Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: mbc
Description: myoblast city
Alias: CG10379, DOCK180, Dm MBC, Dmel\CG10379, Dock180, MBC, MBC/DOCK180, Mbc, Su(rac)1, dock180, myoblast city, CG10379-PA, CG10379-PB, mbc-PA, mbc-PB
Species: fruit fly
- Nolan K, Barrett K, Lu Y, Hu K, Vincent S, Settleman J. Myoblast city, the Drosophila homolog of DOCK180/CED-5, is required in a Rac signaling pathway utilized for multiple developmental processes. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3337-42 pubmed..In a mutational screen in Drosophila to identify Rac-specific signaling components, we isolated 11 alleles of myoblast city (mbc). mbc mutant embryos exhibit defects in dorsal closure, myogenesis, and neural development...
- Taylor M. Muscle differentiation: how two cells become one. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R224-8 pubmed..Future studies will establish the extent to which the molecular mechanisms of myoblast fusion are conserved between Drosophila and other animals, as found in other aspects of myogenesis. ..
- Duchek P, Somogyi K, Jekely G, Beccari S, Rørth P. Guidance of cell migration by the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF receptor. Cell. 2001;107:17-26 pubmed..Intriguingly, the guidance function of PVR is largely redundant with that of EGFR. We present evidence implicating Rac and the Rac activator Mbc/DOCK180/CED-5 as mediators of the guidance signal.
- Prokop A, Landgraf M, Rushton E, Broadie K, Bate M. Presynaptic development at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction: assembly and localization of presynaptic active zones. Neuron. 1996;17:617-26 pubmed..In myoblast city mutant embryos, myoblasts do not fuse but form fully differentiated mononucleate muscles, which make ..
- Schröter R, Lier S, Holz A, Bogdan S, Klämbt C, Beck L, et al. kette and blown fuse interact genetically during the second fusion step of myogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:4501-9 pubmed..We propose a model in which Dumbfounded/Sticks and stones-dependent cell adhesion is mediated over Rolling Pebbles, Myoblast city, Crk, Blown fuse and Kette, and thus induces membrane fusion.
- Reif K, Cyster J. The CDM protein DOCK2 in lymphocyte migration. Trends Cell Biol. 2002;12:368-73 pubmed..in DOCK2, a member of the Caenorhabditis elegans Ced-5, mammalian DOCK180 and Drosophila melanogaster myoblast city (CDM) family of scaffolding proteins...
- Ruiz Gomez M, Coutts N, Suster M, Landgraf M, Bate M. myoblasts incompetent encodes a zinc finger transcription factor required to specify fusion-competent myoblasts in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:133-41 pubmed..Thus myoblasts incompetent appears to function specifically in the general pathway of myogenesis to control the differentiation of fusion-competent myoblasts. ..
- Frasch M, Leptin M. Mergers and acquisitions: unequal partnerships in Drosophila myoblast fusion. Cell. 2000;102:127-9 pubmed
- Menon S, Chia W. Drosophila rolling pebbles: a multidomain protein required for myoblast fusion that recruits D-Titin in response to the myoblast attractant Dumbfounded. Dev Cell. 2001;1:691-703 pubmed..Rols7 integrates the initial event of myoblast attraction with the downstream event of myotube structural organization by linking Duf to D-Titin. ..
- Kesper D, Stute C, Buttgereit D, Kreisköther N, Vishnu S, Fischbach K, et al. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila melanogaster is mediated through a fusion-restricted myogenic-adhesive structure (FuRMAS). Dev Dyn. 2007;236:404-15 pubmed..Moreover, we suggest that the FuRMAS may restrict the area of membrane breakdown. ..
- Bonn B, Rudolf A, Hornbruch Freitag C, Daum G, Kuckwa J, Kastl L, et al. Myosin heavy chain-like localizes at cell contact sites during Drosophila myoblast fusion and interacts in vitro with Rolling pebbles 7. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319:402-16 pubmed publisher..We thus propose that Mhcl functions redundantly to other myosin heavy chains in myoblasts. Lastly, we found that the protein is detectable adjacent to the sarcomeric Z-discs, suggesting an additional function in mature muscles. ..
