Mad

Summary

Gene Symbol: Mad
Description: Mothers against dpp
Alias: 2/23, CG12399, Dmel\CG12399, E(zen)2, En(vvl), MAD, Mat, P-Mad, P-mad, PMad, Smad, Smad1, apg, c28, dMAD, dMad, l(2)K00237, l(2)k00237, mad, p-Mad, pMAD, pMad, pSmad, mothers against dpp, CG12399-PA, CG12399-PB, Mad-PA, Mad-PB, Mothers-against-decapentaplegic, apang, mother against Dpp, mother against decapentaplegic, mothers against decapentaplegi, mothers against decapentaplegic, phospho-Smad, phosphoSmad, phosphorylated smad
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Mad

Top Publications

  1. Funakoshi Y, Minami M, Tabata T. mtv shapes the activity gradient of the Dpp morphogen through regulation of thickveins. Development. 2001;128:67-74 pubmed
    ..In this report, we demonstrate that mtv integrates the activities of En and Hh that shape tkv expression pattern. Thus, mtv plays a key part of regulatory mechanism that makes the activity gradient of the Dpp morphogen. ..
  2. Wang X, Shaw W, Tsang H, Reid E, O Kane C. Drosophila spichthyin inhibits BMP signaling and regulates synaptic growth and axonal microtubules. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:177-85 pubmed
  3. López Onieva L, Fernández Miñán A, González Reyes A. Jak/Stat signalling in niche support cells regulates dpp transcription to control germline stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 2008;135:533-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide strong evidence for a model in which Jak/Stat signalling in somatic support cells regulates dpp transcription to define niche size and to maintain the adjacent germline stem cells in an undifferentiated state. ..
  4. Weiss A, Charbonnier E, Ellertsdottir E, Tsirigos A, Wolf C, Schuh R, et al. A conserved activation element in BMP signaling during Drosophila development. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..repressive input by the default repressor Brinker and activating input by the Smad signal transducers Mothers against Dpp (Mad) and Medea via competitive DNA binding...
  5. Umulis D, Shimmi O, O Connor M, Othmer H. Organism-scale modeling of early Drosophila patterning via bone morphogenetic proteins. Dev Cell. 2010;18:260-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that using bioimages to build and optimize a three-dimensional model provides significant insights into mechanisms that guide tissue patterning. ..
  6. Rusten T, Cantera R, Kafatos F, Barrio R. The role of TGF beta signaling in the formation of the dorsal nervous system is conserved between Drosophila and chordates. Development. 2002;129:3575-84 pubmed
    ..It points to an evolutionarily conserved mechanism specifying dorsal cell fates in the nervous system of both protostomes and deuterostomes. ..
  7. Lee Hoeflich S, Zhao X, Mehra A, Attisano L. The Drosophila type II receptor, Wishful thinking, binds BMP and myoglianin to activate multiple TGFbeta family signaling pathways. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:4615-21 pubmed
    ..Given that myoglianin is expressed in muscle and glial-derived cells, these results also suggest that Wit may mediate myoglianin-dependent signals in the nervous system. ..
  8. Takaesu N, Hyman Walsh C, Ye Y, Wisotzkey R, Stinchfield M, O Connor M, et al. dSno facilitates baboon signaling in the Drosophila brain by switching the affinity of Medea away from Mad and toward dSmad2. Genetics. 2006;174:1299-313 pubmed
    ..Alternatively, Medea/dSno complexes have reduced affinity for Mad such that, in the presence of dSno, Dpp signaling is antagonized...
  9. Bollenbach T, Pantazis P, Kicheva A, Bökel C, Gonzalez Gaitan M, Jülicher F. Precision of the Dpp gradient. Development. 2008;135:1137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The precision of the Dpp gradient accounts for the precision of the spalt expression range, implying that Dpp can act as a morphogen to coarsely determine the expression pattern of target genes. ..
  10. Zeng Y, Rahnama M, Wang S, Lee W, Verheyen E. Inhibition of Drosophila Wg signaling involves competition between Mad and Armadillo/beta-catenin for dTcf binding. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3893 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, high levels of both an activated BMP receptor and the BMP effector Mad can inhibit the expression of Wg target genes. Conversely, loss of mad can induce Wg target gene expression...

Detail Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Funakoshi Y, Minami M, Tabata T. mtv shapes the activity gradient of the Dpp morphogen through regulation of thickveins. Development. 2001;128:67-74 pubmed
    ..In this report, we demonstrate that mtv integrates the activities of En and Hh that shape tkv expression pattern. Thus, mtv plays a key part of regulatory mechanism that makes the activity gradient of the Dpp morphogen. ..
