Gene Symbol: Khc
Description: Kinesin heavy chain
Alias: CG7765, DKH, DmK, DmKHC, Dmel\CG7765, Dmkin, KHC, KIF 5A, KIF5, KIF5B, KIN, Kin, Kin-1, Kinesin-1, khc, kin, kinesin, kinesin-1, l(2)W12, l(2)k13219, l(2)k13314, l(2R)W12, pgs, kinesin heavy chain, CG7765-PA, Khc-PA, Kin-1 heavy chain, Kinesin14, conventional kinesin, heavy chain of kinesin, kinesin, kinesin 1, kinesin I, kinesin alpha subunit, kinesin alpha-chain, kinesin heavy chain I, kinesin-1, kinesin-1 heavy chain, partagas
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Khc

Top Publications

  1. Crevenna A, Madathil S, Cohen D, Wagenbach M, Fahmy K, Howard J. Secondary structure and compliance of a predicted flexible domain in kinesin-1 necessary for cooperation of motors. Biophys J. 2008;95:5216-27 pubmed publisher
    Although the mechanism by which a kinesin-1 molecule moves individually along a microtubule is quite well-understood, the way that many kinesin-1 motor proteins bound to the same cargo move together along a microtubule is not...
  2. Füger P, Sreekumar V, Schule R, Kern J, Stanchev D, Schneider C, et al. Spastic paraplegia mutation N256S in the neuronal microtubule motor KIF5A disrupts axonal transport in a Drosophila HSP model. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003066 pubmed publisher
    ..KIF5A encodes the heavy chain of kinesin-1, a neuronal microtubule motor...
  3. Yang J, Saxton W, Goldstein L. Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding the heavy chain of Drosophila kinesin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:1864-8 pubmed
    ..The in vitro-synthesized product of the largest cDNA comigrates with Drosophila kinesin heavy chain on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gels and binds to taxol-stabilized microtubules in the presence of the ..
  4. Brendza K, Rose D, Gilbert S, Saxton W. Lethal kinesin mutations reveal amino acids important for ATPase activation and structural coupling. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31506-14 pubmed
    To study the relationship between conventional kinesin's structure and function, we identified 13 lethal mutations in the Drosophila kinesin heavy chain motor domain and tested a subset for effects on mechanochemistry...
  5. Iwatani S, Iwane A, Higuchi H, Ishii Y, Yanagida T. Mechanical and chemical properties of cysteine-modified kinesin molecules. Biochemistry. 1999;38:10318-23 pubmed
    To probe the structural changes within kinesin molecules, we made the mutants of motor domains of two-headed kinesin (4-411 aa) in which either all the five cysteines or all except Cys45 were mutated...
  6. González Reyes A, Elliott H, St Johnston D. Polarization of both major body axes in Drosophila by gurken-torpedo signalling. Nature. 1995;375:654-8 pubmed
    ..As the gurken-torpedo/DER pathway also establishes dorsoventral polarity later in oogenesis, Drosophila uses the same germline to soma signalling pathway to determine both embryonic axes. ..
  7. Barkus R, Klyachko O, Horiuchi D, Dickson B, Saxton W. Identification of an axonal kinesin-3 motor for fast anterograde vesicle transport that facilitates retrograde transport of neuropeptides. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:274-83 pubmed
    A screen for genes required in Drosophila eye development identified an UNC-104/Kif1 related kinesin-3 microtubule motor...
  8. Young E, Berliner E, Mahtani H, Perez Ramirez B, Gelles J. Subunit interactions in dimeric kinesin heavy chain derivatives that lack the kinesin rod. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:3926-31 pubmed
    ..Derivative K448-BIO contains the 448 N-terminal residues of Drosophila kinesin heavy chain fused at the C terminus to a 2-residue linker and a C-terminal fragment from Escherichia coli biotin ..
  9. Scholey J, Heuser J, Yang J, Goldstein L. Identification of globular mechanochemical heads of kinesin. Nature. 1989;338:355-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report that a function-disrupting monoclonal antikinesin, which binds to the 45K fragment of the kinesin heavy chain, recognizes an epitope located towards the N-terminal end of the heavy chain, and decorates the two ..

