Gene Symbol: kn
Description: knot
Alias: CG10197, Col, Col/Kn, DmCOE, Dmel\CG10197, Knot, coe, col, collier, knot, CG10197-PA, CG10197-PB, CG10197-PC, CG10197-PD, CG10197-PE, Collier-Knot, KNOT, colier, collier, collier/knot, early B cell factor, kn-PA, kn-PB, kn-PC, kn-PD, kn-PE, knotted
Species: fruit fly
Products:     kn

Top Publications

  1. Mandal L, Martinez Agosto J, Evans C, Hartenstein V, Banerjee U. A Hedgehog- and Antennapedia-dependent niche maintains Drosophila haematopoietic precursors. Nature. 2007;446:320-4 pubmed
    ..Identification of this system allows the opportunity for genetic manipulation and direct in vivo imaging of a haematopoietic niche interacting with blood precursors. ..
  2. Bartscherer K, Pelte N, Ingelfinger D, Boutros M. Secretion of Wnt ligands requires Evi, a conserved transmembrane protein. Cell. 2006;125:523-33 pubmed
    ..Our results show that Wg is retained by evi mutant cells and suggest that evi is the founding member of a gene family specifically required for Wg/Wnt secretion. ..
  3. Crozatier M, Valle D, Dubois L, Ibnsouda S, Vincent A. Collier, a novel regulator of Drosophila head development, is expressed in a single mitotic domain. Curr Biol. 1996;6:707-18 pubmed
    ..We have identified a new Drosophila gene, collier (col), whose expression at the blastoderm stage is restricted to a single stripe of cells corresponding to part ..
  4. Seong K, Akimaru H, Dai P, Nomura T, Okada M, Ishii S. Inhibition of the nuclear import of cubitus interruptus by roadkill in the presence of strong hedgehog signal. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15365 pubmed publisher
    ..In this region, Rdx negatively regulated the expression of transcription factor Knot/Collier. In farther anterior regions receiving moderate levels of Hh signal, Rdx induced Ci degradation, as reported ..
  5. Karlsson D, Baumgardt M, Thor S. Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000368 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a surprisingly restricted, yet multifaceted, function of both anteroposterior and temporal cues with respect to lineage control and cell fate specification...
  6. Enriquez J, Boukhatmi H, Dubois L, Philippakis A, Bulyk M, Michelson A, et al. Multi-step control of muscle diversity by Hox proteins in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2010;137:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..of Drosophila muscles by controlling the expression of identity transcription factors, such as Nautilus and Collier (Col), at the progenitor stage...
  7. Kambris Z, Hoffmann J, Imler J, Capovilla M. Tissue and stage-specific expression of the Tolls in Drosophila embryos. Gene Expr Patterns. 2002;2:311-7 pubmed
  8. Gorfinkiel N, Sierra J, Callejo A, Ibañez C, Guerrero I. The Drosophila ortholog of the human Wnt inhibitor factor Shifted controls the diffusion of lipid-modified Hedgehog. Dev Cell. 2005;8:241-53 pubmed
    ..We also show that human WIF inhibits Wg signaling in Drosophila without affecting the Hh pathway, indicating that different WIF family members might have divergent functions in each pathway. ..
  9. Han C, Belenkaya T, Wang B, Lin X. Drosophila glypicans control the cell-to-cell movement of Hedgehog by a dynamin-independent process. Development. 2004;131:601-11 pubmed
    ..We propose that glypicans transfer Hh along the cell membrane to pattern a field of cells. ..

More Information


  1. Galant R, Walsh C, Carroll S. Hox repression of a target gene: extradenticle-independent, additive action through multiple monomer binding sites. Development. 2002;129:3115-26 pubmed
  2. Dubois L, Vincent A. The COE--Collier/Olf1/EBF--transcription factors: structural conservation and diversity of developmental functions. Mech Dev. 2001;108:3-12 pubmed
    ..Rodent Early B-Cell Factor/Olfactory-1 and Drosophila Collier belong to a recently defined, novel family of transcription factors, the Collier/Olf1/EBF (COE) proteins which ..