  2. Wang X, Shaw W, Tsang H, Reid E, O Kane C. Drosophila spichthyin inhibits BMP signaling and regulates synaptic growth and axonal microtubules. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:177-85 pubmed
  3. López Onieva L, Fernández Miñán A, González Reyes A. Jak/Stat signalling in niche support cells regulates dpp transcription to control germline stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 2008;135:533-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide strong evidence for a model in which Jak/Stat signalling in somatic support cells regulates dpp transcription to define niche size and to maintain the adjacent germline stem cells in an undifferentiated state. ..
  4. Weiss A, Charbonnier E, Ellertsdottir E, Tsirigos A, Wolf C, Schuh R, et al. A conserved activation element in BMP signaling during Drosophila development. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..repressive input by the default repressor Brinker and activating input by the Smad signal transducers Mothers against Dpp (Mad) and Medea via competitive DNA binding...
  5. Umulis D, Shimmi O, O Connor M, Othmer H. Organism-scale modeling of early Drosophila patterning via bone morphogenetic proteins. Dev Cell. 2010;18:260-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that using bioimages to build and optimize a three-dimensional model provides significant insights into mechanisms that guide tissue patterning. ..
  6. Rusten T, Cantera R, Kafatos F, Barrio R. The role of TGF beta signaling in the formation of the dorsal nervous system is conserved between Drosophila and chordates. Development. 2002;129:3575-84 pubmed
    ..It points to an evolutionarily conserved mechanism specifying dorsal cell fates in the nervous system of both protostomes and deuterostomes. ..
  7. Lee Hoeflich S, Zhao X, Mehra A, Attisano L. The Drosophila type II receptor, Wishful thinking, binds BMP and myoglianin to activate multiple TGFbeta family signaling pathways. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:4615-21 pubmed
    ..Given that myoglianin is expressed in muscle and glial-derived cells, these results also suggest that Wit may mediate myoglianin-dependent signals in the nervous system. ..
  8. Takaesu N, Hyman Walsh C, Ye Y, Wisotzkey R, Stinchfield M, O Connor M, et al. dSno facilitates baboon signaling in the Drosophila brain by switching the affinity of Medea away from Mad and toward dSmad2. Genetics. 2006;174:1299-313 pubmed
    ..Alternatively, Medea/dSno complexes have reduced affinity for Mad such that, in the presence of dSno, Dpp signaling is antagonized...
  9. Bollenbach T, Pantazis P, Kicheva A, Bökel C, Gonzalez Gaitan M, Jülicher F. Precision of the Dpp gradient. Development. 2008;135:1137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The precision of the Dpp gradient accounts for the precision of the spalt expression range, implying that Dpp can act as a morphogen to coarsely determine the expression pattern of target genes. ..
  10. Zeng Y, Rahnama M, Wang S, Lee W, Verheyen E. Inhibition of Drosophila Wg signaling involves competition between Mad and Armadillo/beta-catenin for dTcf binding. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3893 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, high levels of both an activated BMP receptor and the BMP effector Mad can inhibit the expression of Wg target genes. Conversely, loss of mad can induce Wg target gene expression...
  11. Alarcon C, Zaromytidou A, Xi Q, Gao S, Yu J, Fujisawa S, et al. Nuclear CDKs drive Smad transcriptional activation and turnover in BMP and TGF-beta pathways. Cell. 2009;139:757-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These phosphorylations promote Smad transcriptional action, which in the case of Smad1 is mediated by the recruitment of YAP to the phosphorylated linker sites...
  12. Gorostiza E, Ceriani M. Retrograde bone morphogenetic protein signaling shapes a key circadian pacemaker circuit. J Neurosci. 2013;33:687-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have uncovered a novel mechanism that provides an early "tagging" of synaptic targets that will guide circuit refinement later in development. ..
  13. Podos S, Hanson K, Wang Y, Ferguson E. The DSmurf ubiquitin-protein ligase restricts BMP signaling spatially and temporally during Drosophila embryogenesis. Dev Cell. 2001;1:567-78 pubmed
    ..DSmurf encodes a HECT domain ubiquitin-protein ligase, homologous to vertebrate Smurf1 and Smurf2, that binds the Smad1/5 ortholog MAD and likely promotes its proteolysis...
  14. Song X, Wong M, Kawase E, Xi R, Ding B, McCarthy J, et al. Bmp signals from niche cells directly repress transcription of a differentiation-promoting gene, bag of marbles, in germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 2004;131:1353-64 pubmed
    ..The expression of phosphorylated Mad (pMad), a Bmp signaling indicator, is restricted to GSCs and some cystoblasts, which have repressed bam expression...