More Information


  1. Sanghavi P, Lu S, Gonsalvez G. A functional link between localized Oskar, dynamic microtubules, and endocytosis. Dev Biol. 2012;367:66-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, multiple polarity-determining pathways are functionally linked in the Drosophila oocytes. ..
  2. Vendra G, Hamilton R, Davis I. Dynactin suppresses the retrograde movement of apically localized mRNA in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. RNA. 2007;13:1860-7 pubmed
    ..We show that the plus end movement of apical mRNA is independent of the major plus end microtubule motors Kinesin-1 and Kinesin-2...
  3. Myat M, Andrew D. Epithelial tube morphology is determined by the polarized growth and delivery of apical membrane. Cell. 2002;111:879-91 pubmed
    ..In invaginating salivary cells, crb and klar mediate growth and delivery of apical membrane, respectively, thus regulating the size and shape of the salivary tube. ..
  4. Duncan J, Warrior R. The cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin motors have interdependent roles in patterning the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1982-91 pubmed
    Motor proteins of the minus end-directed cytoplasmic dynein and plus end-directed kinesin families provide the principal means for microtubule-based transport in eukaryotic cells...
  5. Hackney D, Baek N, Snyder A. Half-site inhibition of dimeric kinesin head domains by monomeric tail domains. Biochemistry. 2009;48:3448-56 pubmed publisher
    The two heavy chains of kinesin-1 are dimerized through extensive coiled coil regions and fold into an inactive conformation through interaction of the C-terminal tail domains with the N-terminal motor (head) domains...
  6. Gagliano J, Walb M, Blaker B, Macosko J, Holzwarth G. Kinesin velocity increases with the number of motors pulling against viscoelastic drag. Eur Biophys J. 2010;39:801-13 pubmed publisher
    Although the properties of single kinesin molecular motors are well understood, it is not clear whether multiple motors pulling a single vesicle in a cell cooperate or interfere with one another...
  7. Vale R, Funatsu T, Pierce D, Romberg L, Harada Y, Yanagida T. Direct observation of single kinesin molecules moving along microtubules. Nature. 1996;380:451-3 pubmed
    b>Kinesin is a two-headed motor protein that powers organelle transport along microtubules. Many ATP molecules are hydrolysed by kinesin for each diffusional encounter with the microtubule...
  8. Metzger T, Gache V, Xu M, Cadot B, Folker E, Richardson B, et al. MAP and kinesin-dependent nuclear positioning is required for skeletal muscle function. Nature. 2012;484:120-4 pubmed publisher
    ..we identify the microtubule-associated protein ensconsin (Ens)/microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) and kinesin heavy chain (Khc)/Kif5b as essential, evolutionarily conserved regulators of myonuclear positioning in Drosophila and ..
  9. Lu W, Fox P, Lakonishok M, Davidson M, Gelfand V. Initial neurite outgrowth in Drosophila neurons is driven by kinesin-powered microtubule sliding. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1018-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a novel mechanism, sliding of microtubules against each other by the microtubule motor kinesin-1, provides the mechanical forces necessary for initial neurite extension in Drosophila neurons...
  10. Torroja L, Chu H, Kotovsky I, White K. Neuronal overexpression of APPL, the Drosophila homologue of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), disrupts axonal transport. Curr Biol. 1999;9:489-92 pubmed independent approach, we demonstrated genetic interaction and phenotypic similarity between APPL overexpression and mutations in the Kinesin heavy chain (Khc) gene, the product of which is a motor for anterograde vesicle trafficking.
  11. Sung H, Telley I, Papadaki P, Ephrussi A, Surrey T, Rørth P. Drosophila ensconsin promotes productive recruitment of Kinesin-1 to microtubules. Dev Cell. 2008;15:866-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Drosophila ensconsin is required for all known kinesin-1-dependent processes in the polarized oocyte without detectable effects on microtubules...
  12. Martin M, Iyadurai S, Gassman A, Gindhart J, Hays T, Saxton W. Cytoplasmic dynein, the dynactin complex, and kinesin are interdependent and essential for fast axonal transport. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3717-28 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have provided compelling evidence that conventional kinesin is a major motor for anterograde fast axonal transport...
