Gene Symbol: kto
Description: kohtalo
Alias: Brm @ Kto, CG8491, Dmel\CG8491, Kto, Kto/Med12, MED12, Med12, SRB8, Srb8/KTO/TRAP230, Trap230, dTRAP230, dTrap230, l(3)76BDc, med12, med12/kto, psg14, siren1, kohtalo, CG8491-PA, CG8491-PB, khotalo, kto-PA, kto-PB, mediator complex subunit 12
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Kennison J, Tamkun J. Dosage-dependent modifiers of polycomb and antennapedia mutations in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:8136-40 pubmed
    ..e., Sex combs reduced (Scr), Brista (Ba), trithorax (trx), Polycomb (Pc), Polycomblike (Pcl), and Sex comb on midleg (Scm)]. Mutations in several of the additional loci identified here have also been shown to have homoeotic phenotypes. ..
  2. Loncle N, Boube M, Joulia L, Boschiero C, Werner M, Cribbs D, et al. Distinct roles for Mediator Cdk8 module subunits in Drosophila development. EMBO J. 2007;26:1045-54 pubmed
    ..three core modules and a separable 'Cdk8 module' consisting of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk8, its partner CycC, Med12 and Med13...
  3. Lim J, Lee O, Hsu Y, Singh A, Choi K. Drosophila TRAP230/240 are essential coactivators for Atonal in retinal neurogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007;308:322-30 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, Kohtalo (Kto) and Skuld (Skd), homologs of TRAP subunits, TRAP230 and TRAP240, respectively, are necessary for eye development...
  4. Nuzhdin S, Reiwitch S. Are the same genes responsible for intra- and interspecific variability for sex comb tooth number in Drosophila?. Heredity (Edinb). 2000;84 ( Pt 1):97-102 pubmed
    ..One intraspecific QTL mapped to the same interval as the QTL for interspecific differences between D. simulans and D. mauritiana. Whether or not these effects result from the same genes requires further examination. ..
  5. Kapoun A, Kaufman T. Regulatory regions of the homeotic gene proboscipedia are sensitive to chromosomal pairing. Genetics. 1995;140:643-58 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the intronic PS regions contain positive regulatory sequences for pb, whereas the upstream PS sites contain pb negative regulatory elements. ..
  6. Marr S, Lis J, Treisman J, Marr M. The metazoan-specific mediator subunit 26 (Med26) is essential for viability and is found at both active genes and pericentric heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:2710-20 pubmed
    ..This work is the first characterization of the metazoan-specific Mediator subunit in an animal model. ..
  7. Janody F, Treisman J. Requirements for mediator complex subunits distinguish three classes of notch target genes at the Drosophila wing margin. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2051-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One class requires all four kinase module subunits for activation, while the others require only Med12 and Med13, either for activation or for repression...
  8. Smulders Srinivasan T, Szakmary A, Lin H. A Drosophila chromatin factor interacts with the Piwi-interacting RNA mechanism in niche cells to regulate germline stem cell self-renewal. Genetics. 2010;186:573-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel epigenetic mechanism involving Corto and Piwi that defines the fate and signaling function of niche cells in maintaining GSCs. ..
  9. Lopez A, Higuet D, Rosset R, Deutsch J, Peronnet F. corto genetically interacts with Pc-G and trx-G genes and maintains the anterior boundary of Ultrabithorax expression in Drosophila larvae. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:572-83 pubmed
    ..corto also genetically interacts with a number of trx-G genes (ash1, kismet, kohtalo, moira, osa, Trithorax-like and Vha55)...

More Information


  1. Ihry R, Bashirullah A. Genetic control of specificity to steroid-triggered responses in Drosophila. Genetics. 2014;196:767-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of these newly identified regulators of ecdysone signaling, including brwd3, med12, med24, pak, and psg2, represent novel components of the ecdysone-triggered transcriptional hierarchy...
  2. Treisman J. Drosophila homologues of the transcriptional coactivation complex subunits TRAP240 and TRAP230 are required for identical processes in eye-antennal disc development. Development. 2001;128:603-15 pubmed
    ..identified mutations in two genes, blind spot and kohtalo, that encode Drosophila homologues of human TRAP240 and TRAP230, components of a large transcriptional coactivation complex homologous to the yeast Mediator complex...