  15. Mizutani C, Nie Q, Wan F, Zhang Y, Vilmos P, Sousa Neves R, et al. Formation of the BMP activity gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Cell. 2005;8:915-24 pubmed
  16. Yao L, Blitz I, Peiffer D, Phin S, Wang Y, Ogata S, et al. Schnurri transcription factors from Drosophila and vertebrates can mediate Bmp signaling through a phylogenetically conserved mechanism. Development. 2006;133:4025-34 pubmed
    ..cis requirements reflect conservation of trans-acting factors, as human Shn1 (hShn1; HIVEP1) can interact with Smad1/Smad4 and assemble an hShn1/Smad complex on the BRE...
  17. Serpe M, O Connor M. The metalloprotease tolloid-related and its TGF-beta-like substrate Dawdle regulate Drosophila motoneuron axon guidance. Development. 2006;133:4969-79 pubmed
    ..We suggest that by activating Daw and perhaps other TGF-beta ligands, Tlr provides a permissive signal for axon guidance. ..
  18. Fuentealba L, Eivers E, Geissert D, Taelman V, De Robertis E. Asymmetric mitosis: Unequal segregation of proteins destined for degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7732-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work has shown that signaling by the Smad1 transcription factor is terminated by polyubiquitinylation and proteasomal degradation after essential ..
  19. Yan S, Zartman J, Zhang M, Scott A, Shvartsman S, Li W. Bistability coordinates activation of the EGFR and DPP pathways in Drosophila vein differentiation. Mol Syst Biol. 2009;5:278 pubmed publisher
    ..The joint activation of the EGFR and DPP signaling systems is ensured by a positive feedback loop, in which the two pathways stimulate each other at the level of ligand production. ..
  20. Chang Y, Pi H, Hsieh C, Fuller M. Smurf-mediated differential proteolysis generates dynamic BMP signaling in germline stem cells during Drosophila testis development. Dev Biol. 2013;383:106-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylated Mad (pMad), the activated Drosophila Smad in germ cells, was restricted from anterior germ cells to GSCs and hub-proximal cells during early larval ..
  21. Tanimoto H, Itoh S, ten Dijke P, Tabata T. Hedgehog creates a gradient of DPP activity in Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Mol Cell. 2000;5:59-71 pubmed
    ..DPP activity was monitored by visualizing the activated form of Mothers against dpp (MAD), a cytoplasmic transducer of DPP signaling...
  22. Ward E, Shcherbata H, Reynolds S, Fischer K, Hatfield S, Ruohola Baker H. Stem cells signal to the niche through the Notch pathway in the Drosophila ovary. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2352-8 pubmed
    ..Demonstration that stem cells can contribute to niche function has far-reaching consequences for stem cell therapies and may provide insight into how cancer can spread throughout an organism via populations of cancer stem cells. ..
  23. Shravage B, Altmann G, Technau M, Roth S. The role of Dpp and its inhibitors during eggshell patterning in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:2261-71 pubmed
  24. Wagner N, Weyhersmüller A, Blauth A, Schuhmann T, Heckmann M, Krohne G, et al. The Drosophila LEM-domain protein MAN1 antagonizes BMP signaling at the neuromuscular junction and the wing crossveins. Dev Biol. 2010;339:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..MAN1(DeltaC) pupal wings display expanded phospho-Mad (pMad) accumulation and ectopic expression of the BMP-responsive gene crossveinless-2 (cv-2) indicating that MAN1 ..
  25. Nahm M, Long A, Paik S, Kim S, Bae Y, Broadie K, et al. The Cdc42-selective GAP rich regulates postsynaptic development and retrograde BMP transsynaptic signaling. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:661-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, dRich increases Gbb release and elevates presynaptic phosphorylated Mad levels...
  26. Atkins M, Jiang Y, Sansores Garcia L, Jusiak B, Halder G, Mardon G. Dynamic rewiring of the Drosophila retinal determination network switches its function from selector to differentiation. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003731 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that changes in the regulatory relationships among members of the retinal determination gene network are a driving force for key transitions in retinal development. ..
  27. Marquez R, Singer M, Takaesu N, Waldrip W, Kraytsberg Y, Newfeld S. Transgenic analysis of the Smad family of TGF-beta signal transducers in Drosophila melanogaster suggests new roles and new interactions between family members. Genetics. 2001;157:1639-48 pubmed
    b>Smad signal transducers are required for transforming growth factor-beta-mediated developmental events in many organisms including humans. However, the roles of individual human Smad genes (hSmads) in development are largely unknown...
