Gene Symbol: lt
Description: light
Alias: CG18028, Dm-lt(het), Dmel\CG18028, Vps41, l(2)40Fb, vps41, light, CG18028-PA, CG18028-PC, CG18028-PE, CG18028-PF, lt-PA, lt-PC, lt-PE, lt-PF, pink-wing, pinkoid
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Swetha M, Sriram V, Krishnan K, Oorschot V, Ten Brink C, Klumperman J, et al. Lysosomal membrane protein composition, acidic pH and sterol content are regulated via a light-dependent pathway in metazoan cells. Traffic. 2011;12:1037-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that Drosophila homologue of Vps41, Light, regulates the fusion of a specific subset of biosynthetic carriers containing characteristic endolysosomal ..
  2. Nickla H. Maternal effects determine effective lethal phase of carnation-light synthetic lethal in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 1977;268:638-9 pubmed
  3. Clegg N, Honda B, Whitehead I, Grigliatti T, Wakimoto B, Brock H, et al. Suppressors of position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster affect expression of the heterochromatic gene light in the absence of a chromosome rearrangement. Genome. 1998;41:495-503 pubmed
    ..present a number of results which suggest that Su(var) gene products can interact to affect the expression of the light gene in its normal heterochromatic location...
  4. Hediger F, Gasser S. Heterochromatin protein 1: don't judge the book by its cover!. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:143-50 pubmed
    ..Not only do HP1 isoforms have specific binding sites in both heterochromatic and euchromatic domains but they might also participate in the repression and activation of transcription in both compartments. ..
  5. de Wit E, Greil F, van Steensel B. High-resolution mapping reveals links of HP1 with active and inactive chromatin components. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e38 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that HP1-chromatin is transcriptionally active and has extensive links with several other chromatin components. ..
  6. Hearn M, Hedrick A, Grigliatti T, Wakimoto B. The effect of modifiers of position-effect variegation on the variegation of heterochromatic genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1991;128:785-97 pubmed
    ..While eight of the modifiers had weak or no detectable effects, six acted as enhancers of light (lt) variegation...
  7. Solinger J, Spang A. Tethering complexes in the endocytic pathway: CORVET and HOPS. FEBS J. 2013;280:2743-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Accumulating evidence supports the view that endosomal tethering complexes implement a regulatory logic that governs endomembrane identity and dynamics. ..
  8. Wakimoto B, Hearn M. The effects of chromosome rearrangements on the expression of heterochromatic genes in chromosome 2L of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;125:141-54 pubmed
    The light (lt) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is located at the base of the left arm of chromosome 2, within or very near centromeric heterochromatin (2Lh)...
  9. Weiler K, Wakimoto B. Chromosome rearrangements induce both variegated and reduced, uniform expression of heterochromatic genes in a development-specific manner. Genetics. 1998;149:1451-64 pubmed
    ..We examined PEV of the heterochromatic light (lt) and concertina (cta) genes in order to investigate potential tissue or developmental differences in ..

More Information


  1. Lu B, Emtage P, Duyf B, Hilliker A, Eissenberg J. Heterochromatin protein 1 is required for the normal expression of two heterochromatin genes in Drosophila. Genetics. 2000;155:699-708 pubmed
    ..However, expression of the essential heterochromatic genes rolled and light is reduced in Su(var)2-5 mutant larvae, suggesting that reduced expression of essential heterochromatic genes ..
  2. de Wit E, Greil F, van Steensel B. Genome-wide HP1 binding in Drosophila: developmental plasticity and genomic targeting signals. Genome Res. 2005;15:1265-73 pubmed
    ..These results provide insights into the mechanisms of HP1 targeting in the natural genomic context. ..
  3. Takáts S, Pircs K, Nagy P, Varga Ã, Kárpáti M, Hegedűs K, et al. Interaction of the HOPS complex with Syntaxin 17 mediates autophagosome clearance in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1338-54 pubmed publisher
    ..six HOPS subunits (Vps11 [vacuolar protein sorting 11]/CG32350, Vps18/Dor, Vps16A, Vps33A/Car, Vps39/CG7146, and Vps41/Lt) are required for fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes in Drosophila...