- Beckett K, Baylies M. 3D analysis of founder cell and fusion competent myoblast arrangements outlines a new model of myoblast fusion. Dev Biol. 2007;309:113-25 pubmed..5 h. Altogether, our data have led us to propose a new model of myoblast fusion where the frequency of myoblast fusion events may be influenced by the spatial arrangements of FCs and FCMs. ..
- Kim S, Shilagardi K, Zhang S, Hong S, Sens K, Bo J, et al. A critical function for the actin cytoskeleton in targeted exocytosis of prefusion vesicles during myoblast fusion. Dev Cell. 2007;12:571-86 pubmed..These studies reveal a surprising cell-type specificity of Sltr-mediated actin polymerization in myoblast fusion, and demonstrate that targeted exocytosis of prefusion vesicles is a critical step prior to plasma membrane fusion. ..
- Meller N, Merlot S, Guda C. CZH proteins: a new family of Rho-GEFs. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:4937-46 pubmed..These CZH proteins include: CDM (Ced-5, Dock180 and Myoblast city) proteins, which activate Rac; and zizimin proteins, which activate Cdc42...
- Menon S, Osman Z, Chenchill K, Chia W. A positive feedback loop between Dumbfounded and Rolling pebbles leads to myotube enlargement in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:909-20 pubmed..This implicates the Duf-Rols7 positive feedback loop to the occurrence of fusion at specific sites along the membrane and provides a mechanism by which the rate of fusion is controlled. ..
- Haralalka S, Shelton C, Cartwright H, Katzfey E, Janzen E, Abmayr S. Asymmetric Mbc, active Rac1 and F-actin foci in the fusion-competent myoblasts during myoblast fusion in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:1551-62 pubmed publisher..We demonstrate that the non-conventional guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Mbc plays a fundamental role in the FCMs, where it functions to activate Rac1, but is not required in the founder cells ..
- Carmena A, Gisselbrecht S, Harrison J, Jimenez F, Michelson A. Combinatorial signaling codes for the progressive determination of cell fates in the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3910-22 pubmed..We conclude that distinct cellular identity codes are generated by the combinatorial activities of Wg, Dpp, EGF, and FGF signals in the progressive determination of embryonic mesodermal cells. ..
- Richardson B, Beckett K, Nowak S, Baylies M. SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 are crucial for cytoskeletal remodeling at the site of myoblast fusion. Development. 2007;134:4357-67 pubmed..Our data identify a new paradigm for understanding the mechanisms underlying fusion in myoblasts and other tissues. ..
- Balagopalan L, Chen M, Geisbrecht E, Abmayr S. The CDM superfamily protein MBC directs myoblast fusion through a mechanism that requires phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate binding but is independent of direct interaction with DCrk. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:9442-55 pubmedb>Myoblast city (mbc), a member of the CDM superfamily, is essential in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo for fusion of myoblasts into multinucleate fibers...
- Galletta B, Chakravarti M, Banerjee R, Abmayr S. SNS: Adhesive properties, localization requirements and ectodomain dependence in S2 cells and embryonic myoblasts. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1455-68 pubmed..Finally, although the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of SNS are expendable for interactions in culture, they are essential for fusion of embryonic myoblasts. ..
- Ishimaru S, Ueda R, Hinohara Y, Ohtani M, Hanafusa H. PVR plays a critical role via JNK activation in thorax closure during Drosophila metamorphosis. EMBO J. 2004;23:3984-94 pubmed..It was earlier shown that Mbc, a CDM family protein, and its effector, Rac, transduced the guidance signal from PVR during border cell migration...
- Doberstein S, Fetter R, Mehta A, Goodman C. Genetic analysis of myoblast fusion: blown fuse is required for progression beyond the prefusion complex. J Cell Biol. 1997;136:1249-61 pubmed..One of these genes, blown fuse, encodes a novel cytoplasmic protein expressed in unfused myoblasts that is essential for progression beyond the prefusion complex stage. ..
- Geisbrecht E, Haralalka S, Swanson S, Florens L, Washburn M, Abmayr S. Drosophila ELMO/CED-12 interacts with Myoblast city to direct myoblast fusion and ommatidial organization. Dev Biol. 2008;314:137-49 pubmed publisherMembers of the CDM (CED-5, Dock180, Myoblast city) superfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors function in diverse processes that include cell migration and myoblast fusion...