  28. Ralston A, Blair S. Long-range Dpp signaling is regulated to restrict BMP signaling to a crossvein competent zone. Dev Biol. 2005;280:187-200 pubmed
    ..However, this requirement can be overridden by co-misexpression of the BMP agonist Cv-2, indicating the presence of as yet unknown cues; we discuss possible candidates. ..
  29. Sotillos S, de Celis J. Regulation of decapentaplegic expression during Drosophila wing veins pupal development. Mech Dev. 2006;123:241-51 pubmed publisher
    ..transciption factors Araucan, Knirps and Ventral veinless, as well as binding sites for the Dpp pathway effectors Mad and Med...
  30. Eivers E, Demagny H, Choi R, De Robertis E. Phosphorylation of Mad controls competition between wingless and BMP signaling. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra68 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a molecular mechanism by which the phosphorylation state of the Drosophila transcription factor Mad determines its ability to transduce either BMP or Wingless (Wg) signals...
  31. Eldar A, Dorfman R, Weiss D, Ashe H, Shilo B, Barkai N. Robustness of the BMP morphogen gradient in Drosophila embryonic patterning. Nature. 2002;419:304-8 pubmed
    ..We show experimentally that Dpp is widely diffusible in the presence of Sog but tightly localized in its absence, thus validating a central prediction of our theoretical study. ..
  32. Gibson M, Perrimon N. Extrusion and death of DPP/BMP-compromised epithelial cells in the developing Drosophila wing. Science. 2005;307:1785-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that in addition to assigning cell fates, a crucial developmental function of DPP/BMP signaling is the position-specific control of epithelial architecture. ..
  33. Li H, Qi Y, Jasper H. Dpp signaling determines regional stem cell identity in the regenerating adult Drosophila gastrointestinal tract. Cell Rep. 2013;4:10-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Marty T, Vigano M, Ribeiro C, Nussbaumer U, Grieder N, Affolter M. A HOX complex, a repressor element and a 50 bp sequence confer regional specificity to a DPP-responsive enhancer. Development. 2001;128:2833-45 pubmed
  35. Pappu K, Ostrin E, Middlebrooks B, Sili B, Chen R, Atkins M, et al. Dual regulation and redundant function of two eye-specific enhancers of the Drosophila retinal determination gene dachshund. Development. 2005;132:2895-905 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the two eye enhancers act redundantly and in concert with each other to integrate distinct upstream inputs and direct the eye-specific expression of dac. ..
  36. Vrailas A, Moses K. Smoothened, thickveins and the genetic control of cell cycle and cell fate in the developing Drosophila eye. Mech Dev. 2006;123:151-65 pubmed
    ..We conclude that both pathways have several, but differing roles in furrow induction and cell fate and survival, but that neither directly affects cell type specification. ..
  37. Belenkaya T, Han C, Standley H, Lin X, Houston D, Heasman J, et al. pygopus Encodes a nuclear protein essential for wingless/Wnt signaling. Development. 2002;129:4089-101 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate that Pygo is an essential component in the Wg/Wnt signal transduction pathway and is likely to act as a transcription co-activator required for the nuclear function of Arm/beta-catenin. ..
  38. Bessa J, Gebelein B, Pichaud F, Casares F, Mann R. Combinatorial control of Drosophila eye development by eyeless, homothorax, and teashirt. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2415-27 pubmed
    ..A key step in the transition from an immature proliferative state to a committed state in eye development is the repression of hth by the BMP-4 homolog Decapentaplegic (Dpp). ..
  39. Pyrowolakis G, Hartmann B, Muller B, Basler K, Affolter M. A simple molecular complex mediates widespread BMP-induced repression during Drosophila development. Dev Cell. 2004;7:229-40 pubmed
    ..is sufficient to confer repression of gene transcription upon Dpp receptor activation and nuclear translocation of Mad and Medea...
  40. Dani N, Nahm M, Lee S, Broadie K. A targeted glycan-related gene screen reveals heparan sulfate proteoglycan sulfation regulates WNT and BMP trans-synaptic signaling. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003031 pubmed publisher
    ..Wg signaling via Wg receptor dFrizzled2 C-terminus nuclear import and retrograde Gbb signaling via synaptic MAD phosphorylation and nuclear import are differentially activated in hs6st and sulf1 mutants...
  41. Dorfman R, Shilo B. Biphasic activation of the BMP pathway patterns the Drosophila embryonic dorsal region. Development. 2001;128:965-72 pubmed
    ..Using an antibody recognizing phosphorylated Mad (pMad), we followed signaling directly. In wild-type embryos, a biphasic activation pattern is observed...