  4. Warner T, Sinclair D, Fitzpatrick K, Singh M, Devlin R, Honda B. The light gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a homologue of VPS41, a yeast gene involved in cellular-protein trafficking. Genome. 1998;41:236-43 pubmed
    ..combinations of viable mutant alleles of some of these genes, such as carnation (car) combined with either light (lt) or deep-orange (dor) mutants, show lethal interactions...
  5. Lloyd V, Ramaswami M, Kramer H. Not just pretty eyes: Drosophila eye-colour mutations and lysosomal delivery. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8:257-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, classical work describing more than 85 eye-colour mutations and their genetic interactions offers a remarkable, untapped resource for the genetic analysis of protein delivery to lysosomes. ..
  6. Mullins C, Bonifacino J. The molecular machinery for lysosome biogenesis. Bioessays. 2001;23:333-43 pubmed
    ..Other recently identified components, however, appear to be unique to higher eukaryotes. BioEssays 23:333-343, 2001. Published 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ..
  7. Lin C, Paulson A, Abmayr S, Workman J. HP1a targets the Drosophila KDM4A demethylase to a subset of heterochromatic genes to regulate H3K36me3 levels. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39758 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results show that HP1a functions to target the H3K36 demethylase dKDM4A to heterochromatic genes in Drosophila. ..
  8. Brittnacher J, Ganetzky B. On the components of segregation distortion in Drosophila melanogaster. IV. Construction and analysis of free duplications for the Responder locus. Genetics. 1989;121:739-50 pubmed
    ..The bearing of these results on present models of segregation distortion are discussed. ..
  9. Sun F, Cuaycong M, Elgin S. Long-range nucleosome ordering is associated with gene silencing in Drosophila melanogaster pericentric heterochromatin. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:2867-79 pubmed
    ..However, genes normally active within heterochromatin (rolled and light) do not show this pattern, suggesting that the altered chromatin structure observed is associated with regions ..
  10. Cherry S, Perrimon N. Entry is a rate-limiting step for viral infection in a Drosophila melanogaster model of pathogenesis. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:81-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, this virus model provides a sensitive and efficient approach for identifying components required for pathogenesis. ..
  11. Yasuhara J, Marchetti M, Fanti L, Pimpinelli S, Wakimoto B. A strategy for mapping the heterochromatin of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 2003;117:217-26 pubmed
    ..We discuss how these mapping studies can be extended to more proximal regions of the heterochromatin to determine the structural patterns and physical dimensions of 2Lh and the relationship of structure to function. ..
  12. Howe M, Dimitri P, Berloco M, Wakimoto B. Cis-effects of heterochromatin on heterochromatic and euchromatic gene activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;140:1033-45 pubmed
    ..P transposase mutagenesis was used to generate derivatives of a translocation that variegated for the light+ (lt+) gene and carried the euchromatic white+ (w+) gene on a transposon near the heterochromatin-euchromatin ..
  13. Cook K, Karpen G. A rosy future for heterochromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5219-21 pubmed
    ..These efforts will be facilitated by the effective use of P elements combined with other current molecular-genetic approaches. ..
  14. Henikoff S. Position effect and related phenomena. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1992;2:907-12 pubmed
    ..In addition, telomeric position effect in yeast provides a new model system for the study of the quasi-stable inheritance of an inactivated state. ..
  15. Nickla H. Interaction between pteridine synthesis and riboflavin accumulation in Drosophila melanogaster. Can J Genet Cytol. 1972;14:105-11 pubmed
  16. Gatti M, Pimpinelli S. Functional elements in Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:239-75 pubmed
  17. Tartof K, Henikoff S. Trans-sensing effects from Drosophila to humans. Cell. 1991;65:201-3 pubmed
  18. Birchler J, Bhadra U, Rabinow L, Linsk R, Nguyen Huynh A. Weakener of white (Wow), a gene that modifies the expression of the white eye color locus and that suppresses position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;137:1057-70 pubmed
    ..There are many dosage sensitive suppressors of position effect variegation and many dosage-sensitive modifiers of gene expression. The Wow mutations provide evidence for an overlap between the two types of modifiers...