  3. Panàkovà D, Sprong H, Marois E, Thiele C, Eaton S. Lipoprotein particles are required for Hedgehog and Wingless signalling. Nature. 2005;435:58-65 pubmed
    ..Similarly, the range of Wingless signalling is narrowed. We propose a novel function for lipoprotein particles, in which they act as vehicles for the movement of lipid-linked morphogens and glycophosphatidylinositol-linked proteins. ..
  4. Crozatier M, Glise B, Vincent A. Connecting Hh, Dpp and EGF signalling in patterning of the Drosophila wing; the pivotal role of collier/knot in the AP organiser. Development. 2002;129:4261-9 pubmed
    ..We have re-examined the role played by Collier (Col), a dose-dependent Hh target activated in cells along the AP boundary, the AP organiser in the imaginal wing ..
  5. Su Y, Ospina J, Zhang J, Michelson A, Schoen A, Zhu A. Sequential phosphorylation of smoothened transduces graded hedgehog signaling. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra43 pubmed publisher
  6. Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Terriente J, Diaz Benjumea F, Thor S. Neuronal subtype specification within a lineage by opposing temporal feed-forward loops. Cell. 2009;139:969-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism of temporal and "subtemporal" genes acting in opposing feed-forward loops may be used by many stem cell lineages to generate diversity. ..
  7. Krzemien J, Dubois L, Makki R, Meister M, Vincent A, Crozatier M. Control of blood cell homeostasis in Drosophila larvae by the posterior signalling centre. Nature. 2007;446:325-8 pubmed
    ..Communication between the PSC and haematopoietic progenitors strictly depends on the PSC-restricted expression of Collier, the Drosophila orthologue of mammalian early B-cell factor...
  8. Martin V, Carrillo G, Torroja C, Guerrero I. The sterol-sensing domain of Patched protein seems to control Smoothened activity through Patched vesicular trafficking. Curr Biol. 2001;11:601-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that Ptc(SSD) preferentially accumulates in endosomes of the endocytic compartment. All these results suggest a role of the SSD of Ptc in mediating the vesicular trafficking of Ptc to regulate Smo activity. ..
  9. Tokusumi Y, Tokusumi T, Stoller Conrad J, Schulz R. Serpent, suppressor of hairless and U-shaped are crucial regulators of hedgehog niche expression and prohemocyte maintenance during Drosophila larval hematopoiesis. Development. 2010;137:3561-8 pubmed publisher
  10. Jia J, Tong C, Wang B, Luo L, Jiang J. Hedgehog signalling activity of Smoothened requires phosphorylation by protein kinase A and casein kinase I. Nature. 2004;432:1045-50 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Hh induces progressive Smo phosphorylation by PKA and CKI, leading to elevation of Smo cell-surface levels and signalling activity. ..
  11. Vervoort M, Crozatier M, Valle D, Vincent A. The COE transcription factor Collier is a mediator of short-range Hedgehog-induced patterning of the Drosophila wing. Curr Biol. 1999;9:632-9 pubmed
    ..We show that short-range, dose-dependent Hh activity is mediated by activation of the transcription factor Collier (Col)...
  12. Végh M, Basler K. A genetic screen for hedgehog targets involved in the maintenance of the Drosophila anteroposterior compartment boundary. Genetics. 2003;163:1427-38 pubmed
    ..Among these, we identified a class of patched (ptc) alleles exhibiting a novel phenotype. These results demonstrate the value of our setup in the identification of genes involved in distinct wing-patterning processes. ..
  13. Mohler J, Seecoomar M, Agarwal S, Bier E, Hsai J. Activation of knot (kn) specifies the 3-4 intervein region in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2000;127:55-63 pubmed
    ..Hh signalling also plays a direct role in patterning the medial wing through the activation of the Hh-target gene, knot (kn)...
  14. Orgogozo V, Schweisguth F. Evolution of the larval peripheral nervous system in Drosophila species has involved a change in sensory cell lineage. Dev Genes Evol. 2004;214:442-52 pubmed
    ..Our analysis of sensory organ development in D. busckii suggests that this specific loss resulted from a transformation in cell lineage, from a multidendritic-neuron-external-sensory-organ lineage to a multidendritic-neuron-solo lineage...
