Gene Symbol: Kr
Description: Kruppel
Alias: CG3340, Dm-Kr, Dmel\CG3340, kruppel, CG3340-PA, CG3340-PB, Kr-PA, Kr-PB, irregular facets, krpple, krueppel, kuppel, lruppel
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Kr

Top Publications

  1. Greenwood S, Struhl G. Different levels of Ras activity can specify distinct transcriptional and morphological consequences in early Drosophila embryos. Development. 1997;124:4879-86 pubmed
  2. Makeev V, Lifanov A, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs and hierarchical levels in organization of transcription regulatory information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6016-26 pubmed
    We explored distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs for five transcription factors (Bicoid, Krüppel, Hunchback, Knirps and Caudal) in a large set of Drosophila cis-regulatory modules (CRMs)...
  3. Hare E, Peterson B, Iyer V, Meier R, Eisen M. Sepsid even-skipped enhancers are functionally conserved in Drosophila despite lack of sequence conservation. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000106 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these observations suggest that the local arrangement of binding sites relative to each other is more important than their overall arrangement into larger units of cis-regulatory function...
  4. Epps J, Tanda S. The Drosophila semushi mutation blocks nuclear import of bicoid during embryogenesis. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1277-80 pubmed
    ..Consequently, semi embryos have multiple defects in anterior segmentation. This study demonstrates that an E2 enzyme is required for nuclear transport during Drosophila embryogenesis. ..
  5. Ashyraliyev M, Siggens K, Janssens H, Blom J, Akam M, Jaeger J. Gene circuit analysis of the terminal gap gene huckebein. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000548 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an important step towards a better, quantitative understanding of the developmental and evolutionary dynamics of the gap gene network. ..
  6. MacArthur S, Li X, Li J, Brown J, Chu H, Zeng L, et al. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R80 pubmed publisher
  7. Andrioli L, Oberstein A, Corado M, Yu D, Small S. Groucho-dependent repression by sloppy-paired 1 differentially positions anterior pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2004;276:541-51 pubmed
    ..The Slp1 protein contains a protein motif (EH1) which mediates binding to the transcriptional corepressor Groucho (Gro). We show that this domain is required for Slp1-mediated repression in vivo. ..
  8. Kozlov K, Myasnikova E, Samsonova A, Surkova S, Reinitz J, Samsonova M. GCPReg package for registration of the segmentation gene expression data in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:151-6 pubmed
    ..GCPReg has been designed to operate ona UNIX platform and is freely available via the Internet at ..
  9. Langeland J, Carroll S. Conservation of regulatory elements controlling hairy pair-rule stripe formation. Development. 1993;117:585-96 pubmed
    ..comparative approach, coupled with the analysis of reporter gene expression in gap mutant embryos suggests that the Kr and gt proteins establish the anterior and posterior borders of h stripe 5, respectively, through spatial repression...

More Information


  1. Chen H, Xu Z, Mei C, Yu D, Small S. A system of repressor gradients spatially organizes the boundaries of Bicoid-dependent target genes. Cell. 2012;149:618-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence is presented that Run functions with the maternal repressor Capicua and the gap protein Kruppel as the principal components of a repression system that correctly orders boundaries throughout the anterior half ..
  2. Tautz D. Segmentation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:301-12 pubmed
    ..An old concept of comparative anatomy, the enterocoele theory, is compatible with a single origin of segmentation mechanisms and could therefore provide a conceptual framework for assessing these molecular similarities. ..
  3. Kim J, He X, Sinha S. Evolution of regulatory sequences in 12 Drosophila species. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000330 pubmed publisher
  4. Kaplan T, Li X, Sabo P, Thomas S, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Biggin M, et al. Quantitative models of the mechanisms that control genome-wide patterns of transcription factor binding during early Drosophila development. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001290 pubmed publisher
  5. Russell S, Sanchez Soriano N, Wright C, Ashburner M. The Dichaete gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a SOX-domain protein required for embryonic segmentation. Development. 1996;122:3669-76 pubmed
  6. Li X, MacArthur S, Bourgon R, Nix D, Pollard D, Iyer V, et al. Transcription factors bind thousands of active and inactive regions in the Drosophila blastoderm. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e27 pubmed publisher
  7. Beckett K, Baylies M. 3D analysis of founder cell and fusion competent myoblast arrangements outlines a new model of myoblast fusion. Dev Biol. 2007;309:113-25 pubmed
    ..5 h. Altogether, our data have led us to propose a new model of myoblast fusion where the frequency of myoblast fusion events may be influenced by the spatial arrangements of FCs and FCMs. ..