  19. Wright T, Hodgetts R, Sherald A. The genetics of dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Isolation and characterization of deficiencies that delete the dopa-decarboxylase-dosage-sensitive region and the alpha-methyl-dopa-hypersensitive locus. Genetics. 1976;84:267-85 pubmed
    ..These deficiencies permit a localization of both the dopa-decarboxylase-dosage-sensitive region and the alpha-methyl-dopa-hypersensitive locus, l(2) amd, to the same region, 37B10-37C7. ..
  20. Wilkin M, Tongngok P, Gensch N, Clemence S, Motoki M, Yamada K, et al. Drosophila HOPS and AP-3 complex genes are required for a Deltex-regulated activation of notch in the endosomal trafficking pathway. Dev Cell. 2008;15:762-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss ways in which these endocytic pathways may modulate ligand-dependent and -independent events, as a mechanism that can potentiate Notch signaling or dampen noise in the signaling network. ..
  21. Dimitri P, Corradini N, Rossi F, Vernì F, Cenci G, Belloni G, et al. Vital genes in the heterochromatin of chromosomes 2 and 3 of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 2003;117:209-15 pubmed
    ..Repetitive loci, such as Responder and the ABO elements, which are also located in the heterochromatin of chromosome 2, are not discussed here because they have been reviewed in detail elsewhere. ..
  22. Donertas D, Sienski G, Brennecke J. Drosophila Gtsf1 is an essential component of the Piwi-mediated transcriptional silencing complex. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1693-705 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that only a small fraction of nuclear Piwi is actively engaged in target silencing and that Gtsf1 is an essential component of the underlying Piwi-centered silencing complex. ..
  23. LÅ‘rincz P, Lakatos Z, Varga Ã, Maruzs T, Simon Vecsei Z, Darula Z, et al. MiniCORVET is a Vps8-containing early endosomal tether in Drosophila. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..of 4 shared (Vps11, Vps16, Vps18 and Vps33) and 2 specific subunits: Vps3 and Vps8 (CORVET) versus Vps39 and Vps41 (HOPS). CORVET is an early and HOPS is a late endosomal tether...
  24. Dimitri P. Constitutive heterochromatin and transposable elements in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 1997;100:85-93 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings on the possible impact of heterochromatic TEs on the function and evolution of the host genome are also discussed. ..
  25. Dimitri P, Arca B, Berghella L, Mei E. High genetic instability of heterochromatin after transposition of the LINE-like I factor in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:8052-7 pubmed
    ..Together, these data indicate that I factors transpose with high frequency into pericentric regions of chromosome 2 and may play a role in the evolution of constitutive heterochromatin. ..
  26. Badenhorst P, Voas M, Rebay I, Wu C. Biological functions of the ISWI chromatin remodeling complex NURF. Genes Dev. 2002;16:3186-98 pubmed
    ..Finally, mutants in NURF subunits exhibit neoplastic transformation of larval blood cells that causes melanotic tumors to form. ..
  27. Hilliker A. Genetic analysis of the centromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster: deficiency mapping of EMS-induced lethal complementation groups. Genetics. 1976;83:765-82 pubmed
    ..with known deficiencies provided evidence for the existence of at least two loci between the centromere and the light locus in 2L and one locus in 2R between the rolled locus and the centromere...
  28. Hessler A. V-Type Position Effects at the Light Locus in Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1958;43:395-403 pubmed
  29. Siegel J. Genetic characterization of the region of the Drosophila genome known to include the histone structural gene sequences. Genetics. 1981;98:505-27 pubmed
    ..The salivary map positions of certain of the complementation groups suggest that the mutants in these groups may affect histone gene functions. ..
