Gene Symbol: ix
Description: intersex
Alias: CG13201, Dmel\CG13201, MED29, Med29, intersex, CG13201-PA, ix-PA, mediator complex subunit 29
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Zarkower D. Establishing sexual dimorphism: conservation amidst diversity?. Nat Rev Genet. 2001;2:175-85 pubmed
    ..Studies of sex-determining mechanisms are beginning to reveal how sexual dimorphism arises and evolves. ..
  2. Shirangi T, Taylor B, McKeown M. A double-switch system regulates male courtship behavior in male and female Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1435-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, we show that fru and dsx together act as a 'switch' system regulating behavior in the context of other developmental genes, such as retn. ..
  3. Chatterjee R, Chatterjee P, Kuthe S, Acharyya Ari M, Chatterjee R. Intersex (ix) mutations of Drosophila melanogaster cause nonrandom cell death in genital disc and can induce tumours in genitals in response to decapentaplegic (dpp(disk)) mutations. J Genet. 2015;94:207-20 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, the intersex (ix) is a terminally positioned gene in somatic sex determination hierarchy and function with the female specific product of double sex (DSX(F)) to implement female sexual differentiation...
  4. Schupbach T. Autosomal mutations that interfere with sex determination in somatic cells of Drosophila have no direct effect on the germline. Dev Biol. 1982;89:117-27 pubmed
  5. Pauli D, Mahowald A. Germ-line sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster. Trends Genet. 1990;6:259-64 pubmed
    ..Only some of the genes involved in somatic sex determination are also needed for germ cell development. Recent genetic studies have identified loci required for germ-line sex determination. ..
  6. Sanders L, Arbeitman M. Doublesex establishes sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila central nervous system in an isoform-dependent manner by directing cell number. Dev Biol. 2008;320:378-90 pubmed publisher
  7. Yang Y, Zhang W, Bayrer J, Weiss M. Doublesex and the regulation of sexual dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster: structure, function, and mutagenesis of a female-specific domain. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7280-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Ala substitutions in the proximal tail disrupt the sex-specific binding of IX (Intersex), an obligatory partner protein and putative transcriptional coactivator; IX-DSX F interaction is, by contrast, ..
  8. Chase B, Baker B. A genetic analysis of intersex, a gene regulating sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster females. Genetics. 1995;139:1649-61 pubmed
    ..The genetic analysis of the intersex (ix) gene presented here demonstrates that ix is such a terminally positioned regulatory locus...
  9. Hodgkin J. Sex determination compared in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis. Nature. 1990;344:721-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the underlying molecular mechanisms appear to be very different in these two species. Developmental processes such as sex determination need not be strongly conserved in evolution. ..

More Information


  1. Tarone A, Nasser Y, Nuzhdin S. Genetic variation for expression of the sex determination pathway genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 2005;86:31-40 pubmed
    ..Expression of Sex lethal, transformer, transformer2, doublesex, intersex and hermaphrodite was assayed with quantitative RT-PCR in 0- to 1-day-old adult males and females of 36 ..
  2. Siegal M, Baker B. Functional conservation and divergence of intersex, a gene required for female differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genes Evol. 2005;215:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this, we cloned insect and vertebrate homologs of the Drosophila gene intersex (ix), which functions together with dsx at the bottom of the hierarchy in females. When expressed in D...
  3. Bownes M. The regulation of the yolk protein genes, a family of sex differentiation genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioessays. 1994;16:745-52 pubmed
  4. Zhu L, Wilken J, Phillips N, Narendra U, Chan G, Stratton S, et al. Sexual dimorphism in diverse metazoans is regulated by a novel class of intertwined zinc fingers. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1750-64 pubmed
    ..Mutations in either Zn(2+)-binding site or tail can lead to an intersex phenotype. The motif binds in the DNA minor groove without sharp DNA bending...
  5. Baker B, Belote J. Sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. Annu Rev Genet. 1983;17:345-93 pubmed
  6. Bourbon H, Aguilera A, Ansari A, Asturias F, Berk A, Bjorklund S, et al. A unified nomenclature for protein subunits of mediator complexes linking transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell. 2004;14:553-7 pubmed
  7. Taylor B, Villella A, Ryner L, Baker B, Hall J. Behavioral and neurobiological implications of sex-determining factors in Drosophila. Dev Genet. 1994;15:275-96 pubmed
  8. Acharyya M, Chatterjee R. Genetic analysis of an intersex allele (ix5) that regulates sexual phenotype of both female and male Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 2002;80:7-14 pubmed
    An allele of intersex (ix5) of Drosophila melanogaster has been characterized. The genetic analysis of the allele demonstrated that like other point mutations of ix, the ix5 allele also transformed diplo-X individuals into intersexes...