  8. Busturia A, Bienz M. Silencers in abdominal-B, a homeotic Drosophila gene. EMBO J. 1993;12:1415-25 pubmed
    ..of the IAB5 pattern in gap mutants provide evidence that the protein products of the gap genes hunchback, Krüppel and knirps act as repressors through IAB5...
  9. Reinitz J, Kosman D, Vanario Alonso C, Sharp D. Stripe forming architecture of the gap gene system. Dev Genet. 1998;23:11-27 pubmed
    ..It is argued that the constraints on gap gene architecture identified here are a consequence of selective pressures that minimize the number of gap genes required to determine segments in long-germ band insects. ..
  10. Carmena A, Murugasu Oei B, Menon D, Jimenez F, Chia W. Inscuteable and numb mediate asymmetric muscle progenitor cell divisions during Drosophila myogenesis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:304-15 pubmed
  11. Roote C, Zusman S. Functions for PS integrins in tissue adhesion, migration, and shape changes during early embryonic development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1995;169:322-36 pubmed
    ..This suggests that alpha PS1 beta PS and alpha PS2 beta PS are not required in all embryonic processes utilizing PS integrins. ..
  12. Duan H, Skeath J, Nguyen H. Drosophila Lame duck, a novel member of the Gli superfamily, acts as a key regulator of myogenesis by controlling fusion-competent myoblast development. Development. 2001;128:4489-500 pubmed
    ..Results from an independent molecular screen for binding factors to a myoblast-specific Mef2 enhancer further demonstrate that Lmd is a direct transcriptional regulator of Mef2 in fusion-competent myoblasts. ..
  13. Jaeger J, Sharp D, Reinitz J. Known maternal gradients are not sufficient for the establishment of gap domains in Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Dev. 2007;124:108-28 pubmed
    ..We present new, quantitative data on the mRNA expression patterns for the gap genes Krüppel (Kr), knirps (kni) and giant (gt) during the early blastoderm stage of Drosophila development...
  14. Sheng G, Thouvenot E, Schmucker D, Wilson D, Desplan C. Direct regulation of rhodopsin 1 by Pax-6/eyeless in Drosophila: evidence for a conserved function in photoreceptors. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1122-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Pax-6/Ey directly regulates rhodopsin 1 gene expression by binding to the conserved P3/RCS1 element in the promoter. ..
  15. Fowlkes C, Hendriks C, Keränen S, Weber G, Rübel O, Huang M, et al. A quantitative spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Cell. 2008;133:364-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a VirtualEmbryo containing data for 95 genes at six time cohorts. We show that known gene-regulatory interactions can be automatically recovered from this data set and predict hundreds of new interactions...
  16. Cleary M, Doe C. Regulation of neuroblast competence: multiple temporal identity factors specify distinct neuronal fates within a single early competence window. Genes Dev. 2006;20:429-34 pubmed
    ..7-1 (NB7-1) has a single early window of competence to respond to four different temporal identity genes (Hunchback, Krüppel, Pdm, and Castor); that each of these factors specifies distinct motor neuron identities within this ..
  17. Surkova S, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, Samsonova A, et al. Characterization of the Drosophila segment determination morphome. Dev Biol. 2008;313:844-62 pubmed
    ..As the first quantitatively characterized morphogenetic field, this system and its behavior constitute an extraordinarily rich set of materials for the study of canalization and embryonic regulation at the molecular level...
  18. Cerny A, Bucher G, Schr der R, Klingler M. Breakdown of abdominal patterning in the Tribolium Kruppel mutant jaws. Development. 2005;132:5353-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A classical example is Drosophila Krüppel (Dm'Kr) which is expressed in the middle of the syncytial blastoderm embryo...
  19. Ochoa Espinosa A, Yucel G, Kaplan L, Pare A, Pura N, Oberstein A, et al. The role of binding site cluster strength in Bicoid-dependent patterning in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4960-5 pubmed
    ..Also, many Bcd-dependent CRMs contain clusters of sites for the gap protein Kruppel, which may limit the posterior extent of activation by the Bcd gradient...
  20. Pick L. Segmentation: painting stripes from flies to vertebrates. Dev Genet. 1998;23:1-10 pubmed
  21. Lusk R, Eisen M. Evolutionary mirages: selection on binding site composition creates the illusion of conserved grammars in Drosophila enhancers. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000829 pubmed publisher
    ..Overlapping sites, such as those frequently observed for the activator Bicoid and repressor Krüppel, had significantly longer evolutionary half-lives than isolated sites for the same factors...
  22. Bauer D, Buske F, Bailey T. Dual-functioning transcription factors in the developmental gene network of Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010;11:366 pubmed publisher
  23. Wilkie G, Davis I. Drosophila wingless and pair-rule transcripts localize apically by dynein-mediated transport of RNA particles. Cell. 2001;105:209-19 pubmed
    ..We propose that dynein-dependent movement of RNA particles is a widely deployed mechanism for mRNA localization. ..
  24. Surkova S, Golubkova E, Manu -, Panok L, Mamon L, Reinitz J, et al. Quantitative dynamics and increased variability of segmentation gene expression in the Drosophila Krüppel and knirps mutants. Dev Biol. 2013;376:99-112 pubmed publisher
    Here we characterize the response of the Drosophila segmentation system to mutations in two gap genes, Kr and kni, in the form of single or double homozygotes and single heterozygotes...
  25. Reinitz J, Mjolsness E, Sharp D. Model for cooperative control of positional information in Drosophila by bicoid and maternal hunchback. J Exp Zool. 1995;271:47-56 pubmed
    ..The model shows that positional information in the presumptive middle body is cooperatively determined by maternal products of the bicoid and hunchback genes. ..
  26. Shimell M, Peterson A, Burr J, Simon J, O Connor M. Functional analysis of repressor binding sites in the iab-2 regulatory region of the abdominal-A homeotic gene. Dev Biol. 2000;218:38-52 pubmed
    ..7)] from the iab-2 regulatory region shows that in contrast to Ubx enhancer elements, both HB and Krüppel (KR) are required to set the ABD-A anterior boundary in parasegment 7...
  27. Paroush Z, Wainwright S, Ish Horowicz D. Torso signalling regulates terminal patterning in Drosophila by antagonising Groucho-mediated repression. Development. 1997;124:3827-34 pubmed
    ..display ectopic tll and hkb transcription; the former leads, in turn, to lack of abdominal expression of the Krüppel and knirps gap genes...
  28. White K, Grether M, Abrams J, Young L, Farrell K, Steller H. Genetic control of programmed cell death in Drosophila. Science. 1994;264:677-83 pubmed
    ..The reaper gene appears to encode a small peptide that shows no homology to known proteins, and reaper messenger RNA is expressed in cells destined to undergo apoptosis. ..
  29. Tran K, Doe C. Pdm and Castor close successive temporal identity windows in the NB3-1 lineage. Development. 2008;135:3491-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila, embryonic neural progenitors (neuroblasts) sequentially express the transcription factors Hunchback, Kruppel, Pdm1/Pdm2 (Pdm) and Castor as they generate a stereotyped sequence of neuronal and glial progeny...
  30. Nibu Y, Senger K, Levine M. CtBP-independent repression in the Drosophila embryo. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3990-9 pubmed
    ..for the quenching activity of three short-range sequence-specific repressors in the early Drosophila embryo: Krüppel, Knirps, and Snail...
  31. Rothe M, Wimmer E, Pankratz M, Gonzalez Gaitan M, Jackle H. Identical transacting factor requirement for knirps and knirps-related Gene expression in the anterior but not in the posterior region of the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1994;46:169-81 pubmed
  32. Fakhouri W, Ay A, Sayal R, Dresch J, Dayringer E, Arnosti D. Deciphering a transcriptional regulatory code: modeling short-range repression in the Drosophila embryo. Mol Syst Biol. 2010;6:341 pubmed publisher
    ..unexpected features of these proteins' activity that allow accurate predictions of regulation by the Giant, Knirps, Krüppel, and Snail repressors, including modeling of an endogenous enhancer...
  33. Gutjahr T, Frei E, Noll M. Complex regulation of early paired expression: initial activation by gap genes and pattern modulation by pair-rule genes. Development. 1993;117:609-23 pubmed
    ..mutants even-skipped, runt and hairy, and in all gap mutants suggests that the products of the gap genes hunchback, Krüppel, knirps and giant activate paired expression in stripes...
  34. Small S, Blair A, Levine M. Regulation of two pair-rule stripes by a single enhancer in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1996;175:314-24 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a general model for the regulation of segmentation stripes, whereby enhancers integrate positional information provided by broadly distributed activators and spatially restricted repressors. ..
  35. Papatsenko D, Levine M. Dual regulation by the Hunchback gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2901-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Models based on dual regulation suggest that the Hb gradient can be sufficient for establishing the initial Kruppel (Kr) expression pattern in central regions of the precellular embryo...
  36. He X, Duque T, Sinha S. Evolutionary origins of transcription factor binding site clusters. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:1059-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative framework we develop here can be used more generally to understand how mechanisms of enhancer action influence their composition and evolution. ..
  37. Gray S, Szymanski P, Levine M. Short-range repression permits multiple enhancers to function autonomously within a complex promoter. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1829-38 pubmed
    ..sna is not a dedicated repressor but, instead, appears to block disparate activators. We discuss the importance of quenching as a means of permitting separate enhancers to function autonomously within a complex promoter. ..
  38. Kraft R, Jackle H. Drosophila mode of metamerization in the embryogenesis of the lepidopteran insect Manduca sexta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:6634-8 pubmed
    ..These data challenge the view that the classification of insect development according to morphological criteria can serve as a reliable indicator of the molecular mechanisms underlying segmentation. ..
  39. He X, Chen C, Hong F, Fang F, Sinha S, Ng H, et al. A biophysical model for analysis of transcription factor interaction and binding site arrangement from genome-wide binding data. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8155 pubmed publisher
    ..STAP is an effective method to analyze binding site arrangements, TF cooperativity, and TF target genes from genome-wide TF-DNA binding data. ..
  40. Yu D, Small S. Precise registration of gene expression boundaries by a repressive morphogen in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:868-76 pubmed publisher
  41. La Rosée A, Hader T, Taubert H, Rivera Pomar R, Jackle H. Mechanism and Bicoid-dependent control of hairy stripe 7 expression in the posterior region of the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1997;16:4403-11 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the gradients of Bicoid and Caudal combine their activities to activate segmentation genes along the entire axis of the embryo. ..
  42. Shelton C, Kocherlakota K, Zhuang S, Abmayr S. The immunoglobulin superfamily member Hbs functions redundantly with Sns in interactions between founder and fusion-competent myoblasts. Development. 2009;136:1159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we demonstrate that either an Hbs or Sns cytodomain is essential for muscle precursor formation, and signaling from IgSF members found exclusively in the founder cells is not sufficient to direct precursor formation. ..
  43. Wimmer E, Simpson Brose M, Cohen S, Desplan C, Jackle H. Trans- and cis-acting requirements for blastodermal expression of the head gap gene buttonhead. Mech Dev. 1995;53:235-45 pubmed
    ..Finally, the terminal system takes part in the regulation of btd head stripe expression by enhancing activation at low levels of activity and repression at high levels of activity. ..
  44. Artero R, Castanon I, Baylies M. The immunoglobulin-like protein Hibris functions as a dose-dependent regulator of myoblast fusion and is differentially controlled by Ras and Notch signaling. Development. 2001;128:4251-64 pubmed
    ..We propose that the temporal pattern of hbs expression within fusion-competent myoblasts may reflect previously undescribed functional differences within this myoblast population. ..
  45. Kanai M, Okabe M, Hiromi Y. seven-up Controls switching of transcription factors that specify temporal identities of Drosophila neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2005;8:203-13 pubmed
    ..Transcription factors Hunchback (HB), Krüppel (KR), Pdm (PDM), etc. are expressed sequentially in each NB and act as determinants of birth-order identity...
  46. Papatsenko D, Goltsev Y, Levine M. Organization of developmental enhancers in the Drosophila embryo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that grammar of gene control regions is pervasively used in the patterning of the Drosophila embryo. ..
  47. Lifanov A, Makeev V, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Homotypic regulatory clusters in Drosophila. Genome Res. 2003;13:579-88 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the potential of the clustering method in interpreting the differential response of genes to various levels of transcriptional regulators. ..
  48. Bullock S, Nicol A, Gross S, Zicha D. Guidance of bidirectional motor complexes by mRNA cargoes through control of dynein number and activity. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1447-52 pubmed
    ..Our data raise the possibility that recruitment of different numbers of motors and regulatory proteins is a general strategy by which microtubule-based cargoes control their sorting. ..
  49. de Renzis S, Elemento O, Tavazoie S, Wieschaus E. Unmasking activation of the zygotic genome using chromosomal deletions in the Drosophila embryo. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e117 pubmed
    ..We propose that this regulatory mode links morphogen gradients with temporal regulation during the maternal-to-zygotic transition. ..
  50. Ruiz Gomez M, Romani S, Hartmann C, Jackle H, Bate M. Specific muscle identities are regulated by Krüppel during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1997;124:3407-14 pubmed
    ..We find that the segmentation gene Krüppel is expressed in a subset of founders and muscles, regulates specific patterns of gene expression in these ..
  51. Gao Q, Wang Y, Finkelstein R. Orthodenticle regulation during embryonic head development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;56:3-15 pubmed
    ..Finally, we identify a novel pathway mediated by the gap gene huckebein through which three maternal systems cooperate to repress otd expression at the anterior terminus of the embryo. ..
  52. Wu X, Vakani R, Small S. Two distinct mechanisms for differential positioning of gene expression borders involving the Drosophila gap protein giant. Development. 1998;125:3765-74 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that gt functions in the repression of three target genes, the gap genes Krüppel (Kr) and hunchback (hb), and the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve)...
  53. Patel N. Developmental evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science. 1994;266:581-90 pubmed
  54. Sangster T, Lindquist S, Queitsch C. Under cover: causes, effects and implications of Hsp90-mediated genetic capacitance. Bioessays. 2004;26:348-62 pubmed
    ..A true understanding of evolutionary processes will require an integration of current evolutionary paradigms with the many new insights accruing in protein science. ..
  55. Crombach A, Wotton K, Cicin Sain D, Ashyraliyev M, Jaeger J. Efficient reverse-engineering of a developmental gene regulatory network. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002589 pubmed publisher
    ..Only the quantitative investigation of a large number of developmental gene regulatory networks will allow us to discover whether there are rules or regularities governing development and evolution of complex multi-cellular organisms. ..
  56. Shimell M, Simon J, Bender W, O Connor M. Enhancer point mutation results in a homeotic transformation in Drosophila. Science. 1994;264:968-71 pubmed
    ..abd-A in two independent Hab mutations results from the same single base change in a binding site for the gap gene Krüppel protein...
  57. Baylies M, Michelson A. Invertebrate myogenesis: looking back to the future of muscle development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001;11:431-9 pubmed
    ..Drosophila myogenesis has become a highly informative model for understanding the interplay between the signaling and transcriptional networks that underlie cell-fate specification during embryonic development. ..
  58. Chen E, Olson E. Antisocial, an intracellular adaptor protein, is required for myoblast fusion in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2001;1:705-15 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that ANTS functions as an intracellular adaptor protein that relays signals from Dumbfounded to the cytoskeleton during myoblast fusion. ..
  59. Little S, Tikhonov M, Gregor T. Precise developmental gene expression arises from globally stochastic transcriptional activity. Cell. 2013;154:789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings shed light on how the apparent paradox between stochastic transcription and developmental precision is resolved. ..
  60. Fujioka M, Emi Sarker Y, Yusibova G, Goto T, Jaynes J. Analysis of an even-skipped rescue transgene reveals both composite and discrete neuronal and early blastoderm enhancers, and multi-stripe positioning by gap gene repressor gradients. Development. 1999;126:2527-38 pubmed
    ..Expression analysis in gap gene mutants showed that stripe 5 is restricted anteriorly by Krüppel and posteriorly by giant, the same repressors that regulate stripe 2...
  61. Jaeger J, Blagov M, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, et al. Dynamical analysis of regulatory interactions in the gap gene system of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;167:1721-37 pubmed
    ..Our models predict activation of Kr by Cad and clarify several other regulatory interactions...
