Gene Symbol: jar
Description: jaguar
Alias: 95F, 95F MHC, CG5695, Dm 95F, Dm95F, Dmel\CG5695, Dro95F, JAG, Jaguar, Jar, MHC95F, MYOVI, Mhc95F, Myo1A, MyoVI, Myosin VI, dMyoVI, jag, ms(3)06746, myo VI, myosins VI, jaguar, 95F myosin, 95F unconventional myosin, CG5695-PB, CG5695-PG, CG5695-PH, CG5695-PI, CG5695-PJ, CG5695-PK, CG5695-PL, CG5695-PM, CG5695-PN, jar-PB, jar-PG, jar-PH, jar-PI, jar-PJ, jar-PK, jar-PL, jar-PM, jar-PN, myosin 95F, myosin VI, myosin heavy chain, myosin heavy chain at 95F, myosin-VI, unconventional myosin VI
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Mermall V, Miller K. The 95F unconventional myosin is required for proper organization of the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. J Cell Biol. 1995;129:1575-88 pubmed
    The 95F myosin, a class VI unconventional myosin, associates with particles in the cytoplasm of the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm and is required for the ATP- and F-actin-dependent translocation of these particles...
  2. Erben V, Waldhuber M, Langer D, Fetka I, Jansen R, Petritsch C. Asymmetric localization of the adaptor protein Miranda in neuroblasts is achieved by diffusion and sequential interaction of Myosin II and VI. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1403-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Miranda localization requires Myosin VI and Myosin II...
  3. Morrison J, Miller K. Genetic characterization of the Drosophila jaguar322 mutant reveals that complete myosin VI loss of function is not lethal. Genetics. 2008;179:711-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Myosin VI is an actin-based motor that has been implicated in many cellular processes. Studies in vertebrates have demonstrated that animals lacking this ubiquitously expressed myosin are viable...
  4. Rogat A, Miller K. A role for myosin VI in actin dynamics at sites of membrane remodeling during Drosophila spermatogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4855-65 pubmed
    b>Myosin VI has been implicated in membrane dynamics in several organisms. The mechanism of its participation in membrane events is not clear. We have used spermatogenesis in Drosophila to investigate myosin VI's in vivo role...
  5. Geisbrecht E, Montell D. Myosin VI is required for E-cadherin-mediated border cell migration. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:616-20 pubmed
    b>Myosin VI (MyoVI) is a pointed-end-directed, actin-based motor protein, and mutations in the gene result in disorganization of hair cell stereocilia and cause deafness in mice...
  6. Kisiel M, Majumdar D, Campbell S, Stewart B. Myosin VI contributes to synaptic transmission and development at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. BMC Neurosci. 2011;12:65 pubmed publisher
    b>Myosin VI, encoded by jaguar (jar) in Drosophila melanogaster, is a unique member of the myosin superfamily of actin-based motor proteins. Myosin VI is the only myosin known to move towards the minus or pointed ends of actin filaments...
  7. Arama E, Agapite J, Steller H. Caspase activity and a specific cytochrome C are required for sperm differentiation in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;4:687-97 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that an apoptosis-like mechanism is required for spermatid differentiation in Drosophila. ..
  8. Mermall V, Bonafe N, Jones L, Sellers J, Cooley L, Mooseker M. Drosophila myosin V is required for larval development and spermatid individualization. Dev Biol. 2005;286:238-55 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that MyoV contributes to the formation of the actin-based investment cones and acts to coordinate and/or anchor these structures and other components of the individualization complex. ..
  9. Lantz V, Miller K. A class VI unconventional myosin is associated with a homologue of a microtubule-binding protein, cytoplasmic linker protein-170, in neurons and at the posterior pole of Drosophila embryos. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:897-910 pubmed
    ..We have identified a 195-kD protein that coimmunoprecipitates with a class VI myosin, Drosophila 95F unconventional myosin. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the 195-kD protein reveals that it is the first homologue ..

