Gene Symbol: l(2)gl
Description: lethal (2) giant larvae
Alias: CG2671, D-LGL, Dmel\CG2671, L(2)GL, L(2)gl, LGL, Lgl, MENE (2L)-B, dlgl, l(2) giant larva, l(2)giant larvae, l-gl, l[[2]]gl, lgl, p127, p127[l(2)gl], p127l(2)gl, lethal (2) giant larvae, CG2671-PA, CG2671-PB, CG2671-PC, CG2671-PD, CG2671-PE, CG2671-PF, CG2671-PG, CG2671-PH, CG2671-PI, CG2671-PJ, CG2671-PK, complementation group 2.1, l(2) giant larvae, l(2)gl-PA, l(2)gl-PB, l(2)gl-PC, l(2)gl-PD, l(2)gl-PE, l(2)gl-PF, l(2)gl-PG, l(2)gl-PH, l(2)gl-PI, l(2)gl-PJ, l(2)gl-PK, lethal (2) giant larva, lethal giant larva, lethal giant larvae, lethal giant larve, lethal(2) giant larvae, lethal(2)-giant larvae, lethal(2)giant larvae, lethal- giant-larvae, lethal-2-giant larvae, lethal-giant-larvae
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Krahn M, Bückers J, Kastrup L, Wodarz A. Formation of a Bazooka-Stardust complex is essential for plasma membrane polarity in epithelia. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:751-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a molecular mechanism for the phosphorylation-dependent interaction between the Baz-PAR-3 and Crb complexes during the establishment of epithelial polarity. ..
  2. Tanentzapf G, Tepass U. Interactions between the crumbs, lethal giant larvae and bazooka pathways in epithelial polarization. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:46-52 pubmed
    ..Crumbs (Crb) and Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) are components of distinct complexes that regulate epithelial polarization in Drosophila melanogaster,..
  3. Wu M, Pastor Pareja J, Xu T. Interaction between Ras(V12) and scribbled clones induces tumour growth and invasion. Nature. 2010;463:545-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the conservation of the pathways examined here, similar cooperative mechanisms could have a role in the development of human cancers. ..
  4. Johnson K, Wodarz A. A genetic hierarchy controlling cell polarity. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:12-4 pubmed
  5. Sun G, Irvine K. Regulation of Hippo signaling by Jun kinase signaling during compensatory cell proliferation and regeneration, and in neoplastic tumors. Dev Biol. 2011;350:139-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that depletion of neoplastic tumor suppressor genes, including lethal giant larvae and discs large, or activation of aPKC, activates Yorkie through Jun kinase signaling, and that Jun kinase ..
  6. Laprise P, Paul S, Boulanger J, Robbins R, Beitel G, Tepass U. Epithelial polarity proteins regulate Drosophila tracheal tube size in parallel to the luminal matrix pathway. Curr Biol. 2010;20:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that Yrt, Cora, Crb, and Scrib operate independently of the Verm pathway. Our data support a model in which Cora and Yrt act through Crb to regulate epithelial tube size. ..
  7. Zhao M, Szafranski P, Hall C, Goode S. Basolateral junctions utilize warts signaling to control epithelial-mesenchymal transition and proliferation crucial for migration and invasion of Drosophila ovarian epithelial cells. Genetics. 2008;178:1947-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified two genes that encode known BLJ scaffolding proteins, lethal giant larvae (lgl) and scribble (scrib), and several not previously associated with BLJ function, including warts (wts) ..
  8. Atwood S, Prehoda K. aPKC phosphorylates Miranda to polarize fate determinants during neuroblast asymmetric cell division. Curr Biol. 2009;19:723-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Miranda asymmetry is thought to occur via a complicated cascade of repressive interactions (aPKC -| Lgl -| myosin II -| Miranda)...
  9. Leibfried A, Fricke R, Morgan M, Bogdan S, Bellaiche Y. Drosophila Cip4 and WASp define a branch of the Cdc42-Par6-aPKC pathway regulating E-cadherin endocytosis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1639-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether our results show that Cdc42 functions with Par6 and aPKC to regulate E-Cad endocytosis and define Cip4 and WASp as regulators of the early E-Cad endocytic events in epithelial tissue. ..

