Gene Symbol: Krn
Description: Keren
Alias: CG32179, CG8056, CT19073, Dmel\CG32179, Ker, gritz, keren, keren/spitz2, krn, s-krn, skrn, keren, CG32179-PA, Krn-PA, spitz-2, spitz2
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Urban S, Lee J, Freeman M. A family of Rhomboid intramembrane proteases activates all Drosophila membrane-tethered EGF ligands. EMBO J. 2002;21:4277-86 pubmed
    Drosophila has three membrane-tethered epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like proteins: Spitz, Gurken and Keren. Spitz and Gurken have been genetically confirmed to activate the EGF receptor, but Keren is uncharacterized...
  2. Buchon N, Broderick N, Kuraishi T, Lemaitre B. Drosophila EGFR pathway coordinates stem cell proliferation and gut remodeling following infection. BMC Biol. 2010;8:152 pubmed publisher
    ..The EGFR pathway is activated by the EGF ligands, Spitz, Keren and Vein, the latter being induced in the surrounding visceral muscles in part under the control of the Janus ..
  3. Brown K, Freeman M. Egfr signalling defines a protective function for ommatidial orientation in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2003;130:5401-12 pubmed
  4. Kuraishi T, Binggeli O, Opota O, Buchon N, Lemaitre B. Genetic evidence for a protective role of the peritrophic matrix against intestinal bacterial infection in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15966-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our analysis of the dcy immune phenotype indicates that the PM plays an important role in Drosophila host defense against enteric pathogens, preventing the damaging action of pore-forming toxins on intestinal cells. ..
  5. Brown K, Kerr M, Freeman M. The EGFR ligands Spitz and Keren act cooperatively in the Drosophila eye. Dev Biol. 2007;307:105-13 pubmed
    ..and Vein have been long studied, but little is known about the physiological functions of the fourth ligand, Keren, although various roles have been predicted based on the differences between mutants in the known ligands and ..
  6. Xu N, Wang S, Tan D, Gao Y, Lin G, Xi R. EGFR, Wingless and JAK/STAT signaling cooperatively maintain Drosophila intestinal stem cells. Dev Biol. 2011;354:31-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Two additional EGFR ligands, Spitz and Keren, function redundantly as possible autocrine signals to promote ISC maintenance and proliferation...
  7. Ren F, Wang B, Yue T, Yun E, Ip Y, Jiang J. Hippo signaling regulates Drosophila intestine stem cell proliferation through multiple pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21064-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the Hpo pathway mediator Yorkie (Yki) is also required in precursor cells for injury-induced ISC proliferation in response to tissue-damaging reagent DSS. ..
  8. Jiang H, Edgar B. EGFR signaling regulates the proliferation of Drosophila adult midgut progenitors. Development. 2009;136:483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Two stronger EGFR ligands, Spitz and Keren, are expressed by the AMPs themselves and provide an additional, autocrine mitogenic stimulus to the AMPs during ..
  9. McDonald J, Pinheiro E, Kadlec L, Schupbach T, Montell D. Multiple EGFR ligands participate in guiding migrating border cells. Dev Biol. 2006;296:94-103 pubmed
    ..Two ligands, Keren and Spitz, guided border cells whereas the other ligands, Gurken and Vein, did not...

More Information


  1. Reich A, Shilo B. Keren, a new ligand of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor, undergoes two modes of cleavage. EMBO J. 2002;21:4287-96 pubmed any of its known activating ligands, we identified an additional ligand by database searches, and termed it Keren (Krn)...
  2. Zhang J, Ji J, Yu M, Overholtzer M, Smolen G, Wang R, et al. YAP-dependent induction of amphiregulin identifies a non-cell-autonomous component of the Hippo pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1444-50 pubmed publisher
  3. Wang C, Guo X, Xi R. EGFR and Notch signaling respectively regulate proliferative activity and multiple cell lineage differentiation of Drosophila gastric stem cells. Cell Res. 2014;24:610-27 pubmed publisher
  4. Adrain C, Freeman M. Regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase ligand processing. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014;6: pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of signaling by proteases is therefore an essential element of the cellular communication machinery. ..
  5. Tian A, Benchabane H, Wang Z, Ahmed Y. Regulation of Stem Cell Proliferation and Cell Fate Specification by Wingless/Wnt Signaling Gradients Enriched at Adult Intestinal Compartment Boundaries. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005822 pubmed publisher
  6. Kux K, Pitsouli C. Tissue communication in regenerative inflammatory signaling: lessons from the fly gut. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2014;4:49 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review tissue communication during homeostasis and regenerative inflammatory signaling in Drosophila focusing on the signals that emanate from non-intestinal epithelial tissues to ensure intestinal integrity. ..
  7. Morante J, Vallejo D, Desplan C, Dominguez M. Conserved miR-8/miR-200 defines a glial niche that controls neuroepithelial expansion and neuroblast transition. Dev Cell. 2013;27:174-187 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results establish glial-derived cues as key regulatory elements in the control of neuroepithelial cell proliferation and the neuroblast transition...
  8. Rahn T, Leippe M, Roeder T, Fedders H. EGFR signaling in the brain is necessary for olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae. Learn Mem. 2013;20:194-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, promoter-reporter lines of EGFR and its most prominent activating ligands, Spitz, Keren, and Vein, were used to identify the brain structures relevant for the EGFR pathway...
  9. Baonza A, Casci T, Freeman M. A primary role for the epidermal growth factor receptor in ommatidial spacing in the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 2001;11:396-404 pubmed
    ..This model describes how successive rows of ommatidia form out of phase with each other, leading to the hexagonal array of facets in the compound eye. ..
  10. Guo Y, Li Z, Lin X. Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B regulate intestinal homeostasis in Drosophila adult midgut. Cell Signal. 2014;26:2317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that Drosophila Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B are involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation and midgut homeostasis maintenance. ..
  11. Wang Q, Uhlirova M, Bohmann D. Spatial restriction of FGF signaling by a matrix metalloprotease controls branching morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2010;18:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The signaling function for MMPs described here may not be limited to branching morphogenesis processes. ..
  12. Urban S, Schlieper D, Freeman M. Conservation of intramembrane proteolytic activity and substrate specificity in prokaryotic and eukaryotic rhomboids. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1507-12 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a function for Rhomboids in activating intercellular signaling appears to have evolved early. ..
  13. Li Q, Li S, Mana Capelli S, Roth Flach R, Danai L, Amcheslavsky A, et al. The conserved misshapen-warts-Yorkie pathway acts in enteroblasts to regulate intestinal stem cells in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2014;31:291-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also provide a model in which to study requirements for MAP4K4-related kinases in MST1/2-independent regulation of LATS and YAP. ..
  14. Liu M, Lim T, Cai Y. The Drosophila female germline stem cell lineage acts to spatially restrict DPP function within the niche. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data reveal that the reciprocal crosstalk between the GSCs and the somatic cells defines the spatial limits of DPP action and therefore the extent of the GSC niche. ..
  15. Yu L, Lee T, Lin N, Wolf M. Affecting Rhomboid-3 function causes a dilated heart in adult Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000969 pubmed publisher
  16. Schlesinger A, Kiger A, Perrimon N, Shilo B. Small wing PLCgamma is required for ER retention of cleaved Spitz during eye development in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2004;7:535-45 pubmed
    ..Retention of cSpi in the ER provides a novel mechanism for restricting active ligand levels and hence the range of EGFR activation in the developing eye. ..
  17. Bogdan S, Klämbt C. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R292-5 pubmed
  18. Austin C, Manivannan S, Simcox A. TGF-α ligands can substitute for the neuregulin Vein in Drosophila development. Development. 2014;141:4110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings align with a model whereby cells respond similarly to an equivalent quantitative level of an intracellular signal generated by two distinct ligands regardless of ligand identity. ..