  62. Ruiz Gomez M, Bate M. Segregation of myogenic lineages in Drosophila requires numb. Development. 1997;124:4857-66 pubmed
    ..Numb acts to block Notch-mediated repression of genes expressed in muscle progenitor cells. Thus asymmetric cell divisions are essential determinants of muscle fates during myogenesis in Drosophila ..
  63. Marco A, Konikoff C, Karr T, Kumar S. Relationship between gene co-expression and sharing of transcription factor binding sites in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:2473-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss these results in light of reverse engineering approaches to computationally predict regulatory sequences by using comparative genomics. ..
  64. Bieler J, Pozzorini C, Naef F. Whole-embryo modeling of early segmentation in Drosophila identifies robust and fragile expression domains. Biophys J. 2011;101:287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We model the early mRNA and protein dynamics of the gap genes hunchback, Kruppel, giant, and knirps, taking as regulatory inputs the maternal Bicoid and Caudal gradients, plus the zygotic ..
  65. Grosskortenhaus R, Pearson B, Marusich A, Doe C. Regulation of temporal identity transitions in Drosophila neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2005;8:193-202 pubmed
    ..are an excellent model for studying temporal identity: they sequentially express four genes (hunchback --> Kruppel --> pdm1 --> castor) whose temporal regulation is essential for generating neuronal diversity...
  66. Janssens H, Crombach A, Wotton K, Cicin Sain D, Surkova S, Lim C, et al. Lack of tailless leads to an increase in expression variability in Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 2013;377:305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis provides evidence that loss of canalisation in mutants could be more widespread than previously thought. ..
  67. Ishihara S, Fujimoto K, Shibata T. Cross talking of network motifs in gene regulation that generates temporal pulses and spatial stripes. Genes Cells. 2005;10:1025-38 pubmed
    ..Our database study of gene regulatory networks indicates that most feed-forward loops actually cross talk. We discuss how the feed-forward loops and their cross talks can play important roles in morphogenesis. ..
  68. Buff E, Carmena A, Gisselbrecht S, Jimenez F, Michelson A. Signalling by the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor is required for the specification and diversification of embryonic muscle progenitors. Development. 1998;125:2075-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, the epidermal growth factor receptor contributes both to muscle progenitor specification and to the diversification of muscle identities. ..
  69. Liu F, Morrison A, Gregor T. Dynamic interpretation of maternal inputs by the Drosophila segmentation gene network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6724-9 pubmed publisher
  70. Yucel G, Small S. Morphogens: precise outputs from a variable gradient. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R29-31 pubmed
    ..Several recent papers examine the patterning activities of Drosophila Bicoid, the first known molecular morphogen and reach different conclusions about the patterning power of a single morphogen gradient. ..
  71. Rivera Pomar R, Jackle H. From gradients to stripes in Drosophila embryogenesis: filling in the gaps. Trends Genet. 1996;12:478-83 pubmed
    ..Recent progress has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which coherent positional information of maternal origin becomes transferred into serially repeated zygotic gene expression domains reflecting the metameric body plan of the larva. ..
  72. Ruiz Gomez M, Coutts N, Price A, Taylor M, Bate M. Drosophila dumbfounded: a myoblast attractant essential for fusion. Cell. 2000;102:189-98 pubmed
    ..duf encodes a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins that is an attractant for fusion-competent myoblasts. It is expressed by founder cells and serves to attract clusters of myoblasts from which myotubes form by fusion. ..
  73. Kosman D, Small S, Reinitz J. Rapid preparation of a panel of polyclonal antibodies to Drosophila segmentation proteins. Dev Genes Evol. 1998;208:290-4 pubmed
    ..Antigenicity of the purified recombinant proteins may be increased by precipitation in double-distilled water. The results of using the serums obtained for fluorescent staining of Drosophila embryos are shown. ..
  74. Chew S, Akdemir F, Chen P, Lu W, Mills K, Daish T, et al. The apical caspase dronc governs programmed and unprogrammed cell death in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2004;7:897-907 pubmed
    ..These findings establish dronc as an essential regulator of cell number in development and illustrate broad requirements for this apical caspase in adaptive responses during stress-induced apoptosis. ..
