Gene Symbol: kkv
Description: krotzkopf verkehrt
Alias: Blimp, CG2666, CS-1, CS-1/kkv, ChSB, DmCS-1, DmeChSB, Dmel\CG2666, Kkv, blimp, l(3)82Fh, krotzkopf verkehrt, CG2666-PA, CG2666-PC, CG2666-PD, chitin Syn1, chitin synthase 1, chitin synthase B, chitin synthase-1, kkv-PA, kkv-PC, kkv-PD, krotzkopf-verkehrt, short of breath
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Moussian B, Schwarz H, Bartoszewski S, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Involvement of chitin in exoskeleton morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. J Morphol. 2005;264:117-30 pubmed
    ..in the embryo of Drosophila melanogaster caused by mutations in the Chitin Synthase-1 (CS-1) gene, called krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv)...
  2. Devine W, Lubarsky B, Shaw K, Luschnig S, Messina L, Krasnow M. Requirement for chitin biosynthesis in epithelial tube morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17014-9 pubmed
    ..These findings show that chitin regulates epithelial tube morphogenesis, in addition to its classical role protecting mature epithelia. ..
  3. Luschnig S, Bätz T, Armbruster K, Krasnow M. serpentine and vermiform encode matrix proteins with chitin binding and deacetylation domains that limit tracheal tube length in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:186-94 pubmed
  4. Tonning A, Helms S, Schwarz H, Uv A, Moussian B. Hormonal regulation of mummy is needed for apical extracellular matrix formation and epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:331-41 pubmed
  5. Wang S, Jayaram S, Hemphälä J, Senti K, Tsarouhas V, Jin H, et al. Septate-junction-dependent luminal deposition of chitin deacetylases restricts tube elongation in the Drosophila trachea. Curr Biol. 2006;16:180-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that the subsequent structural modification of chitin by chitin binding deacetylases selectively instructs the termination of tube elongation to the underlying epithelium. ..
  6. Ostrowski S, Dierick H, Bejsovec A. Genetic control of cuticle formation during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;161:171-82 pubmed
    ..We find that one of these genes, krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv), encodes the Drosophila chitin synthase enzyme and that a closely linked gene, knickkopf (knk), ..
  7. Tonning A, Hemphälä J, Tång E, Nannmark U, Samakovlis C, Uv A. A transient luminal chitinous matrix is required to model epithelial tube diameter in the Drosophila trachea. Dev Cell. 2005;9:423-30 pubmed
    ..We propose that the transient luminal protein/polysaccharide matrix is sensed by the epithelial cells and coordinates cytoskeletal organization to ensure uniform lumen diameter. ..
  8. Araújo S, Aslam H, Tear G, Casanova J. mummy/cystic encodes an enzyme required for chitin and glycan synthesis, involved in trachea, embryonic cuticle and CNS development--analysis of its role in Drosophila tracheal morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2005;288:179-93 pubmed
    ..While most of their tracheal morphogenesis defects can be attributed to the lack of chitin, when compared to krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv) chitin-synthase mutants, mmy mutants showed a stronger phenotype, suggesting that some of the mmy ..
  9. Moussian B, Tång E, Tonning A, Helms S, Schwarz H, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, et al. Drosophila Knickkopf and Retroactive are needed for epithelial tube growth and cuticle differentiation through their specific requirement for chitin filament organization. Development. 2006;133:163-71 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which Knk and the predicted chitin-binding protein Rtv form membrane complexes essential for epithelial tubulogenesis and cuticle formation through their specific role in directing chitin filament assembly...

More Information


  1. Swanson L, Beitel G. Tubulogenesis: an inside job. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R51-3 pubmed
  2. Shaik K, Pabst M, Schwarz H, Altmann F, Moussian B. The Alg5 ortholog Wollknäuel is essential for correct epidermal differentiation during Drosophila late embryogenesis. Glycobiology. 2011;21:743-56 pubmed publisher
  3. Sobala L, Wang Y, Adler P. ChtVis-Tomato, a genetic reporter for in vivo visualization of chitin deposition in Drosophila. Development. 2015;142:3974-81 pubmed publisher
    ..ChtVis-Tomato should facilitate future studies on chitin in Drosophila and other insects. ..
  4. Ostrin E, Li Y, Hoffman K, Liu J, Wang K, Zhang L, et al. Genome-wide identification of direct targets of the Drosophila retinal determination protein Eyeless. Genome Res. 2006;16:466-76 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the integrated strategy of computational biology, genomics, and genetics is a powerful approach to identify direct downstream targets for any transcription factor genome-wide. ..
  5. Hannezo E, Dong B, Recho P, Joanny J, Hayashi S. Cortical instability drives periodic supracellular actin pattern formation in epithelial tubes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:8620-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore demonstrate quantitatively that a hydrodynamical instability of the actin cortex can trigger regular pattern formation and drive morphogenesis in an in vivo setting. ..