- Erickson M, Galletta B, Abmayr S. Drosophila myoblast city encodes a conserved protein that is essential for myoblast fusion, dorsal closure, and cytoskeletal organization. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:589-603 pubmedThe Drosophila myoblast city (mbc) locus was previously identified on the basis of a defect in myoblast fusion (Rushton et al., 1995. Development [Camb.]. 121:1979-1988)...
- Chen E, Olson E. Antisocial, an intracellular adaptor protein, is required for myoblast fusion in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2001;1:705-15 pubmed..cells, interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of Dumbfounded, a founder cell transmembrane receptor, and with Myoblast city, a cytoskeletal protein, both of which are also required for myoblast fusion...
- Strünkelnberg M, Bonengel B, Moda L, Hertenstein A, de Couet H, Ramos R, et al. rst and its paralogue kirre act redundantly during embryonic muscle development in Drosophila. Development. 2001;128:4229-39 pubmed..This defect can be rescued by one copy of either gene. Moreover, Rst, like Kirre is a myoblast attractant. ..
- Jin P, Duan R, Luo F, Zhang G, Hong S, Chen E. Competition between Blown fuse and WASP for WIP binding regulates the dynamics of WASP-dependent actin polymerization in vivo. Dev Cell. 2011;20:623-38 pubmed publisher..These studies identify a regulatory protein that modulates the actin cytoskeletal dynamics by controlling the stability of the WASP-WIP complex. ..
- Zhu F, Zhang X. The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of phagocytosis of virus in Drosophila. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2069 pubmed publisher..Further data showed that the Wnt signaling pathway played an essential role in phagocytosis. Therefore, our study contributed novel insight into the molecular mechanism of phagocytosis in animals. ..
- Sampson C, Valanne S, Fauvarque M, Hultmark D, Ramet M, Williams M. The RhoGEF Zizimin-related acts in the Drosophila cellular immune response via the Rho GTPases Rac2 and Cdc42. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;38:160-8 pubmed publisher..Finally, Zir is dispensable for the humoral immune response against bacteria. We propose that Zir is necessary to activate the Rho-family GTPases Rac2 and Cdc42 during the Drosophila cellular immune response. ..
- Ohsawa S, Sugimura K, Takino K, Xu T, Miyawaki A, Igaki T. Elimination of oncogenic neighbors by JNK-mediated engulfment in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2011;20:315-28 pubmed publisher..Genetic and time-lapse imaging analyses reveal that PVR expression in surrounding cells activates the ELMO/Mbc-mediated phagocytic pathway, thereby eliminating oncogenic neighbors by engulfment...
- Biersmith B, Wang Z, Geisbrecht E. Fine-Tuning of the Actin Cytoskeleton and Cell Adhesion During Drosophila Development by the Unconventional Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Myoblast City and Sponge. Genetics. 2015;200:551-67 pubmed publisher..model organism for understanding Dock protein function as its genome encodes one ortholog per subfamily: Myoblast city (Mbc; Dock A) and Sponge (Spg; Dock B)...
- Sutherland J, Witke W. Molecular genetic approaches to understanding the actin cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1999;11:142-51 pubmed..Yeast, Dictyostelium, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice have contributed much in recent years to a better understanding of both the numerous functions and modes of regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. ..
- Lu T, Doherty J, Freeman M. DRK/DOS/SOS converge with Crk/Mbc/dCed-12 to activate Rac1 during glial engulfment of axonal debris. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:12544-9 pubmed publisher..Loss of the Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Crk/myoblast city (Mbc)/dCed-12 has no effect on glial activation, but blocks internalization and degradation of debris...
- Agnes F, Noselli S. [Dorsal closure in Drosophila. A genetic model for wound healing?]. C R Acad Sci III. 1999;322:5-13 pubmed..The molecular and cellular events that underlie these two analogous migratory processes are detailed, discussed and compared. We suggest that DC is a good genetic model for wound healing studying. ..