More Information


  1. Lin H, Chen H, Wei S, Chen L, Chang L, Sun Y, et al. Cell adhesion molecule Echinoid associates with unconventional myosin VI/Jaguar motor to regulate cell morphology during dorsal closure in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2007;311:423-33 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, Ed forms homodimers in vivo and Ed(intra) monomer directly associates with unconventional myosin VI/Jaguar (Jar) motor protein...
  2. Mermall V, McNally J, Miller K. Transport of cytoplasmic particles catalysed by an unconventional myosin in living Drosophila embryos. Nature. 1994;369:560-2 pubmed
    ..evidence that this transport is actin-based, ATP-dependent and catalysed by one such unconventional myosin, the 95F myosin. This is, to our knowledge, the first direct observation of transport catalysed by an unconventional myosin in ..
  3. Millo H, Bownes M. The expression pattern and cellular localisation of Myosin VI during the Drosophila melanogaster life cycle. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:501-10 pubmed
    b>Myosin VI is a motor protein which is necessary for the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues during Drosophila development...
  4. Djiane A, Mlodzik M. The Drosophila GIPC homologue can modulate myosin based processes and planar cell polarity but is not essential for development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11228 pubmed publisher
    ..on the actin cytoskeleton via myosins, since it is almost entirely suppressed by removing a genomic copy of the Myosin VI/jaguar gene...
  5. Noguchi T, Frank D, Isaji M, Miller K. Coiled-coil-mediated dimerization is not required for myosin VI to stabilize actin during spermatid individualization in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:358-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Myosin VI is a pointed-end-directed actin motor that is thought to function as both a transporter of cargoes and an anchor, capable of binding cellular components to actin for long periods...
  6. Kellerman K, Miller K. An unconventional myosin heavy chain gene from Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 1992;119:823-34 pubmed
    ..that encodes this protein maps to the polytene map position 95F, we have named the new gene Drosophila 95F myosin heavy chain (95F MHC). The expression profile of the 95F MHC gene is complex...
  7. Millo H, Leaper K, Lazou V, Bownes M. Myosin VI plays a role in cell-cell adhesion during epithelial morphogenesis. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1335-51 pubmed
    b>Myosin VI is an unconventional Myosin that has been implicated in vesicle transport and membrane trafficking. We isolated lethal mutants of Myosin VI, which lack protein once maternal supplies have been utilised during embryogenesis...
  8. Noguchi T, Lenartowska M, Rogat A, Frank D, Miller K. Proper cellular reorganization during Drosophila spermatid individualization depends on actin structures composed of two domains, bundles and meshwork, that are differentially regulated and have different functions. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Polarized distributions of myosin VI, Arp2/3 complex, and the actin-bundling proteins, singed (fascin) and quail (villin), occurred when movement ..
  9. Zhou X, Fabian L, Bayraktar J, Ding H, Brill J, Chang H. Auxilin is required for formation of Golgi-derived clathrin-coated vesicles during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Development. 2011;138:1111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Aux participates in forming these Golgi-derived clathrin-positive vesicles and that Aux, therefore, has a role in the secretory pathway. ..
  10. Noguchi T, Lenartowska M, Miller K. Myosin VI stabilizes an actin network during Drosophila spermatid individualization. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2559-71 pubmed
    Here, we demonstrate a new function of myosin VI using observations of Drosophila spermatid individualization in vivo...
  11. Petritsch C, Tavosanis G, Turck C, Jan L, Jan Y. The Drosophila myosin VI Jaguar is required for basal protein targeting and correct spindle orientation in mitotic neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2003;4:273-81 pubmed
    ..Here we report that Miranda localization requires the unconventional myosin VI Jaguar (Jar)...
  12. Kaplan Y, Gibbs Bar L, Kalifa Y, Feinstein Rotkopf Y, Arama E. Gradients of a ubiquitin E3 ligase inhibitor and a caspase inhibitor determine differentiation or death in spermatids. Dev Cell. 2010;19:160-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings elucidate how the spatial regulation of caspase activation can permit caspase-dependent differentiation while preventing full-blown apoptosis. ..
