Gene Symbol: kst
Description: karst
Alias: CG12008, Dmel\CG12008, Kst, Spec-beta[[H]], beta-Spectrin, betaH, betaH-Spec, betaHS, betaHSpec, beta[[H]], beta[[H]]-SPEC, beta[[H]]-Sp, beta[[H]]-Spec, beta[[H]]-Spectrin, beta[[H]]spectrin, beta[[Heavy]]spectrin, beta[[heavy]]-Spec, beta[[heavy]]-Spectrin, beta[[heavy]]spectrin, betah-Spec, l(3)01318, karst, CG12008-PA, CG12008-PB, CG12008-PC, CG12008-PE, CG12008-PF, CG12008-PG, CG12008-PH, Spectrin-beta[[H]], b[Heavy]-spectrin, beta-H spectrin, beta-heavy spectrin, beta-heavy-spectrin, betaH-Spectrin, betaHeavy--spectrin, betaHeavy-Spectrin, beta[[(HEAVY)]]-spectrin, beta[[H]] spectrin, beta[[H]]-spectrin, beta[[Heavy]]-spectrin, kst-PA, kst-PB, kst-PC, kst-PE, kst-PF, kst-PG, kst-PH, spectrin, spectrin beta-heavy chain
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Doerflinger H, Benton R, Shulman J, St Johnston D. The role of PAR-1 in regulating the polarised microtubule cytoskeleton in the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Development. 2003;130:3965-75 pubmed
    ..However, all cells that lack PAR-1 accumulate spectrin and F-actin laterally, and show a strong increase in the density of microtubules...
  2. Dubreuil R, Grushko T. Neuroglian and DE-cadherin activate independent cytoskeleton assembly pathways in Drosophila S2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;265:372-5 pubmed
    The cytoskeletal proteins spectrin and ankyrin colocalize with sites of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in mammalian cells...
  3. Tanentzapf G, Smith C, McGlade J, Tepass U. Apical, lateral, and basal polarization cues contribute to the development of the follicular epithelium during Drosophila oogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:891-904 pubmed
    ..adherens junctions caused by armadillo (beta-catenin) mutations results in a disruption of the lateral spectrin and actin cytoskeleton...
  4. Williams J, MacIver B, Klipfell E, Thomas G. The C-terminal domain of Drosophila (beta) heavy-spectrin exhibits autonomous membrane association and modulates membrane area. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:771-82 pubmed
    ..The spectrin-based membrane skeleton is thought to contribute to such stabilization by increasing the half-life of many ..
  5. Knust E. Control of epithelial cell shape and polarity. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:471-5 pubmed
    ..largely dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and the membrane-associated cell cortex---a dense network comprising spectrin and other related proteins...
  6. Tepass U. Adherens junctions: new insight into assembly, modulation and function. Bioessays. 2002;24:690-5 pubmed
    ..4 Finally, the asymmetric distribution of adherens junction material regulates spindle orientation during asymmetric cell division in the sensory organ lineage. ..
  7. Uemura T, Oda H, Kraut R, Hayashi S, Kotaoka Y, Takeichi M. Zygotic Drosophila E-cadherin expression is required for processes of dynamic epithelial cell rearrangement in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1996;10:659-71 pubmed
  8. Tjota M, Lee S, Wu J, Williams J, Khanna M, Thomas G. Annexin B9 binds to ?(H)-spectrin and is required for multivesicular body function in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2914-26 pubmed publisher
    ..a relationship between the small Ca(2+)-dependent membrane-binding protein Annexin B9 (AnxB9), apical ?(Heavy)-spectrin (?(H)) and the multivesicular body (MVB) in Drosophila...
  9. Lee H, Zarnescu D, MacIver B, Thomas G. The cell adhesion molecule Roughest depends on beta(Heavy)-spectrin during eye morphogenesis in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:277-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a novel relationship between the Crumbs partner beta(Heavy)-spectrin (beta(H)), the ZA and Roughest...