  30. Baker W, Rein A. The dichotornous action of Y chromosomes on the expression of position-effect variegation. Genetics. 1962;47:1399-407 pubmed
  31. Russell S, Kaiser K. A Drosophila melanogaster chromosome 2L repeat is expressed in the male germ line. Chromosoma. 1994;103:63-72 pubmed
    ..The repeat is conserved in all D. melanogaster strains examined but absent from other Drosophila species studied. The locus does not correspond to any known complementation groups in the region and has yet to be assigned a function. ..
  32. Dell Angelica E, Mullins C, Caplan S, Bonifacino J. Lysosome-related organelles. FASEB J. 2000;14:1265-78 pubmed
    ..of genes mutated in these human diseases, as well as in mouse and Drosophila: pigmentation mutants, is beginning to shed light on the molecular machinery involved in the biogenesis of lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles.
  33. Lloyd V, Sinclair D, Grigliatti T. Competition between different variegating rearrangements for limited heterochromatic factors in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1997;145:945-59 pubmed
    ..Consequently, even nonvariegation portions of the genome will be disrupted by re-allocation of heterochromatic proteins associated with PEV. These results have implications for models of PEV. ..
  34. Schaeffer S, Bhutkar A, McAllister B, Matsuda M, Matzkin L, O Grady P, et al. Polytene chromosomal maps of 11 Drosophila species: the order of genomic scaffolds inferred from genetic and physical maps. Genetics. 2008;179:1601-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the conservation of genes within homologous chromosome arms across species, the karyotypes of these species have changed through the fusion of chromosomal arms followed by subsequent rearrangement events...
  35. Tearle R. Tissue specific effects of ommochrome pathway mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1991;57:257-66 pubmed
    ..Two mutations affecting the red eye pigments (drosopterins), bw and mal, do not substantially perturb brown pigment synthesis in any of the four organs. ..
  36. Spritz R. Multi-organellar disorders of pigmentation: intracellular traffic jams in mammals, flies and yeast. Trends Genet. 1999;15:337-40 pubmed
    ..Recent discoveries show that several of these mutations directly affect components in the pathway of organelle-specific protein trafficking, and provide new insights into the relationships of these pathways in mammals, flies and yeast. ..
  37. Zuckerkandl E, Hennig W. Tracking heterochromatin. Chromosoma. 1995;104:75-83 pubmed
    ..We wish to reflect here a few of the data presented at the second workshop, and express some thoughts suggested to us by these recent findings. ..
  38. Zhang D, Wang D, Sun F. Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin protein HP1b plays important roles in transcriptional activation and development. Chromosoma. 2011;120:97-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study argues that HP1b counteracts HP1a function both in heterochromatin formation and in the transcriptional regulation of euchromatic genes. ..
  39. Lohe A, Hilliker A. Return of the H-word (heterochromatin). Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1995;5:746-55 pubmed
  40. Koryakov D, Belyaeva E, Alekseyenko A, Zhimulev I. Alpha and beta heterochromatin in polytene chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1996;105:310-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the transition zones between mitotic hetero- and euchromatin are located in banded polytene euchromatin. A scheme for dynamic organization of pericentric heterochromatin in nuclei with polytene chromosomes is proposed. ..
  41. Eissenberg J, Elgin S. The HP1 protein family: getting a grip on chromatin. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:204-10 pubmed
    ..A number of intriguing interactions between HP1 and other proteins have been described, implicating HP1 in gene regulation, DNA replication, and nuclear architecture. ..
  42. Devlin R, Bingham B, Wakimoto B. The organization and expression of the light gene, a heterochromatic gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;125:129-40 pubmed
    The light (lt) gene is located in the centromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. This gene is necessary for normal levels of pigmentation in a number of adult and larval tissues and is required for viability...
  43. Yu Z, Ren M, Wang Z, Zhang B, Rong Y, Jiao R, et al. Highly efficient genome modifications mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 in Drosophila. Genetics. 2013;195:289-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes in both heterochromatin and euchromatin can be modified efficiently. Thus the Cas9/gRNA system is an attractive tool for rapid disruption of essentially any gene in Drosophila. ..