  13. Peyre J, Seabrooke S, Randlett O, Kisiel M, Aigaki T, Stewart B. Interaction of cytoskeleton genes with NSF2-induced neuromuscular junction overgrowth. Genesis. 2006;44:595-600 pubmed
  14. Hicks J, Deng W, Rogat A, Miller K, Bownes M. Class VI unconventional myosin is required for spermatogenesis in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:4341-53 pubmed
    ..Germ line transformation with the 95F myosin heavy chain cDNA rescues the male sterility phenotype...
  15. Kisiel M, McKenzie K, Stewart B. Localization and mobility of synaptic vesicles in Myosin VI mutants of Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e102988 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myosin VI has been shown to be important for proper synaptic physiology and morphology at the NMJ, likely by functioning ..
  16. Xu S, Hafer N, Agunwamba B, Schedl P. The CPEB protein Orb2 has multiple functions during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003079 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, analysis of a partial loss of function orb2 mutant suggests that the orb2 differentiation phenotypes are independent of the earlier arrest in meiosis. ..
  17. Tzolovsky G, Millo H, Pathirana S, Wood T, Bownes M. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster myosins. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:1041-52 pubmed
    ..The fifth myosin shows a unique domain composition and a low homology to any of the existing classes. We propose that this is classified when similar myosins are identified in other species. ..
  18. Ranz J, Caceres M, Ruiz A. Comparative mapping of cosmids and gene clones from a 1.6 Mb chromosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster in three species of the distantly related subgenus Drosophila. Chromosoma. 1999;108:32-43 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data indicate significant statistical differences in the evolution rate of Muller's element E among lineages, a result that agrees well with the previous cytogenetic data. ..
  19. Morgan N. The myosin superfamily in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Zool. 1995;273:104-17 pubmed
  20. Wright A, Jackson I. Myosin diversity and disease. Trends Genet. 1996;12:206-9 pubmed
  21. Franke J, Boury A, Gerald N, Kiehart D. Native nonmuscle myosin II stability and light chain binding in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2006;63:604-22 pubmed
    ..We identify four myosins (myosin II, myosin V, myosin VI and myosin VIIA) and a microtubule-associated protein (asp/Abnormal spindle) as binding partners for the ..
  22. Titus M. Getting to the point with myosin VI. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R294-7 pubmed
    ..opposite to all other known myosins, taken together with analyses of mutant flies and mice, suggests that, instead of moving vesicles out towards the cell periphery, myosin VI more likely brings materials or membranes into the cell.
  23. Geisbrecht E, Montell D. A role for Drosophila IAP1-mediated caspase inhibition in Rac-dependent cell migration. Cell. 2004;118:111-25 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an apoptosis-independent role for DIAP1-mediated Dronc inhibition in Rac-mediated cell motility. ..
  24. Kiehart D. Myosins motor Miranda. Mol Cell. 2003;12:1346-7 pubmed
    ..New evidence shows that myosin motors drive the spatial segregation of cell fate determinants during asymmetric cell division. How they do so remains a mystery. ..
  25. Ribeiro C, Petit V, Affolter M. Signaling systems, guided cell migration, and organogenesis: insights from genetic studies in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2003;260:1-8 pubmed
  26. Yamashita R, Sellers J, Anderson J. Identification and analysis of the myosin superfamily in Drosophila: a database approach. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2000;21:491-505 pubmed
    ..In the future comparative genomics will hopefully lead to the placement of these myosins into new classes. ..
  27. Joshi M, Moran S, Beckingham K, MacKenzie K. Structure of androcam supports specialized interactions with myosin VI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13290-5 pubmed publisher
    Androcam replaces calmodulin as a tissue-specific myosin VI light chain on the actin cones that mediate D. melanogaster spermatid individualization...
  28. Betschinger J, Knoblich J. Dare to be different: asymmetric cell division in Drosophila, C. elegans and vertebrates. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R674-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we outline the steps and factors that are involved in this process in Drosophila and C. elegans and discuss their potential conservation in vertebrates. ..
  29. Llense F, Martin Blanco E. JNK signaling controls border cell cluster integrity and collective cell migration. Curr Biol. 2008;18:538-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We anticipate a role for the JNK pathway in controlling collective cell movements in other morphogenetic and clinical models. ..