  42. Kirkpatrick H, Johnson K, Laughon A. Repression of dpp targets by binding of brinker to mad sites. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:18216-22 pubmed
    ..of the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) midgut enhancer at a sequence that overlaps a binding site for the Smad protein, Mothers Against Dpp (Mad). Furthermore, Brk was able to compete with Mad for occupancy of this binding site...
  43. McCabe B, Hom S, Aberle H, Fetter R, Marques G, Haerry T, et al. Highwire regulates presynaptic BMP signaling essential for synaptic growth. Neuron. 2004;41:891-905 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Hiw binds to the Smad protein Medea (Med)...
  44. Mizutani C, Meyer N, Roelink H, Bier E. Threshold-dependent BMP-mediated repression: a model for a conserved mechanism that patterns the neuroectoderm. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e313 pubmed
    ..We propose that BMPs played an ancestral role in patterning the metazoan neuroectoderm by threshold-dependent repression of neural identity genes. ..
  45. Ninov N, Menezes Cabral S, Prat Rojo C, Manjón C, Weiss A, Pyrowolakis G, et al. Dpp signaling directs cell motility and invasiveness during epithelial morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2010;20:513-20 pubmed publisher
  46. Rawson J, Lee M, Kennedy E, Selleck S. Drosophila neuromuscular synapse assembly and function require the TGF-beta type I receptor saxophone and the transcription factor Mad. J Neurobiol. 2003;55:134-50 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that the TGF-beta type I receptor Saxophone and the downstream transcription factor Mothers against dpp (Mad) are essential for the normal structural and functional development of the Drosophila NMJ, a synapse ..
  47. Moser M, Campbell G. Generating and interpreting the Brinker gradient in the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2005;286:647-58 pubmed
    ..established by inverse gradients of the TGF-beta, Dpp, which is in turn transduced into graded phosphorylated Mad (pMad, an R-Smad). pMad is part of a complex which directly represses brk...
  48. Hufnagel L, Teleman A, Rouault H, Cohen S, Shraiman B. On the mechanism of wing size determination in fly development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3835-40 pubmed
    ..We measure the distribution of a functional Dpp-GFP transgene and the Dpp signal transduced by phospho-Mad and show that the characteristic length scale of the Dpp profile remains approximately constant during growth...
  49. Fuller M, Spradling A. Male and female Drosophila germline stem cells: two versions of immortality. Science. 2007;316:402-4 pubmed
    ..Comparing these two stem cells and their niches in detail is likely to reveal how a common heritage has been adapted to the differing requirements of male and female gamete production. ..
  50. Muller B, Hartmann B, Pyrowolakis G, Affolter M, Basler K. Conversion of an extracellular Dpp/BMP morphogen gradient into an inverse transcriptional gradient. Cell. 2003;113:221-33 pubmed
    ..and biochemical evidence that the brk silencer serves as a direct target for a protein complex consisting of the Smad homologs Mad/Medea and the zinc finger protein Schnurri...
  51. Gilboa L, Lehmann R. Repression of primordial germ cell differentiation parallels germ line stem cell maintenance. Curr Biol. 2004;14:981-6 pubmed
    ..The similarity in the genes necessary for GSC maintenance and the repression of PGC differentiation suggest that PGCs and GSCs may be functionally equivalent and that the larval gonad functions as a "PGC niche". ..
  52. Reim I, Frasch M. The Dorsocross T-box genes are key components of the regulatory network controlling early cardiogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:4911-25 pubmed
    ..The integration of this new information with previous findings has allowed us to draw a more complete pathway of regulatory events during cardiac induction and differentiation in Drosophila. ..
  53. O Connor M, Umulis D, Othmer H, Blair S. Shaping BMP morphogen gradients in the Drosophila embryo and pupal wing. Development. 2006;133:183-93 pubmed
    ..Because these signaling pathway components are all conserved, these observations should shed light on how BMP signaling is modulated in vertebrate development. ..
  54. Shcherbata H, Ward E, Fischer K, Yu J, Reynolds S, Chen C, et al. Stage-specific differences in the requirements for germline stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila ovary. Cell Stem Cell. 2007;1:698-709 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mad, a component of the TGF-beta pathway, behaves similarly to Dicer-1: adult GSC maintenance requires Mad if it is ..
  55. Haerry T. The interaction between two TGF-beta type I receptors plays important roles in ligand binding, SMAD activation, and gradient formation. Mech Dev. 2010;127:358-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Inside the cell, constitutively activated forms of both TKV and SAX can ectopically phosphorylate the SMAD transcription factor MAD...