- Kelsey E, Luo X, Brückner K, Jasper H. Schnurri regulates hemocyte function to promote tissue recovery after DNA damage. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1393-400 pubmed publisher..Our results identify a new Shn-regulated paracrine signaling interaction between damaged retinal cells and hemocytes that ensures recovery and homeostasis of the challenged tissue. ..
- Ziegenfuss J, Doherty J, Freeman M. Distinct molecular pathways mediate glial activation and engulfment of axonal debris after axotomy. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:979-87 pubmed publisher..We identify the Drosophila melanogaster guanine nucleotide exchange factor complex Crk/Mbc/dCed-12 and the small GTPase Rac1 as modulators of glial clearance of axonal debris...
- Schleich S, Strassburger K, Janiesch P, Koledachkina T, Miller K, Haneke K, et al. DENR-MCT-1 promotes translation re-initiation downstream of uORFs to control tissue growth. Nature. 2014;512:208-212 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our data reveal that cells have a previously unappreciated translational control system with a key role in supporting proliferation and tissue growth. ..
- Eichenlaub T, Cohen S, Herranz H. Cell Competition Drives the Formation of Metastatic Tumors in a Drosophila Model of Epithelial Tumor Formation. Curr Biol. 2016;26:419-27 pubmed publisher..Analogous mechanisms for cytokinesis failure may lead to polyploid intermediates in tumorigenesis in mammalian cancer models. ..
- Presgraves D, Balagopalan L, Abmayr S, Orr H. Adaptive evolution drives divergence of a hybrid inviability gene between two species of Drosophila. Nature. 2003;423:715-9 pubmed publisher..These results show that a lethal hybrid incompatibility has evolved as a by-product of adaptive protein evolution...
- Kazemian M, Zhu Q, Halfon M, Sinha S. Improved accuracy of supervised CRM discovery with interpolated Markov models and cross-species comparison. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:9463-72 pubmed publisher..We make our program available as downloadable source code, and as a plugin for a genome browser installed on our servers. ..
- Noselli S. JNK signaling and morphogenesis in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1998;14:33-8 pubmed
- Paladi M, Tepass U. Function of Rho GTPases in embryonic blood cell migration in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:6313-26 pubmed..We find eight deletions that cause defects in macrophage migration suggesting the existence of approximately ten zygotic genes essential for macrophage migration. ..
- Doiguchi M, Nakagawa T, Imamura Y, Yoneda M, Higashi M, Kubota K, et al. SMARCAD1 is an ATP-dependent stimulator of nucleosomal H2A acetylation via CBP, resulting in transcriptional regulation. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20179 pubmed publisher..The interplay between the remodeling activity of SMARCAD1 and histone acetylation by CBP sheds light on the function of chromatin and the genome-integrity network. ..
- McPhee C, Logan M, Freeman M, Baehrecke E. Activation of autophagy during cell death requires the engulfment receptor Draper. Nature. 2010;465:1093-6 pubmed publisher..Further, Drpr is the first factor that distinguishes autophagy that is associated with cell death from autophagy associated with cell survival...
- Estrada B, Maeland A, Gisselbrecht S, Bloor J, Brown N, Michelson A. The MARVEL domain protein, Singles Bar, is required for progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion. Dev Biol. 2007;307:328-39 pubmed
- Artero R, Prokop A, Paricio N, Begemann G, Pueyo I, Mlodzik M, et al. The muscleblind gene participates in the organization of Z-bands and epidermal attachments of Drosophila muscles and is regulated by Dmef2. Dev Biol. 1998;195:131-43 pubmed..mbl, therefore, may act as a critical element in the execution of two Dmef2-dependent processes in the terminal differentiation of muscles. ..
- Shlyueva D, Stelzer C, Gerlach D, Yáñez Cuna J, Rath M, Boryń Ł, et al. Hormone-responsive enhancer-activity maps reveal predictive motifs, indirect repression, and targeting of closed chromatin. Mol Cell. 2014;54:180-192 pubmed publisher..Our strategy is applicable to study signal-dependent enhancers for different pathways and across organisms. ..