More Information


  1. Doerflinger H, Vogt N, Torres I, Mirouse V, Koch I, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, et al. Bazooka is required for polarisation of the Drosophila anterior-posterior axis. Development. 2010;137:1765-73 pubmed publisher
    ..initial asymmetry is then reinforced by mutual inhibition between the anterior Baz complex and posterior Par-1 and Lgl. Finally, we show that mutation of the aPKC phosphorylation site in Par-1 results in the uniform cortical ..
  2. Betschinger J, Knoblich J. Dare to be different: asymmetric cell division in Drosophila, C. elegans and vertebrates. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R674-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we outline the steps and factors that are involved in this process in Drosophila and C. elegans and discuss their potential conservation in vertebrates. ..
  3. Roegiers F, Jan L, Jan Y. Regulation of membrane localization of Sanpodo by lethal giant larvae and neuralized in asymmetrically dividing cells of Drosophila sensory organs. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3480-7 pubmed
    ..Previously, we identified lethal giant larvae (lgl) as a gene required for numb-mediated inhibition of Notch in the adult PNS...
  4. Georgiou M, Marinari E, Burden J, Baum B. Cdc42, Par6, and aPKC regulate Arp2/3-mediated endocytosis to control local adherens junction stability. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of junctional stability was found to be independent of several well-known targets of Cdc42-aPKC-Par6: Baz, Lgl, Rac, and SCAR...
  5. Roegiers F, KAVALER J, Tolwinski N, Chou Y, Duan H, Bejarano F, et al. Frequent unanticipated alleles of lethal giant larvae in Drosophila second chromosome stocks. Genetics. 2009;182:407-10 pubmed publisher
    Forty years ago, a high frequency of lethal giant larvae (lgl) alleles in wild populations of Drosophila melanogaster was reported...
  6. Froldi F, Ziosi M, Garoia F, Pession A, Grzeschik N, Bellosta P, et al. The lethal giant larvae tumour suppressor mutation requires dMyc oncoprotein to promote clonal malignancy. BMC Biol. 2010;8:33 pubmed publisher
    ..of the clonal analysis methods that are available in Drosophila for studying the phenotypes due to lethal giant larvae (lgl) neoplastic mutation induced in different backgrounds and tissues...
  7. Doe C, Bowerman B. Asymmetric cell division: fly neuroblast meets worm zygote. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001;13:68-75 pubmed
    ..Mammalian epithelia also use this complex to regulate apical/basal polarity. Recent results have allowed us to compare the mechanisms regulating asymmetric cell division in Drosophila neuroblasts and the C. elegans zygote. ..
  8. Robinson B, Huang J, Hong Y, Moberg K. Crumbs regulates Salvador/Warts/Hippo signaling in Drosophila via the FERM-domain protein Expanded. Curr Biol. 2010;20:582-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Crb), which nucleates an apical membrane complex that functionally interacts with the Par6/Par3/aPKC and Scrib/Dlg/Lgl apicobasal polarity complexes...
  9. Grzeschik N, Parsons L, Allott M, Harvey K, Richardson H. Lgl, aPKC, and Crumbs regulate the Salvador/Warts/Hippo pathway through two distinct mechanisms. Curr Biol. 2010;20:573-81 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl) controls apicobasal cell polarity and proliferation...
  10. Bilder D, Li M, Perrimon N. Cooperative regulation of cell polarity and growth by Drosophila tumor suppressors. Science. 2000;289:113-6 pubmed
    ..We show that the tumor suppressors lethal giant larvae (lgl) and discs-large (dlg) have identical effects on all three epithelia, and that scrib also acts as a ..
  11. Pastor Pareja J, Wu M, Xu T. An innate immune response of blood cells to tumors and tissue damage in Drosophila. Dis Model Mech. 2008;1:144-54; discussion 153 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal common mechanisms in the response to tumors and wounds in flies. A similar innate reaction may underlie the response to tumors and tissue damage in vertebrates and humans. ..
  12. Menendez J, Pérez Garijo A, Calleja M, Morata G. A tumor-suppressing mechanism in Drosophila involving cell competition and the Hippo pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14651-6 pubmed publisher
    Mutant larvae for the Drosophila gene lethal giant larva (lgl) develop neoplastic tumors in imaginal discs...