  3. Tang M, Yuan W, Fan X, Liu M, Bodmer R, Ocorr K, et al. Pygopus maintains heart function in aging Drosophila independently of canonical Wnt signaling. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2013;6:472-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that Pygo plays a critical role in adult heart function that is Wnt signaling independent and is likely conserved in mammals. ..
  4. Bhatia S, Pawar H, Dasari V, Mishra R, Chandrashekaran S, Brahmachari V. Chromatin remodeling protein INO80 has a role in regulation of homeotic gene expression in Drosophila. Genes Cells. 2010;15:725-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Concurrently, the localization of dINO80 to sequences upstream of misexpressed genes in vivo shows that dINO80 is involved in homeotic gene regulation and probably through its interactions with PcG-trxG complexes. ..
  5. Petruk S, Smith S, Sedkov Y, Mazo A. Association of trxG and PcG proteins with the bxd maintenance element depends on transcriptional activity. Development. 2008;135:2383-90 pubmed publisher
    ..There is, however, no overall synergism or antagonism between and within the trxG and PcG proteins and, instead, only subsets of trxG proteins act synergistically. ..
  6. Zhu X, Sen J, Stevens L, Goltz J, Stein D. Drosophila pipe protein activity in the ovary and the embryonic salivary gland does not require heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Development. 2005;132:3813-22 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data provide evidence that Pipe acts as a sulfotransferase, but argue against the hypothesis that the target of Pipe is a heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan. ..
  7. Lee J, Bassel Duby R, Olson E. Heart- and muscle-derived signaling system dependent on MED13 and Wingless controls obesity in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:9491-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that heart/muscle-specific knockdown of MED13 or MED12, another Mediator subunit, increases susceptibility to obesity in adult flies...
  8. Mao F, Yang X, Fu L, Lv X, Zhang Z, Wu W, et al. The Kto-Skd complex can regulate ptc expression by interacting with Cubitus interruptus (Ci) in the Hedgehog signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:22333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we uncover the regulation of ptc in the Hh signaling pathway by two subunits of mediator complex, Kto and Skd, which can also regulate boundary location...
  9. Gutierrez L, Zurita M, Kennison J, Vázquez M. The Drosophila trithorax group gene tonalli (tna) interacts genetically with the Brahma remodeling complex and encodes an SP-RING finger protein. Development. 2003;130:343-54 pubmed
    ..We propose that Tna is involved in postranslational modification of transcription complexes. ..
  10. Hagstrom K, Muller M, Schedl P. A Polycomb and GAGA dependent silencer adjoins the Fab-7 boundary in the Drosophila bithorax complex. Genetics. 1997;146:1365-80 pubmed
    ..The iab-7 PRE silencer is contained within a 0.8-kb fragment that spans a nuclease hypersensitive site, and silencing appears to depend on the chromatin remodeling protein, the GAGA factor. ..
  11. Gross C, McGinnis W. DEAF-1, a novel protein that binds an essential region in a Deformed response element. EMBO J. 1996;15:1961-70 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this hypothesis, we have discovered DEAF-1 binding sites in other Deformed response elements. ..
  12. Felsenfeld A, Kennison J. Positional signaling by hedgehog in Drosophila imaginal disc development. Development. 1995;121:1-10 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that hedgehog protein acts in the wing as a signal to instruct neighboring cells to adopt fates appropriate to the region of the wing just anterior to the compartmental boundary. ..
  13. Carrera I, Janody F, Leeds N, Duveau F, Treisman J. Pygopus activates Wingless target gene transcription through the mediator complex subunits Med12 and Med13. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6644-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that the Med12 and Med13 subunits of the Drosophila mediator complex, encoded by kohtalo and skuld, are essential for the transcription of Wingless target genes...
  14. Vazquez M, Moore L, Kennison J. The trithorax group gene osa encodes an ARID-domain protein that genetically interacts with the brahma chromatin-remodeling factor to regulate transcription. Development. 1999;126:733-42 pubmed
    ..The OSA protein contains an ARID domain, a DNA-binding domain also present in the yeast SWI1 and Drosophila DRI proteins. We propose that the OSA protein may target the BRM complex to Antennapedia and other regulated genes. ..
  15. Moshkin Y, Armstrong J, Maeda R, Tamkun J, Verrijzer P, Kennison J, et al. Histone chaperone ASF1 cooperates with the Brahma chromatin-remodelling machinery. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2621-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that ASF1 plays a crucial role in both chromatin assembly and SWI/SNF-mediated chromatin remodelling. ..