  13. Babu K, Cai Y, Bahri S, Yang X, Chia W. Roles of Bifocal, Homer, and F-actin in anchoring Oskar to the posterior cortex of Drosophila oocytes. Genes Dev. 2004;18:138-43 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that two processes, one requiring Bifocal and an intact F-actin cytoskeleton and a second requiring Homer but independent of intact F-actin, may act redundantly to mediate posterior anchoring of the osk gene products. ..
  14. Boylan K, Hays T. The gene for the intermediate chain subunit of cytoplasmic dynein is essential in Drosophila. Genetics. 2002;162:1211-20 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes are rescued by the wild-type Dic transgene, indicating that shortwing is a viable allele of the dynein intermediate chain gene and revealing a novel role for dynein function during wing development. ..
  15. Ganguly S, Williams L, Palacios I, Goldstein R. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes varies with kinesin activity and correlates with the microtubule cytoskeleton architecture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:15109-14 pubmed
    ..Here we use Particle Image Velocimetry to quantify the statistical properties of Kinesin-dependent streaming during mid-oogenesis in Drosophila...
  16. Gunawardena S, Goldstein L. Disruption of axonal transport and neuronal viability by amyloid precursor protein mutations in Drosophila. Neuron. 2001;32:389-401 pubmed
    ..the hypothesis that amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its relatives function as vesicular receptor proteins for kinesin-I...
  17. Correia J, Gilbert S, Moyer M, Johnson K. Sedimentation studies on the kinesin motor domain constructs K401, K366, and K341. Biochemistry. 1995;34:4898-907 pubmed
    ..We have measured directly the state of assembly of three conventional kinesin motor domain constructs-K401, K366, and K341, comprising the N-terminal 401, 366, and 341 amino acids, ..
  18. Liu Z, Xie T, Steward R. Lis1, the Drosophila homolog of a human lissencephaly disease gene, is required for germline cell division and oocyte differentiation. Development. 1999;126:4477-88 pubmed
    ..They support the notion that LIS1 functions with the dynein complex to regulate nuclear migration or cell migration. ..
  19. van Eeden F, Palacios I, Petronczki M, Weston M, St Johnston D. Barentsz is essential for the posterior localization of oskar mRNA and colocalizes with it to the posterior pole. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:511-23 pubmed
    ..since its localization requires both an intact microtubule cytoskeleton and the plus end-directed motor kinesin I, but nothing is known about how the RNA is coupled to the motor...
  20. Bowman A, Kamal A, Ritchings B, Philp A, McGrail M, Gindhart J, et al. Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein. Cell. 2000;103:583-94 pubmed
    A broadly conserved membrane-associated protein required for the functional interaction of kinesin-I with axonal cargo was identified...
  21. Januschke J, Gervais L, Gillet L, Keryer G, Bornens M, Guichet A. The centrosome-nucleus complex and microtubule organization in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2006;133:129-39 pubmed
  22. Saxton W, Porter M, Cohn S, Scholey J, Raff E, McIntosh J. Drosophila kinesin: characterization of microtubule motility and ATPase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:1109-13 pubmed
    Preparations of kinesin, a microtubule-based force-producing protein, have been isolated from Drosophila melanogaster embryos by incubation of microtubules with a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue and gel filtration of proteins released from ..
  23. Carter N, Cross R. Mechanics of the kinesin step. Nature. 2005;435:308-12 pubmed
    b>Kinesin is a molecular walking machine that organizes cells by hauling packets of components directionally along microtubules. The physical mechanism that impels directional stepping is uncertain...
  24. Moua P, Fullerton D, Serbus L, Warrior R, Saxton W. Kinesin-1 tail autoregulation and microtubule-binding regions function in saltatory transport but not ooplasmic streaming. Development. 2011;138:1087-92 pubmed publisher
    The N-terminal head domain of kinesin heavy chain (Khc) is well known for generating force for transport along microtubules in cytoplasmic organization processes during metazoan development, but the functions of the C-terminal tail are ..