  13. Woods D, Wu J, Bryant P. Localization of proteins to the apico-lateral junctions of Drosophila epithelia. Dev Genet. 1997;20:111-8 pubmed
    ..However, imaginal disc tissue from the neoplastic overgrowth mutants dlg and lgl showed abnormal distribution of the junctional markers including a complete loss of apico-basal polarity in loss-of-..
  14. Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich J. The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. Nature. 2003;422:326-30 pubmed
    ..that a principal function of this complex is to phosphorylate the cytoskeletal protein Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl; also known as L(2)gl)...
  15. Rolls M, Albertson R, Shih H, Lee C, Doe C. Drosophila aPKC regulates cell polarity and cell proliferation in neuroblasts and epithelia. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1089-98 pubmed
    ..that aPKC mutants show reduced cell proliferation in both neuroblasts and epithelia, the opposite of the lethal giant larvae (lgl) tumor suppressor phenotype, and that reduced aPKC levels strongly suppress most lgl cell polarity and ..
  16. Bowman S, Rolland V, Betschinger J, Kinsey K, Emery G, Knoblich J. The tumor suppressors Brat and Numb regulate transit-amplifying neuroblast lineages in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;14:535-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data describe a transit-amplifying lineage in the Drosophila nervous system and suggest that different vulnerabilities in intermediate cell types can affect the outcome of tumor suppressor loss in stem cell lineages. ..
  17. Vaccari T, Lu H, Kanwar R, Fortini M, Bilder D. Endosomal entry regulates Notch receptor activation in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:755-62 pubmed publisher
  18. Huang J, Zhou W, Dong W, Watson A, Hong Y. From the Cover: Directed, efficient, and versatile modifications of the Drosophila genome by genomic engineering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8284-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have successfully applied the genomic engineering scheme on 6 different genes and have generated at their loci more than 70 unique alleles. ..
  19. Mechler B, McGinnis W, Gehring W. Molecular cloning of lethal(2)giant larvae, a recessive oncogene of Drosophila melanogaster. EMBO J. 1985;4:1551-7 pubmed
    ..The normal function of the l(2)gl presumably controls the normal cell proliferation of the optic centers of the brain and the imaginal discs, as well as their post-mitotic differentiation. ..
  20. Guilgur L, Prudêncio P, Ferreira T, Pimenta Marques A, Martinho R. Drosophila aPKC is required for mitotic spindle orientation during symmetric division of epithelial cells. Development. 2012;139:503-13 pubmed publisher
  21. Ma X, Li W, Yu H, Yang Y, Li M, Xue L, et al. Bendless modulates JNK-mediated cell death and migration in Drosophila. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Ben constitutes an essential component of the evolutionarily conserved TNF-JNK pathway that modulates cell death and invasion, tumor progression, stress response and lifespan in metazoans. ..
  22. Deng W, Althauser C, Ruohola Baker H. Notch-Delta signaling induces a transition from mitotic cell cycle to endocycle in Drosophila follicle cells. Development. 2001;128:4737-46 pubmed
  23. Knust E, Bossinger O. Composition and formation of intercellular junctions in epithelial cells. Science. 2002;298:1955-9 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between fly, worm, and vertebrate epithelia reveal marked similarities with respect to the molecules used, and pronounced differences in the organization of the junctions themselves. ..
  24. Langevin J, Le Borgne R, Rosenfeld F, Gho M, Schweisguth F, Bellaiche Y. Lethal giant larvae controls the localization of notch-signaling regulators numb, neuralized, and Sanpodo in Drosophila sensory-organ precursor cells. Curr Biol. 2005;15:955-62 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila neuroblasts, the apical DmPar6/DaPKC complex inhibits Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) to promote the basal localization of fate determinants...
  25. Jacob L, Opper M, Metzroth B, Phannavong B, Mechler B. Structure of the l(2)gl gene of Drosophila and delimitation of its tumor suppressor domain. Cell. 1987;50:215-25 pubmed
    ..Thus the gene encodes two putative proteins of 1161 and 708 amino acids, p127 and p78, respectively, differing at their C termini...