More Information


  1. Dubreuil R, Maddux P, Grushko T, MacVicar G. Segregation of two spectrin isoforms: polarized membrane-binding sites direct polarized membrane skeleton assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1933-42 pubmed
    ..In contrast, alpha beta H spectrin is sorted to the apical domain of salivary gland and somatic follicle cells...
  2. Röper K, Gregory S, Brown N. The 'spectraplakins': cytoskeletal giants with characteristics of both spectrin and plakin families. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4215-25 pubmed
    ..to the products of these genes as spectraplakins to highlight the fact that they share features with both the spectrin and plakin superfamilies...
  3. Dubreuil R, Byers T, Stewart C, Kiehart D. A beta-spectrin isoform from Drosophila (beta H) is similar in size to vertebrate dystrophin. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:1849-58 pubmed
    ..Diversity among spectrin isoforms, especially their beta subunits, is associated with diversity in cell shape and membrane architecture...
  4. Dubreuil R, Grushko T. Genetic studies of spectrin: new life for a ghost protein. Bioessays. 1998;20:875-8 pubmed
    ..The phenotypes of the beta H spectrin mutations provide an exciting biological context in which to evaluate these roles and perhaps to uncover new ..
  5. Médina E, Williams J, Klipfell E, Zarnescu D, Thomas G, Le Bivic A. Crumbs interacts with moesin and beta(Heavy)-spectrin in the apical membrane skeleton of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:941-51 pubmed
    ..The apical spectrin-based membrane skeleton (SBMS) is a protein network that is essential for epithelial morphogenesis and ZA ..
  6. Dubreuil R, Wang P, Dahl S, Lee J, Goldstein L. Drosophila beta spectrin functions independently of alpha spectrin to polarize the Na,K ATPase in epithelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:647-56 pubmed
    ..b>beta Spectrin mutations were lethal during late embryonic/early larval development and they produced subtle defects in ..
  7. Conder R, Yu H, Zahedi B, Harden N. The serine/threonine kinase dPak is required for polarized assembly of F-actin bundles and apical-basal polarity in the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Dev Biol. 2007;305:470-82 pubmed
    ..dpak mutant follicle cells show increased beta(Heavy)-spectrin levels, and we speculate that dPak regulation of beta(Heavy)-spectrin, a known participant in the maintenance of ..
  8. Lee J, Brandin E, Branton D, Goldstein L. alpha-Spectrin is required for ovarian follicle monolayer integrity in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 1997;124:353-62 pubmed
    To understand the role of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton in generating epithelial polarity, we characterized the distribution of membrane skeletal components in Drosophila ovarian follicle cells and in somatic clones of mutant cells ..
  9. Thomas G, Williams J. Dynamic rearrangement of the spectrin membrane skeleton during the generation of epithelial polarity in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 17):2843-52 pubmed
    ..The spectrin-based membrane skeleton has long been thought to participate in the generation of this asymmetry...
  10. Knust E, Bossinger O. Composition and formation of intercellular junctions in epithelial cells. Science. 2002;298:1955-9 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between fly, worm, and vertebrate epithelia reveal marked similarities with respect to the molecules used, and pronounced differences in the organization of the junctions themselves. ..
  11. Thomas G, Kiehart D. Beta heavy-spectrin has a restricted tissue and subcellular distribution during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1994;120:2039-50 pubmed
    ..beta Heavy-spectrin is a unique beta-spectrin from Drosophila melanogaster that is closer in size (M(r) = 430 x 10(3)) to dystrophin ..