  25. Yang J, Laymon R, Goldstein L. A three-domain structure of kinesin heavy chain revealed by DNA sequence and microtubule binding analyses. Cell. 1989;56:879-89 pubmed
    The structure and function of kinesin heavy chain from D. melanogaster have been studied using DNA sequence analysis and analysis of the properties of truncated kinesin heavy chain synthesized in vitro...
  26. Schmidt I, Thomas S, Kain P, Risse B, Naffin E, Kl mbt C. Kinesin heavy chain function in Drosophila glial cells controls neuronal activity. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7466-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Kinesin heavy chain (Khc) is crucially required for axonal transport and khc mutants show axonal swellings and paralysis. Here, we demonstrate that in Drosophila khc is equally important in glial cells...
  27. Steinhauer J, Kalderon D. The RNA-binding protein Squid is required for the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2005;132:5515-25 pubmed
    ..Loss of Sqd does not affect polarity in follicle cells, wings or eyes, indicating a specific role in the determination of MT polarity within the germline. ..
  28. Gilbert S, Moyer M, Johnson K. Alternating site mechanism of the kinesin ATPase. Biochemistry. 1998;37:792-9 pubmed
    The processivity of the microtubule-kinesin ATPase has been investigated using stopped-flow kinetic methods to measure the binding of each motor domain of the dimeric kinesin (K401) to the microtubule and the release of the fluorescent ..
  29. Januschke J, Nicolas E, Compagnon J, Formstecher E, Goud B, Guichet A. Rab6 and the secretory pathway affect oocyte polarity in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:3419-25 pubmed
    ..Our results point to a possible connection between Rab protein-mediated secretion, organization of the cytoskeleton and mRNA transport. ..
  30. Palacios I, St Johnston D. Kinesin light chain-independent function of the Kinesin heavy chain in cytoplasmic streaming and posterior localisation in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2002;129:5473-85 pubmed
    Microtubules and the Kinesin heavy chain, the force-generating component of the plus end-directed microtubule motor Kinesin I are required for the localisation of oskar mRNA to the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte, an essential ..
  31. Liu S, Sawada T, Lee S, Yu W, Silverio G, Alapatt P, et al. Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 regulates Miro protein level and axonal transport of mitochondria. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002537 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the different effects of loss of PINK1 function on Miro protein level in Drosophila and mouse cells may offer one explanation of the distinct phenotypic manifestations of PINK1 mutants in these two species. ..
  32. Higuchi H, Bronner C, Park H, Endow S. Rapid double 8-nm steps by a kinesin mutant. EMBO J. 2004;23:2993-9 pubmed
    The mechanism by which conventional kinesin walks along microtubules is poorly understood, but may involve alternate binding to the microtubule and hydrolysis of ATP by the two heads...
  33. Miller K, DeProto J, Kaufmann N, Patel B, Duckworth A, Van Vactor D. Direct observation demonstrates that Liprin-alpha is required for trafficking of synaptic vesicles. Curr Biol. 2005;15:684-9 pubmed
    ..A reported interaction with Kinesin-3 (Kif1a) suggested Liprin-alpha may also be involved in axonal transport...
  34. Serbus L, Cha B, Theurkauf W, Saxton W. Dynein and the actin cytoskeleton control kinesin-driven cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes. Development. 2005;132:3743-52 pubmed
    ..We report that the plus-end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-1 is required for all streaming and is constitutively capable of driving fast streaming...
  35. Shapiro R, Anderson K. Drosophila Ik2, a member of the I kappa B kinase family, is required for mRNA localization during oogenesis. Development. 2006;133:1467-75 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that this IkappaB kinase has an NF-kappaB-independent role in mRNA localization and helps to link microtubule minus-ends to the oocyte cortex, a novel function of the IKK family. ..
  36. Glater E, Megeath L, Stowers R, Schwarz T. Axonal transport of mitochondria requires milton to recruit kinesin heavy chain and is light chain independent. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:545-57 pubmed
    ..depends on the ability of milton to act as an adaptor protein that can recruit the heavy chain of conventional kinesin-1 (kinesin heavy chain [KHC]) to mitochondria...
  37. Li X, Kuromi H, Briggs L, Green D, Rocha J, Sweeney S, et al. Bicaudal-D binds clathrin heavy chain to promote its transport and augments synaptic vesicle recycling. EMBO J. 2010;29:992-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate BicD as a new player in clathrin-associated trafficking processes and show a novel requirement for microtubule-based motor transport in the synaptic vesicle cycle. ..