  30. Ducuing A, Keeley C, Mollereau B, Vincent S. A DPP-mediated feed-forward loop canalizes morphogenesis during Drosophila dorsal closure. J Cell Biol. 2015;208:239-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the main function of DPP pathway during Drosophila DC is to ensure robust morphogenesis, a distinct function from its well-established ability to spread spatial information. ..
  31. Desai B, Shirolikar S, Ray K. F-actin-based extensions of the head cyst cell adhere to the maturing spermatids to maintain them in a tight bundle and prevent their premature release in Drosophila testis. BMC Biol. 2009;7:19 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to actin, these structures contained lamin, beta-catenin, dynamin, myosin VI and several other filopodial components...
  32. Lu J, Bergert M, Walther A, Suter B. Double-sieving-defective aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase causes protein mistranslation and affects cellular physiology and development. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5650 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also reveal the particular importance of the first amino-acid recognition sieve. Overall, these findings provide new mechanistic insights into how malfunctioning of aaRSs can cause diseases. ..
  33. Yang Y, Kovacs M, Sakamoto T, Zhang F, Kiehart D, Sellers J. Dimerized Drosophila myosin VIIa: a processive motor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5746-51 pubmed
    ..In cells, this kinetic behavior would allow myosin VIIa to exert and hold tension on actin filaments and, if dimerized, to function as a processive cargo transporter. ..
  34. Steinhauer J, Gijón M, Riekhof W, Voelker D, Murphy R, Treisman J. Drosophila lysophospholipid acyltransferases are specifically required for germ cell development. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:5224-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity is essential for germline development and could provide a mechanistic explanation for the etiology of the human MBOAT1 mutation. ..
  35. Sousa Nunes R, Chia W, Somers W. Protein phosphatase 4 mediates localization of the Miranda complex during Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric divisions. Genes Dev. 2009;23:359-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that Flfl may target PP4 to the MIra protein complex to facilitate dephosphorylation step(s) crucial for its cortical association/asymmetric localization. ..
  36. Miller K. Role of the actin cytoskeleton in early Drosophila development. Curr Top Dev Biol. 1995;31:167-96 pubmed
  37. Schober M, Perrimon N. Unconventional ways to travel. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:E211-2 pubmed
  38. Lin C, Katanaev V. Kermit interacts with G?o, Vang, and motor proteins in Drosophila planar cell polarity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76885 pubmed publisher
    ..differentially relies on the motor proteins: the microtubule-based dynein and kinesin motors and the actin-based myosin VI. Our results place Kermit as a potential transducer of Go, linking Vang with motor proteins for its delivery to ..
  39. Frank D, Martin S, Gruender B, Lee Y, Simonette R, Bayley P, et al. Androcam is a tissue-specific light chain for myosin VI in the Drosophila testis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:24728-36 pubmed
    b>Myosin VI, a ubiquitously expressed unconventional myosin, has roles in a broad array of biological processes. Unusual for this motor family, myosin VI moves toward the minus (pointed) end of actin filaments...
  40. Torres I, Lopez Schier H, St Johnston D. A Notch/Delta-dependent relay mechanism establishes anterior-posterior polarity in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;5:547-58 pubmed
    ..The anterior-posterior axis is therefore established by a relay mechanism, which propagates polarity from one cyst to the next. ..
  41. Mendes Maia T, Gogendeau D, Pennetier C, Janke C, Basto R. Bug22 influences cilium morphology and the post-translational modification of ciliary microtubules. Biol Open. 2014;3:138-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work identifies Bug22 as a protein that plays a conserved role in the regulation of PTMs of the ciliary axoneme. ..
  42. Petzoldt A, Coutelis J, Géminard C, Spéder P, Suzanne M, Cerezo D, et al. DE-Cadherin regulates unconventional Myosin ID and Myosin IC in Drosophila left-right asymmetry establishment. Development. 2012;139:1874-84 pubmed publisher
  43. Isaji M, Lenartowska M, Noguchi T, Frank D, Miller K. Myosin VI regulates actin structure specialization through conserved cargo-binding domain sites. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22755 pubmed publisher
    ..During Drosophila spermatid individualization, long-lived actin cones mediate cellular remodeling. Myosin VI is necessary for building the dense meshwork at the cones' fronts...