- Rudolf A, Buttgereit D, Jacobs M, Wolfstetter G, Kesper D, Pütz M, et al. Distinct genetic programs guide Drosophila circular and longitudinal visceral myoblast fusion. BMC Cell Biol. 2014;15:27 pubmed publisher..Thus, the complexity of the players involved in muscle formation increases from binucleated circular muscles to longitudinal visceral muscles to somatic muscles. ..
- Balagopalan L, Keller C, Abmayr S. Loss-of-function mutations reveal that the Drosophila nautilus gene is not essential for embryonic myogenesis or viability. Dev Biol. 2001;231:374-82 pubmed..The muscle loss is tolerated, however, such that the loss of nau both maternally and zygotically does not result in lethality at any stage of development. ..
- Bryantsev A, Baker P, Lovato T, Jaramillo M, Cripps R. Differential requirements for Myocyte Enhancer Factor-2 during adult myogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2012;361:191-207 pubmed publisher..Our findings point to the importance of a diversity of regulatory factors that are required for the formation and function of the distinct muscle fibers found in animals. ..
- Chen G, Gajowniczek P, Settleman J. Rho-LIM kinase signaling regulates ecdysone-induced gene expression and morphogenesis during Drosophila metamorphosis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:309-13 pubmed..Together, these findings indicate a link between Rho-LIMK signaling and steroid hormone-induced gene expression in the context of metamorphosis and thereby establish a novel role for the Rho GTPase in development. ..
- Li W, Baker N. The active role of corpse engulfment pathways during cell competition. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:274-8 pubmed..These draper, wasp, phosphatidyl-serine receptor, MBC/DOCK180 and Rac1 genes, were each previously implicated in the engulfment of apoptotic corpses...
- Li W, Baker N. Engulfment is required for cell competition. Cell. 2007;129:1215-25 pubmed..The engulfment genes draper, wasp, the phosphatidylserine receptor, mbc/dock180, and rac1 are needed in wild-type cells for the death of Minute neighbors, whose corpses are engulfed by wild-..
- Taylor M. Muscle differentiation: signalling cell fusion. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R964-6 pubmed
- Franc N. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in mammals, caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster: molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences. Front Biosci. 2002;7:d1298-313 pubmed..Drosophila melanogaster will become the model of choice in genetically dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by 'professional' phagocytes such as macrophages. ..
- Montell D. The genetics of cell migration in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans development. Development. 1999;126:3035-46 pubmed..New types of genetic screens promise to fill in some of these gaps in the near future. ..
- Caron E. Rac and roll over the corpses. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R489-91 pubmed..Mammalian homologs of the components of this pathway are already known to have key roles in cell motility and integrin-mediated signaling, suggesting that the three processes are mechanistically related. ..
- Franklin Dumont T, Chatterjee C, Wasserman S, Dinardo S. A novel eIF4G homolog, Off-schedule, couples translational control to meiosis and differentiation in Drosophila spermatocytes. Development. 2007;134:2851-61 pubmed..Based on these studies, we speculate that spermatocytes monitor G(2) growth as one means to coordinate the initiation of meiotic division and differentiation. ..
- Keller C, Grill M, Abmayr S. A role for nautilus in the differentiation of muscle precursors. Dev Biol. 1998;202:157-71 pubmed..Thus, we suggest that nautilus functions in a subset of muscle precursors to implement their specific differentiation programs. ..
- Chen K, Ochalski P, Tran T, Sahir N, Schubert M, Pramatarova A, et al. Interaction between Dab1 and CrkII is promoted by Reelin signaling. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:4527-36 pubmed..expression of tyrosine-phosphorylated mouse Dab1RFP is partially rescued by a loss-of-function mutation in myoblast city, a Dock1-like gene in Drosophila...
- Galletta B, Niu X, Erickson M, Abmayr S. Identification of a Drosophila homologue to vertebrate Crk by interaction with MBC. Gene. 1999;228:243-52 pubmed..with homology to vertebrate Crk, termed dCRK, by interaction with the protein encoded by the Drosophila myoblast city (mbc) gene...
- Ainsworth C, Wan S, Skaer H. Coordinating cell fate and morphogenesis in Drosophila renal tubules. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000;355:931-7 pubmed..We show that the regulator of Rac, Myoblast city is essential for this second morphogenetic process.