  26. Peng C, Manning L, Albertson R, Doe C. The tumour-suppressor genes lgl and dlg regulate basal protein targeting in Drosophila neuroblasts. Nature. 2000;408:596-600 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the tumour-suppressor genes lethal giant larvae (lgl) and discs large (dlg) regulate basal protein targeting, but not apical complex formation or spindle ..
  27. Bilder D, Schober M, Perrimon N. Integrated activity of PDZ protein complexes regulates epithelial polarity. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:53-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a model in which the maturation of epithelial cell polarity is driven by integration of the sequential activities of PDZ-based protein complexes. ..
  28. Hutterer A, Betschinger J, Petronczki M, Knoblich J. Sequential roles of Cdc42, Par-6, aPKC, and Lgl in the establishment of epithelial polarity during Drosophila embryogenesis. Dev Cell. 2004;6:845-54 pubmed
    ..Maintenance of Par-6 localization requires the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. Genetic and biochemical experiments suggest that phosphorylation by aPKC inactivates Lgl on the apical side...
  29. Walther R, Pichaud F. Crumbs/DaPKC-dependent apical exclusion of Bazooka promotes photoreceptor polarity remodeling. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1065-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This molecular sorting mechanism results in setting up the boundary between the photoreceptor subapical membrane and the za. ..
  30. Wu V, Beitel G. A junctional problem of apical proportions: epithelial tube-size control by septate junctions in the Drosophila tracheal system. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:493-9 pubmed
    ..Possible tube-size functions of septate junctions include patterning of the apical extracellular matrix and regulation of conserved cell polarity genes such as Scribble and Discs Large. ..
  31. Castellanos E, Dominguez P, Gonzalez C. Centrosome dysfunction in Drosophila neural stem cells causes tumors that are not due to genome instability. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that such tumors might be caused by impaired asymmetric division of neural stem cells [4]. These results show that centrosome loss, far from being innocuous, is a potentially dangerous condition in flies...
  32. Szafranski P, Goode S. Basolateral junctions are sufficient to suppress epithelial invasion during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:364-73 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that spatiotemporal patterns of basolateral junction activity directly suppress epithelial invasion by organizing the cooperative activity of distinct polarity and motility pathways. ..
  33. Doe C. Cell polarity: the PARty expands. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:E7-9 pubmed
    ..This common cell-polarity mechanism is used in cell-specific ways, as highlighted by the recent finding that at least two different types of asymmetric division are observed in Drosophila neural precursors. ..
  34. Grifoni D, Garoia F, Bellosta P, Parisi F, De Biase D, Collina G, et al. aPKCzeta cortical loading is associated with Lgl cytoplasmic release and tumor growth in Drosophila and human epithelia. Oncogene. 2007;26:5960-5 pubmed
    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) regulate apical-basal polarity in Drosophila and mammalian epithelia...
  35. Swanson L, Beitel G. Tubulogenesis: an inside job. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R51-3 pubmed
  36. Kalmes A, Merdes G, Neumann B, Strand D, Mechler B. A serine-kinase associated with the p127-l(2)gl tumour suppressor of Drosophila may regulate the binding of p127 to nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain and the attachment of p127 to the plasma membrane. J Cell Sci. 1996;109 ( Pt 6):1359-68 pubmed
    The p127 tumour suppressor protein encoded by the lethal(2)giant larvae, [l(2)gl], gene of Drosophila melanogaster is a component of a cytoskeletal network distributed in both the cytoplasm and on the inner face of the plasma membrane...
  37. Woolworth J, Nallamothu G, Hsu T. The Drosophila metastasis suppressor gene Nm23 homolog, awd, regulates epithelial integrity during oogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4679-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, awd modulates the level and localization of adherens junction components via endocytosis. This is the first demonstration of an in vivo function of Nm23 family genes in regulating epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  38. Igaki T, Pagliarini R, Xu T. Loss of cell polarity drives tumor growth and invasion through JNK activation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1139-46 pubmed
    ..Similar oncogenic cooperation mediated through these evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways could contribute to human cancer progression. ..
  39. Lee C, Robinson K, Doe C. Lgl, Pins and aPKC regulate neuroblast self-renewal versus differentiation. Nature. 2006;439:594-8 pubmed
    ..Clonal analysis in larval brains showed that pins mutant neuroblasts rapidly fail to self-renew, whereas lethal giant larvae (lgl) mutant neuroblasts generate multiple neuroblasts...