  12. Abdelilah Seyfried S, Cox D, Jan Y. Bazooka is a permissive factor for the invasive behavior of discs large tumor cells in Drosophila ovarian follicular epithelia. Development. 2003;130:1927-35 pubmed
  13. Tanentzapf G, Tepass U. Interactions between the crumbs, lethal giant larvae and bazooka pathways in epithelial polarization. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:46-52 pubmed
  14. Nikolaidou K, Barrett K. A Rho GTPase signaling pathway is used reiteratively in epithelial folding and potentially selects the outcome of Rho activation. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1822-6 pubmed
    ..Fog and Cta also play a role in the morphogenetic events requiring DRhoGEF2, suggesting the existence of a conserved signaling pathway in which Fog, Cta, and DRhoGEF2 locally activate Myosin for epithelial invagination and folding. ..
  15. Phillips M, Thomas G. Brush border spectrin is required for early endosome recycling in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1361-70 pubmed
    ..microvilli supported by F-actin bundles that protrude into the apical cytoplasm, where they are crosslinked by spectrin and myosin II to form the terminal web...
  16. Médina E, Lemmers C, Lane Guermonprez L, Le Bivic A. Role of the Crumbs complex in the regulation of junction formation in Drosophila and mammalian epithelial cells. Biol Cell. 2002;94:305-13 pubmed
    ..Recently, we have shown that Crumbs interacts with the cortical cytoskeleton made of DMoesin and beta heavy-Spectrin and this connection could explain in part the role of Crumbs in building the ZA...
  17. de Cuevas M, Lee J, Spradling A. alpha-spectrin is required for germline cell division and differentiation in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 1996;122:3959-68 pubmed
    ..developing germline cysts are spanned by a large cytoplasmic structure called a fusome, containing alpha-spectrin and the adducin-like product of the hu-li tai shao (hts) gene...
  18. Dubreuil R, Frankel J, Wang P, Howrylak J, Kappil M, Grushko T. Mutations of alpha spectrin and labial block cuprophilic cell differentiation and acid secretion in the middle midgut of Drosophila larvae. Dev Biol. 1998;194:1-11 pubmed
    Mutations in Drosophila alpha spectrin cause larval lethality and defects in cell shape and adhesion (J. Lee et al., 1993, J. Cell Biol. 123, 1797-1809)...
  19. Pellikka M, Tanentzapf G, Pinto M, Smith C, McGlade C, Ready D, et al. Crumbs, the Drosophila homologue of human CRB1/RP12, is essential for photoreceptor morphogenesis. Nature. 2002;416:143-9 pubmed
    ..Crumbs also regulates stalk development by stabilizing the membrane-associated spectrin cytoskeleton, a function mechanistically distinct from its role in epithelial apical-basal polarity...
  20. Zarnescu D, Thomas G. Apical spectrin is essential for epithelial morphogenesis but not apicobasal polarity in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1075-86 pubmed
    ..The spectrin-based membrane skeleton is thought to be a key player in the establishment and/or maintenance of cell shape and ..
  21. Thomas G, Zarnescu D, Juedes A, Bales M, Londergan A, Korte C, et al. Drosophila betaHeavy-spectrin is essential for development and contributes to specific cell fates in the eye. Development. 1998;125:2125-34 pubmed
    The spectrin membrane skeleton is a ubiquitous cytoskeletal structure with several cellular roles, including the maintenance of cell integrity, determination of cell shape and as a contributor to cell polarity...
  22. Gregory S, Brown N. kakapo, a gene required for adhesion between and within cell layers in Drosophila, encodes a large cytoskeletal linker protein related to plectin and dystrophin. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1271-82 pubmed
    ..Kakapo is also expressed more widely at a lower level where it is essential for epidermal cell layer stability. These results suggest that the Kakapo protein forms essential links among integrins, actin, and microtubules. ..
  23. Thomas G, Newbern E, Korte C, Bales M, Muse S, Clark A, et al. Intragenic duplication and divergence in the spectrin superfamily of proteins. Mol Biol Evol. 1997;14:1285-95 pubmed
    Many structural, signaling, and adhesion molecules contain tandemly repeated amino acid motifs. The alpha-actinin/spectrin/dystrophin superfamily of F-actin-crosslinking proteins contains an array of triple alpha-helical motifs (spectrin ..
  24. Deng H, Wang W, Yu J, Zheng Y, Qing Y, Pan D. Spectrin regulates Hippo signaling by modulating cortical actomyosin activity. elife. 2015;4:e06567 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identify spectrin, a contractile protein at the cytoskeleton-membrane interface, as an upstream regulator of the Hippo signaling ..
  25. Hemphälä J, Uv A, Cantera R, Bray S, Samakovlis C. Grainy head controls apical membrane growth and tube elongation in response to Branchless/FGF signalling. Development. 2003;130:249-58 pubmed
  26. Horne Badovinac S, Bilder D. Dynein regulates epithelial polarity and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we introduce a unique mechanism in which alternative splicing of a coding exon is used to control mRNA localization during development. ..
  27. Padash Barmchi M, Rogers S, Hacker U. DRhoGEF2 regulates actin organization and contractility in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:575-85 pubmed
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that specific aspects of Rho1 function are regulated by specific GTP exchange factors...
  28. Benton R, St Johnston D. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Cell. 2003;115:691-704 pubmed
    ..Thus, antagonism of Bazooka by PAR-1/14-3-3 may represent a general mechanism for establishing complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. ..
  29. Remolina S, Chang P, Leips J, Nuzhdin S, Hughes K. Genomic basis of aging and life-history evolution in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution. 2012;66:3390-403 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, we argue that hitchhiking mapping can be a powerful tool for uncovering the molecular bases of quantitative genetic variation. ..
  30. Xun Z, Sowell R, Kaufman T, Clemmer D. Quantitative proteomics of a presymptomatic A53T alpha-synuclein Drosophila model of Parkinson disease. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7:1191-203 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Proteome Res. 6, 3729-3738) that defects in cellular components such as actin cytoskeleton and mitochondria may contribute to the development of later symptoms. ..
  31. Iwaki D, Lengyel J. A Delta-Notch signaling border regulated by Engrailed/Invected repression specifies boundary cells in the Drosophila hindgut. Mech Dev. 2002;114:71-84 pubmed
    ..This Notch-induced cell specification is distinguished by the fact that it does not appear to utilize the ligand Serrate and the modulator Fringe. ..
  32. Szuplewski S, Kottler B, Terracol R. The Drosophila bZIP transcription factor Vrille is involved in hair and cell growth. Development. 2003;130:3651-62 pubmed
    ..The phenotypes observed are consistent with the hypothesis that vri is required for normal cell growth and proliferation via the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  33. Deng W, Schneider M, Frock R, Castillejo Lopez C, Gaman E, Baumgartner S, et al. Dystroglycan is required for polarizing the epithelial cells and the oocyte in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:173-84 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the primary function of Dystroglycan in oogenesis is to organize cellular polarity; and this study sets the stage for analyzing the Dystroglycan complex by using the power of Drosophila molecular genetics. ..
  34. Sarpal R, Pellikka M, Patel R, Hui F, Godt D, Tepass U. Mutational analysis supports a core role for Drosophila ?-catenin in adherens junction function. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:233-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the ?-Cat mutant phenotype can be rescued by the expression of a DE-cadherin::?-Catenin fusion protein, which argues against an essential cytosolic, cadherin-independent role of Drosophila ?-Catenin. ..
  35. Lopez Schier H, St Johnston D. Drosophila nicastrin is essential for the intramembranous cleavage of notch. Dev Cell. 2002;2:79-89 pubmed
    ..nicastrin and presenilin mutations also disrupt the spectrin cytoskeleton, suggesting that the gamma-secretase complex has another function in Drosophila in addition to its ..
  36. Wu J, Bakerink K, Evangelista M, Thomas G. Cytoplasmic capes are nuclear envelope intrusions that are enriched in endosomal proteins and depend upon ?H-spectrin and Annexin B9. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e93680 pubmed publisher
    ..The large spectrin isoform, ?H, partners with Annexin B9 to modulate endosomal processing of internalized proteins...