  75. Schroeder M, Pearce M, Fak J, Fan H, Unnerstall U, Emberly E, et al. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E271 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates that computational methods are a powerful complement to experimental approaches in the analysis of transcription networks. ..
  76. Schröter R, Lier S, Holz A, Bogdan S, Klämbt C, Beck L, et al. kette and blown fuse interact genetically during the second fusion step of myogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:4501-9 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which Dumbfounded/Sticks and stones-dependent cell adhesion is mediated over Rolling Pebbles, Myoblast city, Crk, Blown fuse and Kette, and thus induces membrane fusion. ..
  77. Zhang S, Xu L, Lee J, Xu T. Drosophila atrophin homolog functions as a transcriptional corepressor in multiple developmental processes. Cell. 2002;108:45-56 pubmed
    ..We propose that Atrophin proteins function as versatile transcriptional corepressors and discuss a model that deregulation of transcription may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. ..
  78. Gursky V, Panok L, Myasnikova E, Manu -, Samsonova M, Reinitz J, et al. Mechanisms of gap gene expression canalization in the Drosophila blastoderm. BMC Syst Biol. 2011;5:118 pubmed publisher
    ..The canalization of gap gene expression can be understood as arising from the actions of attractors in the gap gene dynamical system...
  79. Odenwald W, Rasband W, Kuzin A, Brody T. EVOPRINTER, a multigenomic comparative tool for rapid identification of functionally important DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14700-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, evoprinter allows one to assess the degree of evolutionary divergence between orthologous DNAs by highlighting differences between a selected species and the other test species...
  80. Harrison M, Li X, Kaplan T, Botchan M, Eisen M. Zelda binding in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo marks regions subsequently activated at the maternal-to-zygotic transition. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002266 pubmed publisher
    ..This strong early association of ZLD with regions not active until the MZT suggests that ZLD is not only required for the earliest wave of transcription but also plays a major role in activating the genome at the MZT. ..
  81. Weigmann K, Klapper R, Strasser T, Rickert C, Technau G, Jackle H, et al. FlyMove--a new way to look at development of Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2003;19:310-1 pubmed
    ..Here, we introduce FlyMove (, a new database combining movies, animated schemata, interactive "modules" and pictures that will greatly facilitate the understanding of Drosophila development. ..
  82. Papatsenko D, Makeev V, Lifanov A, Regnier M, Nazina A, Desplan C. Extraction of functional binding sites from unique regulatory regions: the Drosophila early developmental enhancers. Genome Res. 2002;12:470-81 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the definition of true binding sites and the possible biological principles that govern patterning of regulatory regions and the distribution of transcriptional signals. ..
  83. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical fat-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Comput Biol Med. 2012;42:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These two fatness coefficients may serve as valuable filtering indexes to predict CRMs experimentally. ..
  84. Bergmann S, Sandler O, Sberro H, Shnider S, Schejter E, Shilo B, et al. Pre-steady-state decoding of the Bicoid morphogen gradient. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e46 pubmed
    ..This can explain the surprisingly small shifts in gap and pair-rule gene expression domains observed in response to alterations in bcd dosage. ..
  85. Perry M, Boettiger A, Levine M. Multiple enhancers ensure precision of gap gene-expression patterns in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We present different models for "enhancer synergy," whereby two enhancers with overlapping activities produce authentic patterns of gene expression. ..
  86. MacArthur S, Brookfield J. Expected rates and modes of evolution of enhancer sequences. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21:1064-73 pubmed
    ..One result of this is that any incremental selective benefits that result from the relative positioning of sites have a surprisingly small impact on the final binding-site positions. ..
  87. Perry M, Bothma J, Luu R, Levine M. Precision of hunchback expression in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2012;22:2247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The stripe enhancer is subject to extensive regulation by gap repressors, including Kruppel, Knirps, and Hb itself...
  88. Fujimoto K, Ishihara S, Kaneko K. Network evolution of body plans. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2772 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the emergence of the three modes of body segmentation in arthropods is an inherent property of the evolving networks. ..
  89. Gray S, Levine M. Transcriptional repression in development. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1996;8:358-64 pubmed
    ..The former permit enhancer autonomy in modular promoters, whereas the latter function in a dominant fashion to silence multiple enhancers. ..