  15. Jinushi Nakao S, Arvind R, Amikura R, Kinameri E, Liu A, Moore A. Knot/Collier and cut control different aspects of dendrite cytoskeleton and synergize to define final arbor shape. Neuron. 2007;56:963-78 pubmed
    ..We show that the combination of the transcription factors Knot and Cut is particular to Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (da) neurons...
  16. Glise B, Miller C, Crozatier M, Halbisen M, Wise S, Olson D, et al. Shifted, the Drosophila ortholog of Wnt inhibitory factor-1, controls the distribution and movement of Hedgehog. Dev Cell. 2005;8:255-66 pubmed
    ..Our data further indicate that Shf interacts with Hh and the heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Therefore, we propose that Shf stabilizes the interaction between Hh and the proteoglycans, an unexpected role for a member of the WIF-1 family. ..
  17. Hattori Y, Sugimura K, Uemura T. Selective expression of Knot/Collier, a transcriptional regulator of the EBF/Olf-1 family, endows the Drosophila sensory system with neuronal class-specific elaborated dendritic patterns. Genes Cells. 2007;12:1011-22 pubmed
    ..A transcriptional regulator of the early B-cell factor (EBF)/olfactory 1 (Olf-1) family, Knot (Kn)/Collier (Col) is expressed selectively in class IV neurons, which generate the most expansive and complicated dendritic ..
  18. Casali A, Struhl G. Reading the Hedgehog morphogen gradient by measuring the ratio of bound to unbound Patched protein. Nature. 2004;431:76-80 pubmed
    ..These results support a model in which the ratio of bound to unbound Ptc molecules determines the cellular response to Hh. ..
  19. Crozatier M, Vincent A. Control of multidendritic neuron differentiation in Drosophila: the role of Collier. Dev Biol. 2008;315:232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Collier/Knot (Col/Kn), the Drosophila member of the COE family of transcription factors, is transiently expressed in the ..
  20. Baumgardt M, Miguel Aliaga I, Karlsson D, Ekman H, Thor S. Specification of neuronal identities by feedforward combinatorial coding. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e37 pubmed
    ..We show the HLH gene collier functions at three different levels to progressively restrict neuronal identity in the 5-6 lineage...
  21. Orgogozo V, Schweisguth F, Bellaiche Y. Slit-Robo signalling prevents sensory cells from crossing the midline in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2004;121:427-36 pubmed
    ..Our study indicates that midline-secreted Slit prevents vmd1a sensory cells from crossing the midline and thereby maintains PNS bilateral symmetry during development. ..
  22. Pavlopoulos A, Akam M. Hox gene Ultrabithorax regulates distinct sets of target genes at successive stages of Drosophila haltere morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2855-60 pubmed publisher
  23. Eugster C, Panàkovà D, Mahmoud A, Eaton S. Lipoprotein-heparan sulfate interactions in the Hh pathway. Dev Cell. 2007;13:57-71 pubmed
    ..They further suggest that the complement of proteins present on lipoprotein particles can regulate the activity of morphogens. ..
  24. Hersh B, Carroll S. Direct regulation of knot gene expression by Ultrabithorax and the evolution of cis-regulatory elements in Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:1567-77 pubmed
    ..and evolution of a Hox target gene, we have identified a wing-specific cis-regulatory element controlling the knot gene, which is expressed in the developing Drosophila wing but not the haltere...
  25. Nestoras K, Lee H, Mohler J. Role of knot (kn) in wing patterning in Drosophila. Genetics. 1997;147:1203-12 pubmed
    We have undertaken a genetic analysis of new strong alleles of knot (kn)...
  26. Crozatier M, Vincent A. Requirement for the Drosophila COE transcription factor Collier in formation of an embryonic muscle: transcriptional response to notch signalling. Development. 1999;126:1495-504 pubmed
    ..We report here the role of the COE transcription factor Collier in the formation of a single muscle, muscle DA3([A])(DA4([T]))...
  27. Márkus R, Laurinyecz B, Kurucz E, Honti V, Bajusz I, Sipos B, et al. Sessile hemocytes as a hematopoietic compartment in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4805-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We set out to analyze this phenomenon systematically. As a result, we define the sessile hemocytes as a novel hematopoietic compartment, and the main source of lamellocytes. ..