  9. Lee G, Hall J. A newly uncovered phenotype associated with the fruitless gene of Drosophila melanogaster: aggression-like head interactions between mutant males. Behav Genet. 2000;30:263-75 pubmed
    ..dsf) males also exhibit this behavior at higher-than-normal levels, but it was barely displayed by doublesex or intersex mutants...
  10. Taylor B. Differentiation of a male-specific muscle in Drosophila melanogaster does not require the sex-determining genes doublesex or intersex. Genetics. 1992;132:179-91 pubmed
    ..However, there is no role for the genes doublesex or intersex in either the generation of the male-specific muscles in males or their suppression in females.
  11. McRobert S, Tompkins L. The effect of transformer, doublesex and intersex mutations on the sexual behavior of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1985;111:89-96 pubmed
    ..do this, we monitored the sexual behaviors of flies with mutations in the transformer (tra), doublesex (dsx) and intersex (ix) genes...
  12. Steinmann Zwicky M. How do germ cells choose their sex? Drosophila as a paradigm. Bioessays. 1992;14:513-8 pubmed
    ..Some of the genes that are involved in germ line sex determination have been identified. In other species, including vertebrates, inductive signals are commonly used to determine the sex of germ cells. ..
  13. Cline T, Meyer B. Vive la différence: males vs females in flies vs worms. Annu Rev Genet. 1996;30:637-702 pubmed
    ..Although no overlap has been found among the molecules used by flies and worms to achieve sex determination, striking similarities have been found in the genetic strategies used by these two species to differentiate their sexes. ..
  14. Parkhurst S, Meneely P. Sex determination and dosage compensation: lessons from flies and worms. Science. 1994;264:924-32 pubmed
    ..Instead, the study of sex determination and dosage compensation is providing more general lessons about different types of signaling pathways used to control alternative developmental states of cells and organisms. ..
  15. Nothiger R, Steinmann Zwicky M. Genetics of sex determination: what can we learn from Drosophila?. Development. 1987;101 Suppl:17-24 pubmed
  16. Li H, Baker B. Her, a gene required for sexual differentiation in Drosophila, encodes a zinc finger protein with characteristics of ZFY-like proteins and is expressed independently of the sex determination hierarchy. Development. 1998;125:225-35 pubmed
    ..genes and that it acts together with the last genes in the sex determination hierarchy, doublesex and intersex, to control female sexual differentiation...
  17. O Dell K, Kaiser K. Sexual behaviour: secrets and flies. Curr Biol. 1997;7:R345-7 pubmed
    ..Recent studies of Drosophila courtship mutants provide a molecular foundation for sexual orientation and behaviour. ..
  18. Amrein H, Axel R. Genes expressed in neurons of adult male Drosophila. Cell. 1997;88:459-69 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the multimeric complex of dosage compensation proteins may operate in different ways on different sets of X-linked genes. ..
  19. Christiansen A, Keisman E, Ahmad S, Baker B. Sex comes in from the cold: the integration of sex and pattern. Trends Genet. 2002;18:510-6 pubmed
  20. Nagoshi R, McKeown M, Burtis K, Belote J, Baker B. The control of alternative splicing at genes regulating sexual differentiation in D. melanogaster. Cell. 1988;53:229-36 pubmed
    ..sex is X:A greater than Sxl greater than tra greater than tra-2 greater than dsx greater than or equal to ix greater than terminal differentiation...
  21. Wilkins A. Moving up the hierarchy: a hypothesis on the evolution of a genetic sex determination pathway. Bioessays. 1995;17:71-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, the specific molecular and population genetic questions that the model raises are described and some tests are proposed. ..
  22. Marx J. Tracing how the sexes develop. Science. 1995;269:1822-4 pubmed
  23. Kyriacou C. Sex variations. Trends Genet. 1992;8:261-3 pubmed
  24. Waterbury J, Jackson L, Schedl P. Analysis of the doublesex female protein in Drosophila melanogaster: role on sexual differentiation and behavior and dependence on intersex. Genetics. 1999;152:1653-67 pubmed
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that intersex is required for the feminizing activities of Dsx(F) and that it is not regulated by the sex-specific splicing ..
  25. Garrett Engele C, Siegal M, Manoli D, Williams B, Li H, Baker B. intersex, a gene required for female sexual development in Drosophila, is expressed in both sexes and functions together with doublesex to regulate terminal differentiation. Development. 2002;129:4661-75 pubmed
    Previous genetic studies indicated intersex (ix) functions only in females and that it acts near the end of the sex determination hierarchy to control somatic sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster...