression data for two TFs, Twist, and Mef2, controlling mesoderm development in Drosophila...
  15. SANTIAGO MARTINEZ E, Soplop N, Patel R, Kramer S. Repulsion by Slit and Roundabout prevents Shotgun/E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion during Drosophila heart tube lumen formation. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that Slit and Robo pathways function in lumen formation as a repulsive signal to antagonize E-Cad-mediated cell adhesion. ..
  16. Zinzen R, Girardot C, Gagneur J, Braun M, Furlong E. Combinatorial binding predicts spatio-temporal cis-regulatory activity. Nature. 2009;462:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This data-driven approach does not require previous knowledge of transcription factor sequence affinity, function or expression, making it widely applicable. ..
  17. Klingseisen A, Clark I, Gryzik T, Müller H. Differential and overlapping functions of two closely related Drosophila FGF8-like growth factors in mesoderm development. Development. 2009;136:2393-402 pubmed publisher
  18. Deng H, Hughes S, Bell J, Simmonds A. Alternative requirements for Vestigial, Scalloped, and Dmef2 during muscle differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:256-69 pubmed publisher
    Vertebrate development requires the activity of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (mef2) gene family for muscle cell specification and subsequent differentiation...
  19. Castanon I, Baylies M. A Twist in fate: evolutionary comparison of Twist structure and function. Gene. 2002;287:11-22 pubmed
    ..Conserved principles and the molecular mechanisms underlying them are discussed. ..
  20. Elgar S, Han J, Taylor M. mef2 activity levels differentially affect gene expression during Drosophila muscle development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:918-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Muscle differentiation is a well studied paradigm in which the conserved Mef2 transcription factor plays a pivotal role...
  21. Baylies M, Bate M. twist: a myogenic switch in Drosophila. Science. 1996;272:1481-4 pubmed
    ..Vertebrate homologs of twist may also participate in the subdivision of mesoderm. ..
  22. SANTIAGO MARTINEZ E, Soplop N, Kramer S. Lateral positioning at the dorsal midline: Slit and Roundabout receptors guide Drosophila heart cell migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12441-6 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which Slit has a dual role during assembly of the linear heart tube, functioning to regulate both cell positioning and adhesive interactions between migrating cardiac precursor cells. ..
  23. Han Z, Olson E. Hand is a direct target of Tinman and GATA factors during Drosophila cardiogenesis and hematopoiesis. Development. 2005;132:3525-36 pubmed
  24. Taylor M, Beatty K, Hunter H, Baylies M. Drosophila MEF2 is regulated by twist and is expressed in both the primordia and differentiated cells of the embryonic somatic, visceral and heart musculature. Mech Dev. 1995;50:29-41 pubmed
    ..Drosophila has a single MEF2 gene, DMEF2, that is alternatively spliced to produce different transcripts and which is expressed in the mesodermal ..
  25. Liotta D, Han J, Elgar S, Garvey C, Han Z, Taylor M. The Him gene reveals a balance of inputs controlling muscle differentiation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1409-13 pubmed
    Tissue development requires the controlled regulation of cell-differentiation programs. In muscle, the Mef2 transcription factor binds to and activates the expression of many genes and has a major positive role in the orchestration of ..
  26. Bonn S, Zinzen R, Girardot C, Gustafson E, Perez Gonzalez A, Delhomme N, et al. Tissue-specific analysis of chromatin state identifies temporal signatures of enhancer activity during embryonic development. Nat Genet. 2012;44:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This cell type-specific view identifies dynamic enhancer usage, an essential step in deciphering developmental networks. ..
  27. Chen Z, Liang S, Zhao Y, Han Z. miR-92b regulates Mef2 levels through a negative-feedback circuit during Drosophila muscle development. Development. 2012;139:3543-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Mef2 is the key transcription factor for muscle development and differentiation in Drosophila. It activates hundreds of downstream target genes, including itself...
  28. Cox V, Baylies M. Specification of individual Slouch muscle progenitors in Drosophila requires sequential Wingless signaling. Development. 2005;132:713-24 pubmed
    ..This dual requirement for Wg provides a paradigm for understanding how one signaling pathway can act over time to create a diverse array of patterning outcomes. ..
  29. Nguyen T, Wang J, Schulz R. Mutations within the conserved MADS box of the D-MEF2 muscle differentiation factor result in a loss of DNA binding ability and lethality in Drosophila. Differentiation. 2002;70:438-46 pubmed
    Members of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors contain highly conserved sequences within their MADS box and MEF2 domain...
  30. Chartier A, Zaffran S, Astier M, Semeriva M, Gratecos D. Pericardin, a Drosophila type IV collagen-like protein is involved in the morphogenesis and maintenance of the heart epithelium during dorsal ectoderm closure. Development. 2002;129:3241-53 pubmed
    ..Our results support, for the first time, the function of a collagen-like protein in the coordinated migration of dorsal ectoderm and heart cells. ..
  31. Guruharsha K, Ruiz Gomez M, Ranganath H, Siddharthan R, Vijayraghavan K. The complex spatio-temporal regulation of the Drosophila myoblast attractant gene duf/kirre. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6960 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results and the bioinformatics tools developed provide a basis for the study of the transcriptional regulation of other complex genes. ..
  32. Cunha P, Sandmann T, Gustafson E, Ciglar L, Eichenlaub M, Furlong E. Combinatorial binding leads to diverse regulatory responses: Lmd is a tissue-specific modulator of Mef2 activity. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001014 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in either Myocyte enhancing factor 2 (Mef2) or the zinc-finger transcription factor lame duck (lmd) lead to very similar defects in myoblast ..
  33. Kramer S, Kidd T, Simpson J, Goodman C. Switching repulsion to attraction: changing responses to slit during transition in mesoderm migration. Science. 2001;292:737-40 pubmed
    ..A few hours after migration, these same cells change their behavior and require Robo to extend toward Slit-expressing muscle attachment sites. Thus, Slit functions as a chemoattractant to provide specificity for muscle patterning. ..
  34. Frémion F, Astier M, Zaffran S, Guillèn A, Homburger V, Sémériva M. The heterotrimeric protein Go is required for the formation of heart epithelium in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:1063-76 pubmed
    ..We predict that bkh might be involved in vesicular traffic of membrane proteins that is responsible for the acquisition of polarity. ..
  35. Menon S, Osman Z, Chenchill K, Chia W. A positive feedback loop between Dumbfounded and Rolling pebbles leads to myotube enlargement in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:909-20 pubmed
    ..This implicates the Duf-Rols7 positive feedback loop to the occurrence of fusion at specific sites along the membrane and provides a mechanism by which the rate of fusion is controlled. ..
  36. Furlong E, Profitt D, Scott M. Automated sorting of live transgenic embryos. Nat Biotechnol. 2001;19:153-6 pubmed
  37. Ward E, Skeath J. Characterization of a novel subset of cardiac cells and their progenitors in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2000;127:4959-69 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that numb and sanpodo mediate the asymmetric divisions of the two mixed-lineage heart progenitors noted above. ..
  38. Wang J, Tao Y, Reim I, Gajewski K, Frasch M, Schulz R. Expression, regulation, and requirement of the toll transmembrane protein during dorsal vessel formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4200-10 pubmed
    ..Such findings implicate Toll as a critical cell adhesion molecule in the alignment and migration of cardioblasts during dorsal vessel morphogenesis...
  39. Gajewski K, Choi C, Kim Y, Schulz R. Genetically distinct cardial cells within the Drosophila heart. Genesis. 2000;28:36-43 pubmed
    ..Further differences in the cells are substantiated by the identification of separable enhancers for D-mef2 gene transcription in the distinct cardioblast sets...
  40. Rau A, Buttgereit D, Holz A, Fetter R, Doberstein S, Paululat A, et al. rolling pebbles (rols) is required in Drosophila muscle precursors for recruitment of myoblasts for fusion. Development. 2001;128:5061-73 pubmed
    ..Transplantation assays of rols mutant mesodermal cells into wild-type embryos show that Rols is required in muscle precursor cells and is essential to recruit fusion-competent myoblasts for myotube formation. ..
  41. Kelly K, Meadows S, Cripps R. Drosophila MEF2 is a direct regulator of Actin57B transcription in cardiac, skeletal, and visceral muscle lineages. Mech Dev. 2002;110:39-50 pubmed
    ..This fragment contained a MEF2 binding site conserved between D...
  42. Gunthorpe D, Beatty K, Taylor M. Different levels, but not different isoforms, of the Drosophila transcription factor DMEF2 affect distinct aspects of muscle differentiation. Dev Biol. 1999;215:130-45 pubmed
    ..Drosophila mef2 (Dmef2) has been shown to be required for the differentiation of a variety of distinct muscle types...
  43. Cripps R, Black B, Zhao B, Lien C, Schulz R, Olson E. The myogenic regulatory gene Mef2 is a direct target for transcriptional activation by Twist during Drosophila myogenesis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:422-34 pubmed
    b>MEF2 is a MADS-box transcription factor required for muscle development in Drosophila...
  44. Keller C, Erickson M, Abmayr S. Misexpression of nautilus induces myogenesis in cardioblasts and alters the pattern of somatic muscle fibers. Dev Biol. 1997;181:197-212 pubmed
    ..In summary, we suggest that nautilus induces myogenic differentiation in vivo when ectopically expressed in developing cardioblasts and may affect the myogenic differentiation program of specific muscle fibers. ..
  45. Duan H, Skeath J, Nguyen H. Drosophila Lame duck, a novel member of the Gli superfamily, acts as a key regulator of myogenesis by controlling fusion-competent myoblast development. Development. 2001;128:4489-500 pubmed
    ..Embryos that lack lmd function show a loss of expression of two key differentiation and fusion genes, Mef2 and sticks-and-stones, in fusion-competent myoblasts and are completely devoid of multinucleate muscle fibers...
  46. Jagla K, Frasch M, Jagla T, Dretzen G, Bellard F, Bellard M. ladybird, a new component of the cardiogenic pathway in Drosophila required for diversification of heart precursors. Development. 1997;124:3471-9 pubmed
    ..These events result in a diversification of heart cell identities within each segment. ..
  47. Gajewski K, Kim Y, Lee Y, Olson E, Schulz R. D-mef2 is a target for Tinman activation during Drosophila heart development. EMBO J. 1997;16:515-22 pubmed
    The NK-type homeobox gene tinman and the MADS box gene D-mef2 encode transcription factors required for the development and differentiation of the Drosophila heart, and closely related genes regulate cardiogenesis in vertebrates...
  48. Lin M, Nguyen H, Dybala C, Storti R. Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2 acts cooperatively with a muscle activator region to regulate Drosophila tropomyosin gene muscle expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4623-8 pubmed
    b>MEF2 (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2) is a MADS box transcription factor that is thought to be a key regulator of myogenesis in vertebrates...
  49. Busser B, Huang D, Rogacki K, Lane E, Shokri L, Ni T, et al. Integrative analysis of the zinc finger transcription factor Lame duck in the Drosophila myogenic gene regulatory network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20768-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings provide insights into the transcriptional codes regulating muscle gene expression and offer a generalizable approach for similar studies in other systems. ..
  50. Bernard F, Krejci A, Housden B, Adryan B, Bray S. Specificity of Notch pathway activation: twist controls the transcriptional output in adult muscle progenitors. Development. 2010;137:2633-42 pubmed publisher
  51. Ranganayakulu G, Zhao B, Dokidis A, Molkentin J, Olson E, Schulz R. A series of mutations in the D-MEF2 transcription factor reveal multiple functions in larval and adult myogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1995;171:169-81 pubmed
    The D-mef2 gene encodes a MADS domain transcription factor expressed in differentiated muscles and their precursors in the Drosophila embryo...
  52. Erickson M, Galletta B, Abmayr S. Drosophila myoblast city encodes a conserved protein that is essential for myoblast fusion, dorsal closure, and cytoskeletal organization. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:589-603 pubmed
  53. Englund C, Lorén C, Grabbe C, Varshney G, Deleuil F, Hallberg B, et al. Jeb signals through the Alk receptor tyrosine kinase to drive visceral muscle fusion. Nature. 2003;425:512-6 pubmed
  54. Damm C, Wolk A, Buttgereit D, Löher K, Wagner E, Lilly B, et al. Independent regulatory elements in the upstream region of the Drosophila beta 3 tubulin gene (beta Tub60D) guide expression in the dorsal vessel and the somatic muscles. Dev Biol. 1998;199:138-49 pubmed
    ..This region contains a binding site for the Drosophila myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 (D-MEF2), a MADS-box transcription factor known to be essential for mesoderm development...
  55. Soler C, Taylor M. The Him gene inhibits the development of Drosophila flight muscles during metamorphosis. Mech Dev. 2009;126:595-603 pubmed publisher
    ..We then uncovered a balance between mef2, a positive factor required for proper DLM development, and the inhibitory action of Him...
  56. Fuerstenberg S, Giniger E. Multiple roles for notch in Drosophila myogenesis. Dev Biol. 1998;201:66-77 pubmed
    ..Additionally, Notch is capable of suppressing muscle development nonautonomously by regulating a signal that emanates from the ectoderm. ..
  57. Taylor M. A novel Drosophila, mef2-regulated muscle gene isolated in a subtractive hybridization-based molecular screen using small amounts of zygotic mutant RNA. Dev Biol. 2000;220:37-52 pubmed
    ..Two pivotal regulators of mesoderm development and gene expression are Dmef2 and tinman (tin)...
  58. Lockwood W, Bodmer R. The patterns of wingless, decapentaplegic, and tinman position the Drosophila heart. Mech Dev. 2002;114:13-26 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ectopic heart can be generated by altering the patterns of wg and dpp within the tin-expressing mesoderm, or by ectopic induction of tin within the wg- and dpp-expressing ectoderm. ..
  59. McGuire S, Le P, Davis R. The role of Drosophila mushroom body signaling in olfactory memory. Science. 2001;293:1330-3 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of mushroom body signaling through alpha/beta neurons during different phases of memory processing revealed a requirement for mushroom body signaling during memory retrieval, but not during acquisition or consolidation. ..
  60. Reim I, Frasch M. The Dorsocross T-box genes are key components of the regulatory network controlling early cardiogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:4911-25 pubmed
    ..The integration of this new information with previous findings has allowed us to draw a more complete pathway of regulatory events during cardiac induction and differentiation in Drosophila. ..
  61. Bagni C, Bray S, Gogos J, Kafatos F, Hsu T. The Drosophila zinc finger transcription factor CF2 is a myogenic marker downstream of MEF2 during muscle development. Mech Dev. 2002;117:265-8 pubmed
    ..Later it is expressed in all muscle lineages including skeletal, visceral and cardiac. Epistatic analysis showed that CF2 expression is dependent on the myogenic factor MEF2.
  62. Prokop A, Landgraf M, Rushton E, Broadie K, Bate M. Presynaptic development at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction: assembly and localization of presynaptic active zones. Neuron. 1996;17:617-26 pubmed
    ..Myoblasts also fail to fuse but still attract appropriate innervation in mef2 mutant embryos...
  63. Chen E, Pryce B, Tzeng J, Gonzalez G, Olson E. Control of myoblast fusion by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, loner, and its effector ARF6. Cell. 2003;114:751-62 pubmed
    ..In muscle cells, this fusigenic mechanism is coupled to fusion receptors; in other fusion-competent cell types it may be triggered by different upstream signals. ..
  64. Sellin J, Albrecht S, Kölsch V, Paululat A. Dynamics of heart differentiation, visualized utilizing heart enhancer elements of the Drosophila melanogaster bHLH transcription factor Hand. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:360-75 pubmed
  65. Zaffran S, Astier M, Gratecos D, Semeriva M. The held out wings (how) Drosophila gene encodes a putative RNA-binding protein involved in the control of muscular and cardiac activity. Development. 1997;124:2087-98 pubmed
    ..The properties of the how gene described herein suggest that this gene participates in the control of expression of as yet unidentified target mRNAs coding for proteins essential to cardiac and muscular activity. ..
  66. Sudarsan V, Anant S, Guptan P, Vijayraghavan K, Skaer H. Myoblast diversification and ectodermal signaling in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2001;1:829-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, myoblasts are divided into identifiable populations, consistent with their allocation to different muscles, and ectodermal signals act to maintain these differences. ..
  67. Soler C, Han J, Taylor M. The conserved transcription factor Mef2 has multiple roles in adult Drosophila musculature formation. Development. 2012;139:1270-5 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription factors, and a well-studied regulator of muscle gene expression is the conserved transcription factor Mef2. In vivo, Mef2 is essential for the development of the Drosophila larval musculature: Mef2-null embryos have no ..
  68. Baylies M, Michelson A. Invertebrate myogenesis: looking back to the future of muscle development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001;11:431-9 pubmed
    ..Drosophila myogenesis has become a highly informative model for understanding the interplay between the signaling and transcriptional networks that underlie cell-fate specification during embryonic development. ..
  69. Nguyen H, Bodmer R, Abmayr S, McDermott J, Spoerel N. D-mef2: a Drosophila mesoderm-specific MADS box-containing gene with a biphasic expression profile during embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7520-4 pubmed
    We have identified a mesoderm-specific Drosophila gene, designated D-mef2. The encoded protein contains the MADS- and MEF2-specific domains, which are characteristic of the myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family of transcription ..
  70. Park M, Wu X, Golden K, Axelrod J, Bodmer R. The wingless signaling pathway is directly involved in Drosophila heart development. Dev Biol. 1996;177:104-16 pubmed
    ..In particular, overexpression of dsh can restore heart formation in the absence of wg function. We discuss the possibility that Wg signaling is part of a combinatorial mechanism to specify the cardiac mesoderm. ..
  71. Lovato T, Adams M, Baker P, Cripps R. A molecular mechanism of temperature sensitivity for mutations affecting the Drosophila muscle regulator Myocyte enhancer factor-2. Genetics. 2009;183:107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..TS mutations of the myogenic regulator Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) in Drosophila arise in the heteroallelic combination Mef2(30-5)/Mef2(44-5)...
  72. Molina M, Cripps R. Ostia, the inflow tracts of the Drosophila heart, develop from a genetically distinct subset of cardial cells. Mech Dev. 2001;109:51-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our experiments define the cellular changes that occur as the larval heart is remodeled into an imaginal structure in an important model organism. ..
  73. Taylor M. Muscle development. Making Drosophila muscle. Curr Biol. 1995;5:740-2 pubmed
    Analysis of flies with mutations in the gene encoding the D-mef2 transcription factor identifies it as a controller of differentiation in multiple muscle cell types; it is the first such gene to be described.
  74. Nguyen H, Xu X. Drosophila mef2 expression during mesoderm development is controlled by a complex array of cis-acting regulatory modules. Dev Biol. 1998;204:550-66 pubmed
    The function of the Drosophila mef2 gene, a member of the MADS box supergene family of transcription factors, is critical for terminal differentiation of the three major muscle cell types, namely somatic, visceral, and cardiac...
  75. Wong M, Castanon I, Baylies M. Daughterless dictates Twist activity in a context-dependent manner during somatic myogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;317:417-29 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed a Da repression (REP) domain, which is required for Twi/Da-mediated repression of myogenic genes, such as Dmef2, both in tissue culture and in vivo...
  76. Blanchard F, Collins B, Cyran S, Hancock D, Taylor M, Blau J. The transcription factor Mef2 is required for normal circadian behavior in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5855-65 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor Mef2 has well established roles in muscle development in Drosophila and in the differentiation of many cell types in mammals, including neurons...
  77. Park M, Yaich L, Bodmer R. Mesodermal cell fate decisions in Drosophila are under the control of the lineage genes numb, Notch, and sanpodo. Mech Dev. 1998;75:117-26 pubmed
  78. Bernard F, Kasherov P, Grenetier S, Dutriaux A, Zider A, Silber J, et al. Integration of differentiation signals during indirect flight muscle formation by a novel enhancer of Drosophila vestigial gene. Dev Biol. 2009;332:258-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that this enhancer is activated by Drosophila Myocyte enhancing factor 2 (MEF2), Scalloped (SD) and VG but repressed by Twist, demonstrating a sensitivity to differentiation in ..
  79. Weiss J, Suyama K, Lee H, Scott M. Jelly belly: a Drosophila LDL receptor repeat-containing signal required for mesoderm migration and differentiation. Cell. 2001;107:387-98 pubmed
    ..jeb reveals a signaling process in which somatic muscle precursors support the proper migration and differentiation of visceral muscle cells. Later in embryogenesis, jeb is transcribed in neurons and Jeb protein is found in axons. ..