  28. Crozatier M, Ubeda J, Vincent A, Meister M. Cellular immune response to parasitization in Drosophila requires the EBF orthologue collier. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E196 pubmed
    ..Here, we have investigated the mechanisms underlying the specification of lamellocytes. We first show that collier (col), the Drosophila orthologue of the vertebrate gene encoding early B-cell factor (EBF), is expressed very ..
  29. Ye B, Kim J, Yang L, McLachlan I, Younger S, Jan L, et al. Differential regulation of dendritic and axonal development by the novel Krüppel-like factor Dar1. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3309-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus uncovers a novel transcriptional program for microtubule regulation that preferentially controls dendrite growth. ..
  30. Daburon V, Mella S, Plouhinec J, Mazan S, Crozatier M, Vincent A. The metazoan history of the COE transcription factors. Selection of a variant HLH motif by mandatory inclusion of a duplicated exon in vertebrates. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:131 pubmed publisher
    ..The low complexity COE (Collier/Olfactory-1/Early B-Cell Factor) family of transcription factors constitutes a well-suited paradigm for studying ..
  31. Makki R, Meister M, Pennetier D, Ubeda J, Braun A, Daburon V, et al. A short receptor downregulates JAK/STAT signalling to control the Drosophila cellular immune response. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000441 pubmed publisher
  32. Crozatier M, Valle D, Dubois L, Ibnsouda S, Vincent A. Head versus trunk patterning in the Drosophila embryo; collier requirement for formation of the intercalary segment. Development. 1999;126:4385-94 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we report the phenotypic analysis of mutations in collier (col), which encodes the Drosophila member of the COE family of HLH transcription factors and is activated at the ..
  33. Dubois L, Enriquez J, Daburon V, Crozet F, Lebreton G, Crozatier M, et al. Collier transcription in a single Drosophila muscle lineage: the combinatorial control of muscle identity. Development. 2007;134:4347-55 pubmed
    ..We addressed this question, using Collier (Col; also known as Knot) expression as both a determinant and read-out of DA3 muscle identity...
  34. Apionishev S, Katanayeva N, Marks S, Kalderon D, Tomlinson A. Drosophila Smoothened phosphorylation sites essential for Hedgehog signal transduction. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:86-92 pubmed
  35. Dubois L, Bally Cuif L, Crozatier M, Moreau J, Paquereau L, Vincent A. XCoe2, a transcription factor of the Col/Olf-1/EBF family involved in the specification of primary neurons in Xenopus. Curr Biol. 1998;8:199-209 pubmed
    ..Drosophila Collier and rodent early B-cell factor/olfactory-1 define a family of HLH transcription factors containing a previously ..
  36. Shimono K, Fujimoto A, Tsuyama T, Yamamoto Kochi M, Sato M, Hattori Y, et al. Multidendritic sensory neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen: origins, dendritic morphology, and segment- and age-dependent programmed cell death. Neural Dev. 2009;4:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides the basis on which we can investigate the genetic programs controlling dendritic remodeling and programmed cell death of adult neurons, and the life-long maintenance of dendritic arbors. ..
  37. Daoud F, Blanchet Tournier M. Expression of the human FUSED protein in Drosophila. Dev Genes Evol. 2005;215:230-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that hFU in Drosophila interferes with endogenous Hh signalling probably by competing with endogenous dFu when binding its partners but cannot perform the normal Fu function. ..
  38. Peel A. The evolution of arthropod segmentation mechanisms. Bioessays. 2004;26:1108-16 pubmed
  39. Benmimoun B, Polesello C, Haenlin M, Waltzer L. The EBF transcription factor Collier directly promotes Drosophila blood cell progenitor maintenance independently of the niche. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:9052-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of cells called the Posterior Signaling Centre (PSC), whose specification depends on the EBF transcription factor Collier (Col) and the HOX factor Antennapedia (Antp), has been proposed to form a niche required to maintain the pool of ..
  40. Wessells R, Grumbling G, Donaldson T, Wang S, Simcox A. Tissue-specific regulation of vein/EGF receptor signaling in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1999;216:243-59 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that other factors modulate the potential of Vn so that induction of Vn/DER target genes in the wing pouch is cell specific. ..