  56. Shivdasani A, Ingham P. Regulation of stem cell maintenance and transit amplifying cell proliferation by tgf-beta signaling in Drosophila spermatogenesis. Curr Biol. 2003;13:2065-72 pubmed
  57. Keshishian H, Kim Y. Orchestrating development and function: retrograde BMP signaling in the Drosophila nervous system. Trends Neurosci. 2004;27:143-7 pubmed
    ..Together, the results suggest that retrograde growth factor signaling by BMPs integrates neuromuscular development and function at both local and global levels in the animal. ..
  58. Serpe M, Ralston A, Blair S, O Connor M. Matching catalytic activity to developmental function: tolloid-related processes Sog in order to help specify the posterior crossvein in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2005;132:2645-56 pubmed
    ..We further suggest that, as in the embryo, the positive effect of Sog upon Bmp signaling probably stems from its role in a ligand transport process. ..
  59. Crickmore M, Mann R. Hox control of organ size by regulation of morphogen production and mobility. Science. 2006;313:63-8 pubmed
    ..Because morphogens control tissue growth in many contexts, these findings provide a potentially general mechanism for how selector genes modify organ sizes. ..
  60. Higashi Kovtun M, Mosca T, Dickman D, Meinertzhagen I, Schwarz T. Importin-beta11 regulates synaptic phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic, and thereby influences synaptic development and function at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5253-68 pubmed publisher
    ..with the BMP pathway, and at mutant synaptic boutons, a key component of this pathway, phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic (pMAD), was reduced...
  61. Teleman A, Cohen S. Dpp gradient formation in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. Cell. 2000;103:971-80 pubmed
    ..The activity gradient visualized by MAD phosphorylation differs in shape from the ligand gradient. The pMAD gradient adjusted to compartment size when this was experimentally altered...
  62. Casanueva M, Ferguson E. Germline stem cell number in the Drosophila ovary is regulated by redundant mechanisms that control Dpp signaling. Development. 2004;131:1881-90 pubmed
  63. Goold C, Davis G. The BMP ligand Gbb gates the expression of synaptic homeostasis independent of synaptic growth control. Neuron. 2007;56:109-23 pubmed
    ..Rather, our data indicate that Wit and Gbb function via the downstream transcription factor Mad and that Mad-mediated signaling is continuously required during development to confer competence of motoneurons to ..
  64. Affolter M, Marty T, Vigano M, Jazwinska A. Nuclear interpretation of Dpp signaling in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2001;20:3298-305 pubmed
    ..In addition to the ligand-activated heteromeric receptor complex and the signal-transducing intracellular Smad proteins, Dpp signaling requires two nuclear proteins, Schnurri (Shn) and Brinker (Brk), to prime cells for Dpp ..
  65. Allan D, St Pierre S, Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S. Specification of neuropeptide cell identity by the integration of retrograde BMP signaling and a combinatorial transcription factor code. Cell. 2003;113:73-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, an intrinsic transcription factor code integrates with an extrinsic retrograde signal to select a specific neuropeptide identity within peptidergic cells. ..
  66. Evans T, Haridas H, Duffy J. Kekkon5 is an extracellular regulator of BMP signaling. Dev Biol. 2009;326:36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that loss or gain of kek5 disrupts crossvein development and alters the early profile of phosphorylated Mad and dSRF in presumptive crossvein cells...
  67. Liu Z, Huang Y, Hu W, Huang S, Wang Q, Han J, et al. dAcsl, the Drosophila ortholog of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 and 4, inhibits synapse growth by attenuating bone morphogenetic protein signaling via endocytic recycling. J Neurosci. 2014;34:2785-96 pubmed publisher
    ..accompanied by increased levels of activated BMP receptor Thickveins (Tkv) and phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic (Mad), the effector of the BMP signaling at NMJ terminals...
  68. Saller E, Bienz M. Direct competition between Brinker and Drosophila Mad in Dpp target gene transcription. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:298-305 pubmed
    ..with the Dpp response sequence in the Ubx midgut enhancer, namely a tandem of binding sites for the Dpp effector Mad. We show that Brinker efficiently competes with Mad in vitro, preventing the latter from binding to these sites...
  69. Kirilly D, Spana E, Perrimon N, Padgett R, Xie T. BMP signaling is required for controlling somatic stem cell self-renewal in the Drosophila ovary. Dev Cell. 2005;9:651-62 pubmed
    ..Our work further suggests that BMP signaling could promote self-renewal of adult stem cells in other systems. ..