  44. Berg J, Powell B, Cheney R. A millennial myosin census. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:780-94 pubmed
  45. Bohrmann J. Drosophila unconventional myosin VI is involved in intra- and intercellular transport during oogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1997;53:652-62 pubmed
    ..fluorescence timelapse microscopy, in combination with microinjections of antibodies directed against Drosophila 95F myosin, have revealed that this unconventional myosin of class VI is involved in the transport processes...
  46. Choi W, Jung K, Nelson K, Bhat M, Beitel G, Peifer M, et al. The single Drosophila ZO-1 protein Polychaetoid regulates embryonic morphogenesis in coordination with Canoe/afadin and Enabled. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2010-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Canoe (Cno) and Pyd are required for proper Ena localization during dorsal closure, and strong genetic interactions suggest that Cno, Pyd, and Ena act together in regulating or anchoring the actin cytoskeleton during dorsal closure. ..
  47. Muller U, Littlewood Evans A. Mechanisms that regulate mechanosensory hair cell differentiation. Trends Cell Biol. 2001;11:334-42 pubmed
    ..The studies have also provided new insights into the function of receptors such as integrins and protocadherins, and cytoplasmic proteins such as Rho-type GTPases and unconventional myosins, in organizing the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  48. Pathak D, Sepp K, Hollenbeck P. Evidence that myosin activity opposes microtubule-based axonal transport of mitochondria. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8984-92 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myosin VI depletion increased the same movement parameters but was selective for retrograde movement, whereas myosin II ..
  49. Deng W, Leaper K, Bownes M. A targeted gene silencing technique shows that Drosophila myosin VI is required for egg chamber and imaginal disc morphogenesis. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 21):3677-90 pubmed
    We report that Drosophila unconventional myosin VI, encoded by Myosin heavy chain at 95F (Mhc95F), is required for both imaginal disc and egg chamber morphogenesis...
  50. Schnall Levin M, Zhao Y, Perrimon N, Berger B. Conserved microRNA targeting in Drosophila is as widespread in coding regions as in 3'UTRs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15751-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further evidence suggests that our results extend to mammals, but that the extent of ORF and 5'UTR targeting relative to 3'UTR targeting may be greater in Drosophila. ..
  51. Tuxworth R, Chia W. Asymmetric cell division: Miranda chauffeured by Jaguar?. Mol Cell. 2003;11:288-9 pubmed
    ..An intact F-actin cytoskeleton was known to be required, and now a myosin VI (Jaguar) has been shown to be necessary for basal targeting of cell fate determinants in neuroblasts.
  52. Beaven R, Dzhindzhev N, Qu Y, Hahn I, Dajas Bailador F, Ohkura H, et al. Drosophila CLIP-190 and mammalian CLIP-170 display reduced microtubule plus end association in the nervous system. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:1491-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that +TIP functions known from nonneuronal cells do not necessarily apply to the regulation of the very distinct MT networks in axons. ..
  53. Lenartowska M, Isaji M, Miller K. A pre-embedding immunogold approach reveals localization of myosin VI at the ultrastructural level in the actin cones that mediate Drosophila spermatid individualization. Protoplasma. 2012;249:337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myosin VI is an important player in proper actin cone organization and function...
  54. Sisson J, Field C, Ventura R, Royou A, Sullivan W. Lava lamp, a novel peripheral golgi protein, is required for Drosophila melanogaster cellularization. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:905-18 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with the idea that animal cell cytokinesis depends on both actomyosin-based contraction and Golgi-derived membrane secretion. ..
  55. Sloboda R. Membrane trafficking and the cytoskeleton: an integrated view. ASCB/EMBO/Dudley Wright Summer Research Conference, Santa Maria Imbaro, Italy, June 26-30, 1999. EMBO J. 1999;18:5447-52 pubmed