  41. Karim M, Moore A. Convergent local identity and topographic projection of sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17017-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that convergent sensory neuron specification, local differentiation, and topographic wiring are mediated by Mirror, and they suggest an integrated paradigm for position-sensitive neural development. ..
  42. Claret S, Sanial M, Plessis A. Evidence for a novel feedback loop in the Hedgehog pathway involving Smoothened and Fused. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1326-33 pubmed
  43. Nahmad M, Stathopoulos A. Dynamic interpretation of hedgehog signaling in the Drosophila wing disc. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000202 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a model in which Hh gradient dynamics, resulting from Ptc up-regulation, play an instructional role in the establishment of patterns of gene expression. ..
  44. Ruel L, Gallet A, Raisin S, Truchi A, Staccini Lavenant L, Cervantes A, et al. Phosphorylation of the atypical kinesin Costal2 by the kinase Fused induces the partial disassembly of the Smoothened-Fused-Costal2-Cubitus interruptus complex in Hedgehog signalling. Development. 2007;134:3677-89 pubmed
    ..This study provides new insight into the mechanistic regulation of the protein complex that mediates Hh signalling and a unique antibody tool for directly monitoring Hh receptor activity in all activated cells. ..
  45. Vervoort M. hedgehog and wing development in Drosophila: a morphogen at work?. Bioessays. 2000;22:460-8 pubmed
    ..the wing through the activation of the evolutionarily conserved transcription factors encoded by the iroquois and collier genes...
  46. Seecoomar M, Agarwal S, Vani K, Yang G, Mohler J. knot is required for the hypopharyngeal lobe and its derivatives in the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 2000;91:209-15 pubmed
    ..Rearrangement mutations of knot disrupt the previously characterized gene, collier, which encodes a COE-family transcription factor...
  47. Palm W, Swierczynska M, Kumari V, Ehrhart Bornstein M, Bornstein S, Eaton S. Secretion and signaling activities of lipoprotein-associated hedgehog and non-sterol-modified hedgehog in flies and mammals. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001505 pubmed publisher
    ..The existence of Hh secretion forms with distinct signaling activities suggests a novel mechanism for generating a diversity of Hh responses...
  48. Benmimoun B, Polesello C, Waltzer L, Haenlin M. Dual role for Insulin/TOR signaling in the control of hematopoietic progenitor maintenance in Drosophila. Development. 2012;139:1713-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, our study highlights the role of the IIS/TOR pathways in orchestrating hematopoietic progenitor fate and links blood cell fate to nutritional status. ..
  49. Ulvklo C, Macdonald R, Bivik C, Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Thor S. Control of neuronal cell fate and number by integration of distinct daughter cell proliferation modes with temporal progression. Development. 2012;139:678-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that different daughter cell proliferation modes can be integrated with temporal competence changes, and suggests a novel mechanism for coordinately controlling neuronal subtype numbers. ..
  50. Liu C, Zhou Z, Yao X, Chen P, Sun M, Su M, et al. Hedgehog signaling downregulates suppressor of fused through the HIB/SPOP-Crn axis in Drosophila. Cell Res. 2014;24:595-609 pubmed publisher
    ..The dual function of HIB may provide a buffering mechanism to fine-tune Hh pathway activity. ..
  51. Cheng S, Maier D, Neubueser D, Hipfner D. Regulation of smoothened by Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor kinases. Dev Biol. 2010;337:99-109 pubmed publisher
    ..G-protein-coupled receptor kinase activity is also important for efficient downstream signaling. ..
  52. Oyallon J, Vanzo N, Krzemień J, Morin Poulard I, Vincent A, Crozatier M. Two Independent Functions of Collier/Early B Cell Factor in the Control of Drosophila Blood Cell Homeostasis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148978 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial analysis of Collier/Early B Cell Factor function in the lymph gland revealed the role of the Posterior Signaling Center (PSC) in mounting a ..
  53. Bausek N, Zeidler M. G?73B is a downstream effector of JAK/STAT signalling and a regulator of Rho1 in Drosophila haematopoiesis. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:101-10 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, we suggest a mechanism by which JAK/STAT pathway signalling may promote metastasis. ..