  6. Moussian B, Letizia A, Martínez Corrales G, Rotstein B, Casali A, Llimargas M. Deciphering the genetic programme triggering timely and spatially-regulated chitin deposition. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004939 pubmed publisher
    ..Chitin deposition requires the activity of the chitin synthase Krotzkopf verkehrt (Kkv)...
  7. Dong B, Miao G, Hayashi S. A fat body-derived apical extracellular matrix enzyme is transported to the tracheal lumen and is required for tube morphogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2014;141:4104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus reveal that the fat body, a mesodermal organ, actively contributes to tracheal development. ..
  8. Gangishetti U, Veerkamp J, Bezdan D, Schwarz H, Lohmann I, Moussian B. The transcription factor Grainy head and the steroid hormone ecdysone cooperate during differentiation of the skin of Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2012;21:283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Full differentiation of the skin necessitates a second, complementing taxon-specific programme that requires its own decoder, which is represented by ecdysone in arthropods, whereas the vertebrate specific one remains to be identified. ..
  9. Tajiri R, Misaki K, Yonemura S, Hayashi S. Dynamic shape changes of ECM-producing cells drive morphogenesis of ball-and-socket joints in the fly leg. Development. 2010;137:2055-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the importance of dynamic cell behaviors in precise shaping of skeletal ECM architecture. ..
  10. Pearson J, Juarez M, Kim M, Drivenes Ø, McGinnis W. Multiple transcription factor codes activate epidermal wound-response genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterize the transcriptional regulatory enhancers of 4 genes-Ddc, ple, msn, and kkv-that are rapidly activated in epidermal cells surrounding wounds in late Drosophila embryos and early larvae...
  11. Dembeck L, Huang W, Magwire M, Lawrence F, Lyman R, Mackay T. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005163 pubmed publisher
    ..Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster. ..
  12. Öztürk Çolak A, Moussian B, Araújo S, Casanova J. A feedback mechanism converts individual cell features into a supracellular ECM structure in Drosophila trachea. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that Src42A phosphorylation levels provide a link for the ECM environment to ensure proper cytoskeletal organisation. ..
  13. Gagou M, Kapsetaki M, Turberg A, Kafetzopoulos D. Stage-specific expression of the chitin synthase DmeChSA and DmeChSB genes during the onset of Drosophila metamorphosis. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;32:141-6 pubmed
    ..processive beta-glycosyltransferases, we have identified the first insect chitin synthase genes, DmeChSA and DmeChSB (Database accession numbers: EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ A83122, A83126, AJ309488, AJ309489), from Drosophila melanogaster...
  14. Irion U. Drosophila muscleblind codes for proteins with one and two tandem zinc finger motifs. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34248 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of these novel targets, kkv (krotzkopf-verkehrt, coding for Chitin Synthase 1) and cora (coracle, coding for the Drosophila homolog of Protein 4...
  15. Ruaud A, Lam G, Thummel C. The Drosophila nuclear receptors DHR3 and betaFTZ-F1 control overlapping developmental responses in late embryos. Development. 2010;137:123-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies define the lethal phenotypes of DHR3 and betaFTZ-F1 mutants, and provide evidence for functional bifurcation in the 20E-responsive transcriptional cascade. ..
  16. Tellam R, Vuocolo T, Johnson S, Jarmey J, Pearson R. Insect chitin synthase cDNA sequence, gene organization and expression. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:6025-43 pubmed
    ..Bioinformatics has been used to deduce the gene sequence and organization of the highly homologous Drosophila melanogaster orthologue of LcCS-1, DmCS-1...
  17. Nagaraj R, Adler P. Dusky-like functions as a Rab11 effector for the deposition of cuticle during Drosophila bristle development. Development. 2012;139:906-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies also implicate the exocyst as a Rab11 effector in this process and that Rab11 trafficking along the bristle shaft is mediated by microtubules. ..
  18. Mahoney M, Parks A, Ruddy D, Tiong S, Esengil H, Phan A, et al. Presenilin-based genetic screens in Drosophila melanogaster identify novel notch pathway modifiers. Genetics. 2006;172:2309-24 pubmed
    ..The predicted functions of these newly identified genes are consistent with extracellular matrix and vesicular trafficking mechanisms in Presenilin and Notch pathway regulation and suggest a novel role for gamma-tubulin in the pathway. ..
  19. Ghabrial A, Levi B, Krasnow M. A systematic screen for tube morphogenesis and branching genes in the Drosophila tracheal system. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002087 pubmed publisher
  20. Gangishetti U, Breitenbach S, Zander M, Saheb S, Muller U, Schwarz H, et al. Effects of benzoylphenylurea on chitin synthesis and orientation in the cuticle of the Drosophila larva. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:167-80 pubmed publisher