  38. Mische S, Li M, Serr M, Hays T. Direct observation of regulated ribonucleoprotein transport across the nurse cell/oocyte boundary. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2254-63 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the loss of kinesin I activity elevates RNP motility in nurse cells, whereas disruption of dynein activity inhibits RNP transport...
  39. Asbury C, Fehr A, Block S. Kinesin moves by an asymmetric hand-over-hand mechanism. Science. 2003;302:2130-4 pubmed
    b>Kinesin is a double-headed motor protein that moves along microtubules in 8-nanometer steps. Two broad classes of model have been invoked to explain kinesin movement: hand-over-hand and inchworm...
  40. Stowers R, Megeath L, Górska Andrzejak J, Meinertzhagen I, Schwarz T. Axonal transport of mitochondria to synapses depends on milton, a novel Drosophila protein. Neuron. 2002;36:1063-77 pubmed
    ..likely explanation of the apparent trafficking defect is offered by the coimmunoprecipitation of Milton and kinesin heavy chain. Transfected into HEK293T cells, Milton induces a redistribution of mitochondria within the cell...
  41. Mosley Bishop K, Li Q, Patterson L, Fischer J. Molecular analysis of the klarsicht gene and its role in nuclear migration within differentiating cells of the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1211-20 pubmed
  42. Berliner E, Young E, Anderson K, Mahtani H, Gelles J. Failure of a single-headed kinesin to track parallel to microtubule protofilaments. Nature. 1995;373:718-21 pubmed
    b>Kinesin, a two-headed motor enzyme molecule, hydrolyses ATP to direct organelle transport along microtubules. As it moves along a microtubule, kinesin remains associated with, or 'tracks', microtubule protofilaments...
  43. Huang T, Hackney D. Drosophila kinesin minimal motor domain expressed in Escherichia coli. Purification and kinetic characterization. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:16493-501 pubmed
    A truncated motor domain of the alpha subunit of Drosophila kinesin was obtained by expression in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity in the presence of MgATP...
  44. Krauss J, López de Quinto S, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, Ephrussi A. Myosin-V regulates oskar mRNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1058-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also show that Myosin-V interacts with Kinesin heavy chain and counterbalances Kinesin function, preventing ectopic accumulation of oskar in the cytoplasm...
  45. Navarro C, Puthalakath H, Adams J, Strasser A, Lehmann R. Egalitarian binds dynein light chain to establish oocyte polarity and maintain oocyte fate. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:427-35 pubmed
    ..Our data provide a direct link between a molecule necessary for oocyte specification and the microtubule motor complex, and supports the hypothesis that microtubule-mediated transport is important for preserving oocyte fate. ..
  46. Gelles J, Berliner E, Young E, Mahtani H, Perez Ramirez B, Anderson K. Structural and functional features of one- and two-headed biotinated kinesin derivatives. Biophys J. 1995;68:276S-281S; discussion 282S pubmed
    The oligomeric structure was determined for four recombinant kinesin derivatives containing N-terminal fragments of the kinesin alpha-subunit...
  47. Gauger A, Goldstein L. The Drosophila kinesin light chain. Primary structure and interaction with kinesin heavy chain. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:13657-66 pubmed
    Kinesin light chain (KLC) complexes with the kinesin heavy chain (KHC) to form native kinesin. Proposed functions of KLC include coupling of cargo to KHC or modulation of KHC ATPase activity...
  48. Hackney D, Stock M. Kinesin's IAK tail domain inhibits initial microtubule-stimulated ADP release. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:257-60 pubmed
    b>Kinesin undergoes a global folding conformational change from an extended active conformation at high ionic concentrations to a compact inhibited conformation at physiological ionic concentrations...
  49. Hancock W, Howard J. Processivity of the motor protein kinesin requires two heads. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:1395-405 pubmed
    A single kinesin molecule can move for hundreds of steps along a microtubule without dissociating...