  40. Srivastava A, Pastor Pareja J, Igaki T, Pagliarini R, Xu T. Basement membrane remodeling is essential for Drosophila disc eversion and tumor invasion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2721-6 pubmed
    ..Finally, although past efforts using MMP inhibitors have not yielded much success, our results strongly argue that BM modulation could be a critical target for cancer therapy. ..
  41. Tian A, Deng W. Lgl and its phosphorylation by aPKC regulate oocyte polarity formation in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:463-71 pubmed
    ..Here, we show important roles for the tumor suppressor Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl) and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) in regulating microtubule polarity and setting up the AP axis of the oocyte...
  42. Li Q, Xin T, Chen W, Zhu M, Li M. Lethal(2)giant larvae is required in the follicle cells for formation of the initial AP asymmetry and the oocyte polarity during Drosophila oogenesis. Cell Res. 2008;18:372-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that lethal(2)giant larvae (lgl), a Drosophila tumor suppressor gene, is required in the follicle cells for the differentiation of both stalk cells ..
  43. Ma X, Yang L, Yang Y, Li M, Li W, Xue L. dUev1a modulates TNF-JNK mediated tumor progression and cell death in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2013;380:211-21 pubmed publisher
    ..performed a genetic screen in Drosophila and found that loss of dUev1a, the ortholog of mammalian Uev1, suppressed lgl(-/-)/Ras(V12) induced JNK-mediated tumor growth and invasion...
  44. Manfruelli P, Arquier N, Hanratty W, S m riva M. The tumor suppressor gene, lethal(2)giant larvae (1(2)g1), is required for cell shape change of epithelial cells during Drosophila development. Development. 1996;122:2283-94 pubmed
    ..Subcellular localization of the l(2)gl gene product, P127, and its biochemical characterization have indicated that it participates in the formation of the cytoskeletal ..
  45. Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich J. Asymmetric segregation of the tumor suppressor brat regulates self-renewal in Drosophila neural stem cells. Cell. 2006;124:1241-53 pubmed
    ..Similar defects are seen in lethal giant larvae (lgl) mutants where Brat and Prospero are not asymmetric...
  46. Woodhouse E, Hersperger E, Shearn A. Growth, metastasis, and invasiveness of Drosophila tumors caused by mutations in specific tumor suppressor genes. Dev Genes Evol. 1998;207:542-50 pubmed
    ..Loss-of-function mutations in the lethal giant larvae, discs large, or brain tumor genes cause neoplastic overgrowth of larval brains and imaginal discs...
  47. Bergstralh D, Haack T, St Johnston D. Epithelial polarity and spindle orientation: intersecting pathways. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20130291 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we examine several factors implicated in both processes, namely Canoe, Bazooka, aPKC and Discs large, and consider the implications of this work on how the spindle is oriented during epithelial cell divisions. ..
  48. Khan S, Bajpai A, Alam M, Gupta R, Harsh S, Pandey R, et al. Epithelial neoplasia in Drosophila entails switch to primitive cell states. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2163-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In a context of alleviated tissue surveillance, for example, loss of Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) tumor suppressor in the wing primordium induced epithelial neoplasia in its Homothorax (Hth)-..
  49. Ohshiro T, Yagami T, Zhang C, Matsuzaki F. Role of cortical tumour-suppressor proteins in asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblast. Nature. 2000;408:593-6 pubmed
    ..Here we show that a tumour-suppressor protein, Lethal giant larvae (Lgl), is essential for asymmetric cortical localization of all basal determinants in mitotic neuroblasts, ..
  50. Grzeschik N, Amin N, Secombe J, Brumby A, Richardson H. Abnormalities in cell proliferation and apico-basal cell polarity are separable in Drosophila lgl mutant clones in the developing eye. Dev Biol. 2007;311:106-23 pubmed
    In homozygous mutants of Drosophila lethal-2-giant larvae (lgl), tissues lose apico-basal cell polarity and exhibit ectopic proliferation...
  51. Agrawal N, Kango M, Mishra A, Sinha P. Neoplastic transformation and aberrant cell-cell interactions in genetic mosaics of lethal(2)giant larvae (lgl), a tumor suppressor gene of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1995;172:218-29 pubmed
    Homozygosity for lethal(2)giant larvae (lgl), a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene of Drosophila, induces neoplasia of the imaginal discs...
  52. Wandler A, Guillemin K. Transgenic expression of the Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA promotes apoptosis or tumorigenesis through JNK activation in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002939 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a potential role for CagA-mediated JNK pathway activation in promoting gastric cancer progression. ..
  53. Menut L, Vaccari T, Dionne H, Hill J, Wu G, Bilder D. A mosaic genetic screen for Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor genes based on defective pupation. Genetics. 2007;177:1667-77 pubmed
    ..The isolation of additional loci that affect hyperplastic as well as neoplastic growth indicates the utility of this screening strategy for studying epithelial growth control. ..
  54. Courbard J, Djiane A, Wu J, Mlodzik M. The apical/basal-polarity determinant Scribble cooperates with the PCP core factor Stbm/Vang and functions as one of its effectors. Dev Biol. 2009;333:67-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We define a scribble allele that is largely PCP specific. Our data show that Scribble is part of the Stbm/Vang PCP complex and further suggest that it might act as an effector of Stbm/Vang during PCP establishment. ..
  55. Betschinger J, Eisenhaber F, Knoblich J. Phosphorylation-induced autoinhibition regulates the cytoskeletal protein Lethal (2) giant larvae. Curr Biol. 2005;15:276-82 pubmed
    ..aPKC localizes to the apical cell cortex and phosphorylates the cytoskeletal protein Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl). Upon phosphorylation, Lgl dissociates from the cytoskeleton and becomes inactive...
  56. Lee C, Wilkinson B, Siegrist S, Wharton R, Doe C. Brat is a Miranda cargo protein that promotes neuronal differentiation and inhibits neuroblast self-renewal. Dev Cell. 2006;10:441-9 pubmed
    ..Single neuroblast clones lacking Prospero have a similar phenotype. We conclude that Brat suppresses neuroblast stem cell self-renewal and promotes neuronal differentiation. ..
  57. Wirtz Peitz F, Nishimura T, Knoblich J. Linking cell cycle to asymmetric division: Aurora-A phosphorylates the Par complex to regulate Numb localization. Cell. 2008;135:161-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This activates aPKC, which initially phosphorylates Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl), a cytoskeletal protein that binds and inhibits aPKC during interphase...
  58. Albertson R, Doe C. Dlg, Scrib and Lgl regulate neuroblast cell size and mitotic spindle asymmetry. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:166-70 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Discs large (Dlg), Scribble (Scrib) and Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) tumour suppressor proteins regulate multiple aspects of neuroblast asymmetric cell division...
  59. Bellaiche Y, Radovic A, Woods D, Hough C, Parmentier M, O Kane C, et al. The Partner of Inscuteable/Discs-large complex is required to establish planar polarity during asymmetric cell division in Drosophila. Cell. 2001;106:355-66 pubmed
    ..Finally, Baz and the Dlg/Pins complex are required for the asymmetric localization of Numb. Thus, the Dlg/Pins complex responds to Fz signaling to establish planar asymmetry in the pI cell. ..
  60. Strand D, Raska I, Mechler B. The Drosophila lethal(2)giant larvae tumor suppressor protein is a component of the cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:1345-60 pubmed
    ..Much of the uncertainty regarding the function of the l(2)gl gene product, p127, results from a lack of knowledge as to the precise location of this protein in the cell...
  61. Pagliarini R, Xu T. A genetic screen in Drosophila for metastatic behavior. Science. 2003;302:1227-31 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the oncogenic background of tissues makes a distinct contribution toward metastatic development. ..
  62. Grifoni D, Garoia F, Schimanski C, Schmitz G, Laurenti E, Galle P, et al. The human protein Hugl-1 substitutes for Drosophila lethal giant larvae tumour suppressor function in vivo. Oncogene. 2004;23:8688-94 pubmed
    Drosophila lethal giant larvae: (lgl), discs large (dlg) and scribble (scrib) are tumour suppressor genes acting in a common pathway, whose loss of function leads to disruption of cell polarity and tissue architecture, uncontrolled ..