  16. Yamaguchi M, Yoshida H, Hirose F, Inoue Y, Hayashi Y, Yamagishi M, et al. Ectopic expression of BEAF32A in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc inhibits differentiation of photoreceptor cells and induces apoptosis. Chromosoma. 2001;110:313-21 pubmed
    ..for genes interacting with Polycomb revealed specific links between BEAF32A and genes such as Distalless and kohtalo, suggesting a relation to the chromatin insulator function of BEAF...
  17. Kennison J. Transcriptional activation of Drosophila homeotic genes from distant regulatory elements. Trends Genet. 1993;9:75-9 pubmed
    ..Some of the trans-acting proteins may facilitate interactions between cis-regulatory elements and the promoter by bringing together distant chromosomal elements. ..
  18. Homem C, Steinmann V, Burkard T, Jais A, Esterbauer H, Knoblich J. Ecdysone and mediator change energy metabolism to terminate proliferation in Drosophila neural stem cells. Cell. 2014;158:874-888 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that cell size control can be modified by systemic hormonal signaling and reveal a unique connection between metabolism and proliferation in stem cells. ..
  19. Oh H, Slattery M, Ma L, Crofts A, White K, Mann R, et al. Genome-wide association of Yorkie with chromatin and chromatin-remodeling complexes. Cell Rep. 2013;3:309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest a widespread role for Yorkie as a regulator of transcription and identify recruitment of the chromatin-modifying GAF protein and BRM complex as a molecular mechanism for transcriptional activation by Yorkie. ..
  20. Kassis J. Unusual properties of regulatory DNA from the Drosophila engrailed gene: three "pairing-sensitive" sites within a 1.6-kb region. Genetics. 1994;136:1025-38 pubmed
    ..I propose that engrailed PS sites normally act to promote interactions between distantly located engrailed regulatory sites and the engrailed promoter. ..
  21. Gobert V, Osman D, Bras S, Augé B, Boube M, Bourbon H, et al. A genome-wide RNA interference screen identifies a differential role of the mediator CDK8 module subunits for GATA/ RUNX-activated transcription in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2837-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Mediator is organized in three modules plus a regulatory "CDK8 module," composed of Med12, Med13, CycC, and Cdk8, which has long been thought to behave as a single functional entity...
  22. Gaytán de Ayala Alonso A, Gutierrez L, Fritsch C, Papp B, Beuchle D, Muller J. A genetic screen identifies novel polycomb group genes in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;176:2099-108 pubmed
    ..In addition, our studies reveal that the Kto/Med12 and Skd/Med13 subunits of the Med12.Med13.Cdk8...
  23. Janody F, Martirosyan Z, Benlali A, Treisman J. Two subunits of the Drosophila mediator complex act together to control cell affinity. Development. 2003;130:3691-701 pubmed
    ..skuld and kohtalo encode homologs of TRAP240 and TRAP230, the two largest subunits of the Drosophila mediator complex; mutations in either gene cause identical phenotypes...
  24. Sollars V, Lu X, Xiao L, Wang X, Garfinkel M, Ruden D. Evidence for an epigenetic mechanism by which Hsp90 acts as a capacitor for morphological evolution. Nat Genet. 2003;33:70-4 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Hsp90 acts as a capacitor for morphological evolution through epigenetic and genetic mechanisms. ..
  25. Sapiro A, Ihry R, Buhr D, Konieczko K, Ives S, Engstrom A, et al. Rapid recombination mapping for high-throughput genetic screens in Drosophila. G3 (Bethesda). 2013;3:2313-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By facilitating the rapid identification of mutated genes, our mapping strategy removes a primary obstacle to the widespread use of powerful chemical mutagenesis screens to understand fundamental biological phenomena. ..
  26. Wang G, Tang X, Chen Y, Cao J, Huang Q, Ling X, et al. Hyperplastic discs differentially regulates the transcriptional outputs of hedgehog signaling. Mech Dev. 2014;133:117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, Hyd does not affect the stability of Ci. Our data suggest that Hyd differentially restrains the transcriptional activity of Ci via selective association with respective promoters. ..
  27. Hirose F, Ohshima N, Shiraki M, Inoue Y, Taguchi O, Nishi Y, et al. Ectopic expression of DREF induces DNA synthesis, apoptosis, and unusual morphogenesis in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc: possible interaction with Polycomb and trithorax group proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:7231-42 pubmed
    ..These deletions should be useful to identify novel targets of DREF and its positive or negative regulators. ..