  50. Kamei T, Kakuta S, Higuchi H. Biased binding of single molecules and continuous movement of multiple molecules of truncated single-headed kinesin. Biophys J. 2005;88:2068-77 pubmed
    b>Conventional kinesin has a double-headed structure consisting of two motor domains and moves processively along a microtubule using the two heads cooperatively...
  51. Coy D, Wagenbach M, Howard J. Kinesin takes one 8-nm step for each ATP that it hydrolyzes. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:3667-71 pubmed
    b>Conventional kinesin is a motor protein that moves stepwise along microtubules carrying membrane-bound organelles toward the periphery of cells. The steps are of amplitude 8...
  52. Okada Y, Hirokawa N. A processive single-headed motor: kinesin superfamily protein KIF1A. Science. 1999;283:1152-7 pubmed
    A single kinesin molecule can move "processively" along a microtubule for more than 1 micrometer before detaching from it...
  53. Klumpp L, Mackey A, Farrell C, Rosenberg J, Gilbert S. A kinesin switch I arginine to lysine mutation rescues microtubule function. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:39059-67 pubmed
    ..Our analysis of a switch I mutant (R210A) in Drosophila melanogaster kinesin showed a reduction in microtubule affinity, a loss in cooperativity between the motor domains, and an ATP ..
  54. Barlan K, Lu W, Gelfand V. The microtubule-binding protein ensconsin is an essential cofactor of kinesin-1. Curr Biol. 2013;23:317-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Kinesin-1 is a major microtubule motor that drives transport of numerous cellular cargoes toward the plus ends of microtubules...
  55. Soundararajan H, Bullock S. The influence of dynein processivity control, MAPs, and microtubule ends on directional movement of a localising mRNA. elife. 2014;3:e01596 pubmed publisher
    ..DOI: ..
  56. Haghnia M, Cavalli V, Shah S, Schimmelpfeng K, Brusch R, Yang G, et al. Dynactin is required for coordinated bidirectional motility, but not for dynein membrane attachment. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2081-9 pubmed
    ..processivity, the additional effects we observed on anterograde transport also suggest potential roles for dynactin in mediating kinesin-driven transport and in coordinating the activity of opposing motors (King and Schroer, 2000).
  57. McGrail M, Hays T. The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein is required for spindle orientation during germline cell divisions and oocyte differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 1997;124:2409-19 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence for a novel developmental role for the cytoplasmic dynein motor in cellular determination and differentiation. ..
  58. Weaver C, Leidel C, Szpankowski L, Farley N, Shubeita G, Goldstein L. Endogenous GSK-3/shaggy regulates bidirectional axonal transport of the amyloid precursor protein. Traffic. 2013;14:295-308 pubmed publisher
    Neurons rely on microtubule (MT) motor proteins such as kinesin-1 and dynein to transport essential cargos between the cell body and axon terminus...
  59. Sanghavi P, Laxani S, Li X, Bullock S, Gonsalvez G. Dynein associates with oskar mRNPs and is required for their efficient net plus-end localization in Drosophila oocytes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80605 pubmed publisher
    ..The localization of oskar mRNA requires microtubules and microtubule-based motor proteins. Null mutants in Kinesin heavy chain (Khc), the motor subunit of the plus end-directed Kinesin-1, result in oskar mRNA delocalization...
  60. Hoenger A, Thormählen M, Diaz Avalos R, Doerhoefer M, Goldie K, Muller J, et al. A new look at the microtubule binding patterns of dimeric kinesins. J Mol Biol. 2000;297:1087-103 pubmed
    The interactions of monomeric and dimeric kinesin and ncd constructs with microtubules have been investigated using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and several biochemical methods...
  61. Schief W, Clark R, Crevenna A, Howard J. Inhibition of kinesin motility by ADP and phosphate supports a hand-over-hand mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1183-8 pubmed
    ..between different models of such chemical-to-mechanical coupling, we measured the speed of movement of conventional kinesin along microtubules in in vitro motility assays over a wide range of substrate (ATP) and product (ADP and ..
  62. Benton R, Palacios I, St Johnston D. Drosophila 14-3-3/PAR-5 is an essential mediator of PAR-1 function in axis formation. Dev Cell. 2002;3:659-71 pubmed
    ..The C. elegans 14-3-3 protein, PAR-5, is also required for A-P polarization, suggesting that this is a conserved mechanism by which PAR-1 establishes cellular asymmetries. ..