  54. Gao L, Wu L, Hou X, Zhang Q, Zhang F, Ye X, et al. Drosophila miR-932 modulates hedgehog signaling by targeting its co-receptor Brother of ihog. Dev Biol. 2013;377:166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that miR-932 can modulate Hh activity by specifically targeting Boi in Drosophila, illustrating the important roles of miRNAs in fine regulation of the Hh signaling pathway. ..
  55. Briscoe J. Hedgehog signaling: measuring ligand concentrations with receptor ratios. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R889-91 pubmed
    ..How the binding of Hedgehog to its receptor, Patched, initiates signaling is poorly understood. A recent study suggests a mechanism by which the ratio of unliganded to liganded Patched determines the cellular response. ..
  56. Dawber R, Hebbes S, Herpers B, Docquier F, van den Heuvel M. Differential range and activity of various forms of the Hedgehog protein. BMC Dev Biol. 2005;5:21 pubmed
  57. Colomb S, Joly W, Bonneaud N, Maschat F. A concerted action of Engrailed and Gooseberry-Neuro in neuroblast 6-4 is triggering the formation of embryonic posterior commissure bundles. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2197 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate a more specific function of GsbN in differentiated neurons, leading to fasciculations between axons, which might be required to obtain PC mature axon bundles. ..
  58. Tallafuss A, Bally Cuif L. Formation of the head-trunk boundary in the animal body plan: an evolutionary perspective. Gene. 2002;287:23-32 pubmed
  59. Diaz Benjumea F, Garcia Bellido A. Behaviour of cells mutant for an EGF receptor homologue of Drosophila in genetic mosaics. Proc Biol Sci. 1990;242:36-44 pubmed
    ..We discuss how those complex cell-behaviour phenotypes and genetic interactions are related to the molecular nature of the DER. ..
  60. Kupinski A, Raabe I, Michel M, Ail D, Brusch L, Weidemann T, et al. Phosphorylation of the Smo tail is controlled by membrane localisation and is dispensable for clustering. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:4684-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations therefore support a model of Hh signal transduction whereby Smo subcellular localisation and not phosphorylation is the primary target of Ptc function. ..
  61. de Celis J, Diaz Benjumea F. Developmental basis for vein pattern variations in insect wings. Int J Dev Biol. 2003;47:653-63 pubmed
    ..Assuming a general conservation of the processes involved in different species, the transitions between different patterns may require few changes in the regulatory gene networks involved. ..
  62. Mckay D, Lieb J. A common set of DNA regulatory elements shapes Drosophila appendages. Dev Cell. 2013;27:306-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that master regulators create morphologically distinct structures by differentially influencing the function of the same set of DNA regulatory modules. ..
  63. Haas M, Brown S, Beeman R. Pondering the procephalon: the segmental origin of the labrum. Dev Genes Evol. 2001;211:89-95 pubmed
    ..This model appears to explain a wider variety of insect head segmentation phenomena. Embryological, histological, neurological and molecular evidence supporting the new model is reviewed. ..
  64. Crozatier M, Vincent A. Drosophila: a model for studying genetic and molecular aspects of haematopoiesis and associated leukaemias. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:439-45 pubmed publisher
  65. Hooper J. Smoothened translates Hedgehog levels into distinct responses. Development. 2003;130:3951-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, two activities of Smoothened translate different levels of Hedgehog into distinct intracellular responses. ..
  66. Stofanko M, Kwon S, Badenhorst P. Lineage tracing of lamellocytes demonstrates Drosophila macrophage plasticity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14051 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that lamellocytes arise from plasmatocytes and that plasmatocytes may be inherently plastic, possessing the ability to differentiate further into lamellocytes upon appropriate challenge. ..
  67. de Taffin M, Carrier Y, Dubois L, Bataillé L, Painset A, Le Gras S, et al. Genome-Wide Mapping of Collier In Vivo Binding Sites Highlights Its Hierarchical Position in Different Transcription Regulatory Networks. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0133387 pubmed publisher
    b>Collier, the single Drosophila COE (Collier/EBF/Olf-1) transcription factor, is required in several developmental processes, including head patterning and specification of muscle and neuron identity during embryogenesis...