  70. Ratnaparkhi A, Lawless G, Schweizer F, GOLSHANI P, Jackson G. A Drosophila model of ALS: human ALS-associated mutation in VAP33A suggests a dominant negative mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2334 pubmed publisher
    ..This new fly model of ALS, with its robust pathological phenotypes, should for the first time allow the power of unbiased screens in Drosophila to be applied to study of motor neuron diseases. ..
  71. Firth L, Baker N. Retinal determination genes as targets and possible effectors of extracellular signals. Dev Biol. 2009;327:366-75 pubmed publisher
  72. Merino C, Penney J, González M, Tsurudome K, Moujahidine M, O Connor M, et al. Nemo kinase interacts with Mad to coordinate synaptic growth at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:713-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Nmo and the BMP transcription factor Mad can be coimmunoprecipitated and find a genetic interaction between nmo and Mad mutants...
  73. Fuentes Medel Y, Ashley J, Barria R, Maloney R, FREEMAN M, Budnik V. Integration of a retrograde signal during synapse formation by glia-secreted TGF-? ligand. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1831-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This induces phosphorylation of Mad (P-Mad) in motor neurons, its translocation into the nucleus with a co-Smad, and activation of transcriptional programs controlling presynaptic bouton growth [5]...
  74. Li Y, Jiang Y, Chen Y, Karandikar U, Hoffman K, Chattopadhyay A, et al. optix functions as a link between the retinal determination network and the dpp pathway to control morphogenetic furrow progression in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2013;381:50-61 pubmed publisher
  75. Curtiss J, Mlodzik M. Morphogenetic furrow initiation and progression during eye development in Drosophila: the roles of decapentaplegic, hedgehog and eyes absent. Development. 2000;127:1325-36 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, furrow-associated expression of eya, so and dac is not affected by double mutant tissue, suggesting that some other factor(s) regulates their expression during furrow progression. ..
  76. Chen H, Shen J, Ip Y, Xu L. Identification of phosphatases for Smad in the BMP/DPP pathway. Genes Dev. 2006;20:648-53 pubmed
    ..cells, we identified pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (PDP) to be required for dephosphorylation of Mothers against Decapentaplegic (MAD), a Drosophila Smad...
  77. Xu L, Yao X, Chen X, Lu P, Zhang B, Ip Y. Msk is required for nuclear import of TGF-{beta}/BMP-activated Smads. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:981-94 pubmed
    ..Using nuclear accumulation of the Drosophila Smad Mothers against Decapentaplegic (Mad) as the readout, we carried out a whole-genome RNAi screening in Drosophila cells...
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    ..In Drosophila, only one I-Smad, Dad, has been identified. Here we examined inhibitory effects of Dad on type I receptors in Drosophila...
  79. Sander V, Eivers E, Choi R, De Robertis E. Drosophila Smad2 opposes Mad signaling during wing vein development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10383 pubmed publisher
    In the vertebrates, the BMP/Smad1 and TGF-beta/Smad2 signaling pathways execute antagonistic functions in different contexts of development. The differentiation of specific structures results from the balance between these two pathways...
  80. Tanaka Matakatsu M, Du W. Direct control of the proneural gene atonal by retinal determination factors during Drosophila eye development. Dev Biol. 2008;313:787-801 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a direct mechanism by which the RD factors regulate ato expression and suggest an important role of Dpp in the activation of ato 3' enhancer is to regulate the levels of RD factors. ..
  81. Guo Z, Wang Z. The glypican Dally is required in the niche for the maintenance of germline stem cells and short-range BMP signaling in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 2009;136:3627-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Dally ensures high-level BMP signaling in the ovarian niche and thus female GSC determination. ..
  82. Peterson A, O Connor M. Activin receptor inhibition by Smad2 regulates Drosophila wing disc patterning through BMP-response elements. Development. 2013;140:649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF? superfamily signaling components, we found that a protein null mutation of Smad2, the only Activin subfamily R-Smad in the fruit fly, produces overgrown wing discs that resemble gain of function for BMP subfamily signaling...
  83. Shi W, Chen Y, Gan G, Wang D, Ren J, Wang Q, et al. Brain tumor regulates neuromuscular synapse growth and endocytosis in Drosophila by suppressing mad expression. J Neurosci. 2013;33:12352-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic analysis revealed that the actions of Brat at synapses are mediated through mothers against decapentaplegic (Mad), the signal transduction effector of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway...
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    ..antibodies against the active, phosphorylated form of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signal transducer Mad, pMad, or visualization of the spatial pattern of BMP-receptor interactions reveals a spatially bistable pattern of BMP ..
  85. Chen D, McKearin D. Dpp signaling silences bam transcription directly to establish asymmetric divisions of germline stem cells. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1786-91 pubmed
    ..regulates bam expression directly since the bam silencer element is a strong binding site for the Drosophila Smads, Mad and Medea...