  63. Satoh D, Sato D, Tsuyama T, Saito M, Ohkura H, Rolls M, et al. Spatial control of branching within dendritic arbors by dynein-dependent transport of Rab5-endosomes. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that mutations of motor-protein genes, including a dynein subunit gene (dlic) and kinesin heavy chain (khc), caused not only downsizing of the overall arbor, but also a marked shift of branching activity to ..
  64. Hua W, Chung J, Gelles J. Distinguishing inchworm and hand-over-hand processive kinesin movement by neck rotation measurements. Science. 2002;295:844-8 pubmed
    The motor enzyme kinesin makes hundreds of unidirectional 8-nanometer steps without detaching from or freely sliding along the microtubule on which it moves...
  65. Henthorn K, Roux M, Herrera C, Goldstein L. A role for kinesin heavy chain in controlling vesicle transport into dendrites in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4038-46 pubmed publisher
    ..screen for mutants that mislocalize the dendritic marker human transferrin receptor (hTfR), we found that kinesin heavy chain (KHC) may function as a dendritic motor...
  66. Jolly A, Kim H, Srinivasan D, Lakonishok M, Larson A, Gelfand V. Kinesin-1 heavy chain mediates microtubule sliding to drive changes in cell shape. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi of the kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC), but not dynein or the kinesin-1 light chain, eliminates these movements...
  67. Brendza K, Sontag C, Saxton W, Gilbert S. A kinesin mutation that uncouples motor domains and desensitizes the gamma-phosphate sensor. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:22187-95 pubmed
    b>Conventional kinesin is a processive, microtubule-based motor protein that drives movements of membranous organelles in neurons...
  68. Hua W, Young E, Fleming M, Gelles J. Coupling of kinesin steps to ATP hydrolysis. Nature. 1997;388:390-3 pubmed
    ..Discrete displacements of the processive motor kinesin along a microtubule have been reported as 5 and/or 8 nm...
  69. Gunawardena S, Her L, Brusch R, Laymon R, Niesman I, Gordesky Gold B, et al. Disruption of axonal transport by loss of huntingtin or expression of pathogenic polyQ proteins in Drosophila. Neuron. 2003;40:25-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, disruption of axonal transport by pathogenic polyQ proteins could contribute to early neuropathology in Huntington's and other polyQ expansion diseases. ..
  70. Zimyanin V, Lowe N, St Johnston D. An oskar-dependent positive feedback loop maintains the polarity of the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2007;17:353-9 pubmed
  71. Roth S, Neuman Silberberg F, Barcelo G, Sch pbach T. cornichon and the EGF receptor signaling process are necessary for both anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral pattern formation in Drosophila. Cell. 1995;81:967-78 pubmed
  72. Pilling A, Horiuchi D, Lively C, Saxton W. Kinesin-1 and Dynein are the primary motors for fast transport of mitochondria in Drosophila motor axons. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2057-68 pubmed
    ..Mutant analyses suggest that the primary motors for mitochondrial movement in larval motor axons are kinesin-1 (anterograde) and cytoplasmic dynein (retrograde), and interestingly that kinesin-1 is critical for retrograde ..
  73. Stock M, Guerrero J, Cobb B, Eggers C, Huang T, Li X, et al. Formation of the compact confomer of kinesin requires a COOH-terminal heavy chain domain and inhibits microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:14617-23 pubmed
    Full-length Drosophila kinesin heavy chain from position 1 to 975 was expressed in Escherichia coil (DKH975) and is a dimer. The sedimentation coefficient of DKH975 shifts from 5.4 S at 1 M NaCl to approximately 6.9 S at <0.2 M NaCl...
  74. Lin M, Fan S, Hsu W, Chou T. Drosophila decapping protein 1, dDcp1, is a component of the oskar mRNP complex and directs its posterior localization in the oocyte. Dev Cell. 2006;10:601-13 pubmed
    ..Thus, as well as being a general factor required for mRNA decay, dDcp1 is an essential component of the osk mRNP localization complex. ..
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