  37. Urwyler O, Cortinas Elizondo F, Suter B. Drosophila sosie functions with ?(H)-Spectrin and actin organizers in cell migration, epithelial morphogenesis and cortical stability. Biol Open. 2012;1:994-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..Because sie also contributes to normal cortical localization of ?(H)-Spectrin, it appears that cortical ?(H)-Spectrin mediates some of the functions of sosie...
  38. Machnicka B, Grochowalska R, Bogusławska D, Sikorski A, Lecomte M. Spectrin-based skeleton as an actor in cell signaling. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss new data concerning the commonly known role of the spectrin-based skeleton in control of membrane organization, stability and shape, and tethering protein mosaics to the ..
  39. Chen T, Chen G, Funkhouser L, Nam S. Membrane domain modulation by Spectrins in Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis. Genesis. 2009;47:744-50 pubmed publisher
    Spectrins are major proteins in the cytoskeletal network of most cells. In Drosophila, beta(Heavy)-Spectrin encoded by the karst gene functions together with Crb during photoreceptor morphogenesis...
  40. Hayashi T, Carthew R. Surface mechanics mediate pattern formation in the developing retina. Nature. 2004;431:647-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, simple patterned expression of N-cadherin results in a complex spatial pattern of cells owing to cellular surface mechanics. ..
  41. Bloor J, Kiehart D. Drosophila RhoA regulates the cytoskeleton and cell-cell adhesion in the developing epidermis. Development. 2002;129:3173-83 pubmed
    ..At the leading edge, cells show altered adhesive properties such that they form ectopic contacts with other DRhoA(N19)-expressing cells. ..
  42. Laprise P, Beronja S, Silva Gagliardi N, Pellikka M, Jensen A, McGlade C, et al. The FERM protein Yurt is a negative regulatory component of the Crumbs complex that controls epithelial polarity and apical membrane size. Dev Cell. 2006;11:363-74 pubmed
    ..We propose that Yurt is part of an evolutionary conserved negative-feedback mechanism that restricts Crb complex activity in promoting apical membrane formation. ..
  43. Baumann O, Lutz K. Photoreceptor morphogenesis in the Drosophila compound eye: R1-R6 rhabdomeres become twisted just before eclosion. J Comp Neurol. 2006;498:68-79 pubmed
  44. Tonning A, Hemphälä J, Tång E, Nannmark U, Samakovlis C, Uv A. A transient luminal chitinous matrix is required to model epithelial tube diameter in the Drosophila trachea. Dev Cell. 2005;9:423-30 pubmed
    ..We propose that the transient luminal protein/polysaccharide matrix is sensed by the epithelial cells and coordinates cytoskeletal organization to ensure uniform lumen diameter. ..
  45. MacDougall N, Lad Y, Wilkie G, Francis Lang H, Sullivan W, Davis I. Merlin, the Drosophila homologue of neurofibromatosis-2, is specifically required in posterior follicle cells for axis formation in the oocyte. Development. 2001;128:665-73 pubmed
    ..We propose that Merlin acts in response to the Gurken signal by apically targeting the signal that initiates axis specification in the oocyte. ..
  46. Wei J, Hortsch M, Goode S. Neuroglian stabilizes epithelial structure during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004;230:800-8 pubmed
    ..Our data also suggest that Ig superfamily members have significant functional redundancy in maintaining epithelial polarity, with individual members playing subtle, unique roles during epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  47. D Avino P, Takeda T, Capalbo L, Zhang W, Lilley K, Laue E, et al. Interaction between Anillin and RacGAP50C connects the actomyosin contractile ring with spindle microtubules at the cell division site. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1151-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to its role in activating RhoA signalling, RacGAP50C also controls the proper assembly of the actomyosin ring by interacting with Anillin at the cleavage furrow. ..