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    ..More generally, Drosophila cystocytes now provide a system for studying de-differentiation and its potential as a source of functional stem cells. ..
  87. Collins C, Wairkar Y, Johnson S, DiAntonio A. Highwire restrains synaptic growth by attenuating a MAP kinase signal. Neuron. 2006;51:57-69 pubmed
    ..In addition to controlling synaptic growth, Highwire promotes synaptic function through a separate pathway that does not require wallenda. ..
  88. Hatton Ellis E, Ainsworth C, Sushama Y, Wan S, Vijayraghavan K, Skaer H. Genetic regulation of patterned tubular branching in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:169-74 pubmed
    ..We show that patterning of the tubule primordium into two distinct pairs is critical for the eversion of tubule branches, as well as for their asymmetric morphogenesis. ..
  89. Escudero L, Freeman M. Mechanism of G1 arrest in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:13 pubmed
    ..The unexpectedly complex network of regulation may reflect the importance of cells being uniformly ready to respond to the inductive signals that coordinate retinal differentiation. ..
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    ..This indicates that the furin-cleavage sites in BMP2/4/DPP precursors are tolerant to mutations acquired through evolution and have adapted to different systems in diversified species. ..
  91. Ball R, Warren Paquin M, Tsurudome K, Liao E, Elazzouzi F, Cavanagh C, et al. Retrograde BMP signaling controls synaptic growth at the NMJ by regulating trio expression in motor neurons. Neuron. 2010;66:536-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our findings, we propose a model in which a retrograde BMP signal from the muscle modulates GTPase activity through transcriptional regulation of Rac GEF trio, thereby regulating the homeostasis of synaptic growth at the NMJ. ..
  92. Gupta T, Schupbach T. Cct1, a phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis enzyme, is required for Drosophila oogenesis and ovarian morphogenesis. Development. 2003;130:6075-87 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first evidence for a specific role for CCT, and thus for phosphatidylcholine, in patterning during development. ..
  93. Furlong E. Integrating transcriptional and signalling networks during muscle development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004;14:343-50 pubmed
    ..The integration of additional signalling inputs with localised repression within these competence domains results in diverse transcriptional responses within neighbouring cells, which in turn generates muscle diversity. ..
  94. Massague J, Seoane J, Wotton D. Smad transcription factors. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2783-810 pubmed
    b>Smad transcription factors lie at the core of one of the most versatile cytokine signaling pathways in metazoan biology-the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) pathway...
  95. Miles W, Jaffray E, Campbell S, Takeda S, Bayston L, Basu S, et al. Medea SUMOylation restricts the signaling range of the Dpp morphogen in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2578-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Decapentaplegic (Dpp), a BMP signaling molecule that patterns the dorsal ectoderm of the embryo by activating the Mad and Medea (Med) transcription factors...
  96. Serpe M, Umulis D, Ralston A, Chen J, Olson D, Avanesov A, et al. The BMP-binding protein Crossveinless 2 is a short-range, concentration-dependent, biphasic modulator of BMP signaling in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;14:940-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that Cv-2 expression is controlled by BMP signaling, and these combined properties enable Cv-2 to exquisitely tune BMP signaling. ..
  97. Iovino N, Pane A, Gaul U. miR-184 has multiple roles in Drosophila female germline development. Dev Cell. 2009;17:123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study highlights the importance of microRNA-mediated regulation in the major developmental transitions of the female germline, and provides insights into several aspects of microRNA function. ..
  98. Vuilleumier R, Springhorn A, Patterson L, Koidl S, Hammerschmidt M, Affolter M, et al. Control of Dpp morphogen signalling by a secreted feedback regulator. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:611-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Pent interacts with the glypican Dally to control Dpp distribution and provide evidence that proper establishment of the BMP morphogen gradient requires the inbuilt feedback loop embodied by Pent. ..
  99. Kagey J, Brown J, Moberg K. Regulation of Yorkie activity in Drosophila imaginal discs by the Hedgehog receptor gene patched. Mech Dev. 2012;129:339-49 pubmed publisher
    ..the morphogen Dpp in ptc,Ark double-mutant cells, leading to elevated phosphorylation of the Dpp pathway effector Mad (p-Mad) in cells surrounding ptc,Ark mutant clones...
  100. Li Z, Zhang Y, Han L, Shi L, Lin X. Trachea-derived dpp controls adult midgut homeostasis in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2013;24:133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This work will provide important insights into the mechanisms of tissue homeostasis control by interorgan communication...
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