  44. Lloyd V, Sinclair D, Alperyn M, Grigliatti T. Enhancer of garnet/deltaAP-3 is a cryptic allele of the white gene and identifies the intracellular transport system for the white protein. Genome. 2002;45:296-312 pubmed
    ..This observation supports a role for these genes in intracellular transport and leads to a model whereby incorrect sorting of the white gene product can explain the pigmentation phenotypes of an entire group of eye-color genes...
  45. Fanti L, Perrini B, Piacentini L, Berloco M, Marchetti E, Palumbo G, et al. The trithorax group and Pc group proteins are differentially involved in heterochromatin formation in Drosophila. Chromosoma. 2008;117:25-39 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that trx-G proteins, along with some Pc-G proteins, play an active role in heterochromatin formation in Drosophila. ..
  46. Beadle G, Ephrussi B. The Differentiation of Eye Pigments in Drosophila as Studied by Transplantation. Genetics. 1936;21:225-47 pubmed
  47. Dimitri P. Cytogenetic analysis of the second chromosome heterochromatin of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1991;127:553-64 pubmed
    ..Extensive cell death during imaginal disc development was observed in individuals hemizygous for either the EMS 31 and rolled mutations, leading to a pattern of phenotypic defects of adult structures. ..
  48. Falcon Perez J, Romero Calderon R, Brooks E, Krantz D, Dell Angelica E. The Drosophila pigmentation gene pink (p) encodes a homologue of human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 (HPS5). Traffic. 2007;8:154-68 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of pink mutants was exacerbated by mutations in AP-3 subunits or in the orthologs of VPS33A and Rab38. These results validate D. melanogaster as a genetic model to study the function of the BLOCs. ..
  49. Singh P, Huskisson N. Chromatin complexes as aperiodic microcrystalline arrays that regulate genome organisation and expression. Dev Genet. 1998;22:85-99 pubmed
    ..Aperiodicity is also a feature of the hypothesis that is directly testable. ..
  50. Sharp C, Hilliker A, Holm D. Further Characterization of Genetic Elements Associated with the Segregation Distorter Phenomenon in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1985;110:671-88 pubmed
    ..that the Rsp (Responder) locus lies within the proximal heterochromatin of chromosome 2, between the genetic markers lt and rl and most likely in the heterochromatin of the right arm...
  51. Schultz J, Dobzhansky T. The Relation of a Dominant Eye Color in Drosophila Melanogaster to the Associated Chromosome Rearrangement. Genetics. 1934;19:344-64 pubmed
  52. Brittnacher J, Ganetzky B. On the components of segregation distortion in Drosophila melanogaster. III. Nature of enhancer of SD. Genetics. 1984;107:423-34 pubmed
    ..deletions in the Segregation Distorter (SD) chromosome, SD-5, revealed that this chromosome had a gene proximal to lt in the centric heterochromatin of 2L that strongly enhanced the meiotic drive caused by the SD chromosome...
  53. Nickla H. Expression of the maternal effect involving the light locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Can J Genet Cytol. 1972;14:391-6 pubmed
  54. Crow J. Why is Mendelian segregation so exact?. Bioessays. 1991;13:305-12 pubmed
    ..This provides a mechanism for removing cheaters and preserving the honesty of the Mendelian gene-shuffle. ..
  55. Pirrotta V, Rastelli L. White gene expression, repressive chromatin domains and homeotic gene regulation in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1994;16:549-56 pubmed
    ..Such complexes, which normally regulate the expression of many genes, including the homeotic loci, are responsible for silencing, white gene variegation, pairing-dependent effects and insertional targeting. ..
  56. Cenci G, Belloni G, Dimitri P. 1(2)41Aa, a heterochromatic gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is required for mitotic and meiotic chromosome condensation. Genet Res. 2003;81:15-24 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that 1(2)41Aa is a novel cell cycle gene required for proper chromosome condensation in both somatic and germ line cells. ..