  48. Poulton J, Deng W. Dystroglycan down-regulation links EGF receptor signaling and anterior-posterior polarity formation in the Drosophila oocyte. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12775-80 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Dystroglycan links EGFR-induced repression of the anterior follicle cell fate and anterior-posterior polarity formation in the oocyte. ..
  49. Richard M, Muschalik N, Grawe F, Ozüyaman S, Knust E. A role for the extracellular domain of Crumbs in morphogenesis of Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:765-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This failure was associated with the inability of the extracellular domain to recruit beta(Heavy)-spectrin to the stalk membrane...
  50. Khanna M, Mattie F, Browder K, Radyk M, Crilly S, Bakerink K, et al. Spectrin tetramer formation is not required for viable development in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:706-15 pubmed publisher
    The dominant paradigm for spectrin function is that (αβ)2-spectrin tetramers or higher order oligomers form membrane-associated two-dimensional networks in association with F-actin to reinforce the plasma membrane...
  51. Sisson J, Field C, Ventura R, Royou A, Sullivan W. Lava lamp, a novel peripheral golgi protein, is required for Drosophila melanogaster cellularization. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:905-18 pubmed
    ..Biochemical analysis demonstrates that Lva physically interacts with the MMAPs Spectrin and CLIP190...
  52. Dubreuil R, Grushko T, Baumann O. Differential effects of a labial mutation on the development, structure, and function of stomach acid-secreting cells in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults. Cell Tissue Res. 2001;306:167-78 pubmed
    ..between copper cells and their neighbors consisted of smooth septate junctions that were enriched in alphabeta-spectrin and ankyrin...
  53. Baumann O. Posterior midgut epithelial cells differ in their organization of the membrane skeleton from other drosophila epithelia. Exp Cell Res. 2001;270:176-87 pubmed
    ..been shown that, in various Drosophila epithelia, the membrane skeleton components ankyrin and alphabeta-spectrin reside at the lateral surface, whereas alphabeta(H)-spectrin is restricted to the apical domain...
  54. Swanson L, Beitel G. Tubulogenesis: an inside job. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R51-3 pubmed
  55. Szafranski P, Goode S. Basolateral junctions are sufficient to suppress epithelial invasion during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:364-73 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that spatiotemporal patterns of basolateral junction activity directly suppress epithelial invasion by organizing the cooperative activity of distinct polarity and motility pathways. ..
  56. Lamb R, Ward R, Schweizer L, Fehon R. Drosophila coracle, a member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, has essential structural functions in the septate junctions and developmental functions in embryonic and adult epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:3505-19 pubmed
    ..1 superfamily members. These studies provide insights into a range of in vivo functions for coracle in developing embryos and adults. ..
  57. Saunders R, Avides M, Howard T, Gonzalez C, Glover D. The Drosophila gene abnormal spindle encodes a novel microtubule-associated protein that associates with the polar regions of the mitotic spindle. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:881-90 pubmed
    ..These findings are discussed in relation to the known spindle abnormalities in asp mutants. ..
  58. Fletcher G, Elbediwy A, Khanal I, Ribeiro P, Tapon N, Thompson B. The Spectrin cytoskeleton regulates the Hippo signalling pathway. EMBO J. 2015;34:940-54 pubmed publisher
    The Spectrin cytoskeleton is known to be polarised in epithelial cells, yet its role remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the Spectrin cytoskeleton controls Hippo signalling...
  59. Khanal I, Elbediwy A, Díaz de la Loza M, Fletcher G, Thompson B. Shot and Patronin polarise microtubules to direct membrane traffic and biogenesis of microvilli in epithelia. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:2651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Core apical-basal polarity determinants polarise the spectrin cytoskeleton to recruit the microtubule-binding proteins Patronin (CAMSAP1, CAMSAP2 and CAMSAP3 in humans) and ..