  57. Nickla H. Maternal age effect associated with yellow pigment in Malpighian tubes of Drosophila melanogaster. Can J Genet Cytol. 1973;15:437-42 pubmed
  58. Lemos B, Branco A, Hartl D. Epigenetic effects of polymorphic Y chromosomes modulate chromatin components, immune response, and sexual conflict. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15826-31 pubmed publisher
  59. Paredes S, Maggert K. Ribosomal DNA contributes to global chromatin regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17829-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the rDNA contributes to a balance between heterochromatin and euchromatin in the nucleus, and alterations in rDNA--induced or natural--affect this balance. ..
  60. Ferveur J, Jallon J. Genetic control of male cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1996;67:211-8 pubmed
    ..melanogaster strains and between D. melanogaster and its sibling species D. simulans. The possible evolutionary and physiological causes of this variation as well as its functional implication for courtship behaviour are discussed. ..
  61. Klenov M, Sokolova O, Yakushev E, Stolyarenko A, Mikhaleva E, Lavrov S, et al. Separation of stem cell maintenance and transposon silencing functions of Piwi protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18760-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the Piwi function in GSC self-renewal is independent of transposon repression and is normally realized in the cytoplasm of GSC niche cells. ..
  62. Chinchore Y, Mitra A, Dolph P. Accumulation of rhodopsin in late endosomes triggers photoreceptor cell degeneration. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000377 pubmed publisher
    ..we were able to show that rhodopsin accumulates in endosomal compartments in these mutants and leads to light-dependent retinal degeneration...
  63. Huang H, Yu Z, Zhang S, Liang X, Chen J, Li C, et al. Drosophila CAF-1 regulates HP1-mediated epigenetic silencing and pericentric heterochromatin stability. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2853-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that Drosophila CAF-1 p180 is an essential factor in the epigenetic control of heterochromatin formation and/or maintenance. ..
  64. Rivier D, Pillus L. Silencing speaks up. Cell. 1994;76:963-6 pubmed
  65. Szabad J, Erdelyi M, Hoffmann G, Szidonya J, Wright T. Isolation and characterization of dominant female sterile mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Mutations on the second chromosome. Genetics. 1989;122:823-35 pubmed
    ..That most of the Fs(2) may be gain-of-function mutations is indicated by the unusual behavior of the Fs+ germ-line clones and also by the fact that 90% of the could be induced to revert. ..
  66. Reuter G, Werner W, Hoffmann H. Mutants affecting position-effect heterochromatinization in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1982;85:539-51 pubmed
    ..It seems also reasonable to assume that in all the rearrangements tested identical heterochromatisation processes lead to inactivation of the genes whose phenotype is variegated. ..
  67. Goldman M. Executive decision: chromatin structure and gene regulation. Trends Genet. 1997;13:387-8 pubmed
  68. Lu X, Wontakal S, Emelyanov A, Morcillo P, Konev A, Fyodorov D, et al. Linker histone H1 is essential for Drosophila development, the establishment of pericentric heterochromatin, and a normal polytene chromosome structure. Genes Dev. 2009;23:452-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, linker histone H1 is essential in Drosophila and plays a fundamental role in the architecture and activity of chromosomes in vivo. ..
  69. Elgin S. Heterochromatin and gene regulation in Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:193-202 pubmed
    ..The current data support a competition/chromatin structure model, in which multiprotein repressor complexes compete with transcriptional activators to assemble an active or inactive chromatin structure. ..
  70. Weiler K, Wakimoto B. Heterochromatin and gene expression in Drosophila. Annu Rev Genet. 1995;29:577-605 pubmed
  71. McCarthy A, Nickla H. Morphology of the carnation-light synthetic lethal focus in Drosophila melanogaster. Experientia. 1980;36:1361-2 pubmed
    A histological study of the carnation-light lethal focus revealed morphological abnormalities in brain tissue...