Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: inaC
Description: inactivation no afterpotential C
Alias: CG6518, Dmel\CG6518, Dpkc2, INAC, InaC, PK-C, PKC, PKC 53E, PKC2, PKCi, PKCinac, Pkc2, dPKC53E, dPKC53E(ey), ePKC, eye PKC, eye-PKC, eyePKC, inac, pkc-2, inactivation no afterpotential C, CG6518-PA, PKC-eye, Protein-kinase-2, eye-PKC, eye-protein-kinase C, eye-specific PKC, inaC-PA, protein kinase C, protein kinase-c2, protein-kinase-C
Species: fruit fly
- Venkatachalam K, Wasserman D, Wang X, Li R, Mills E, Elsaesser R, et al. Dependence on a retinophilin/myosin complex for stability of PKC and INAD and termination of phototransduction. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11337-45 pubmed publisher..approaches in Drosophila led to the identification of several proteins required for termination, including protein kinase C (PKC), NINAC (neither inactivation nor afterpotential C) p174, which consists of fused protein kinase and ..
- Shieh B, Parker L, Popescu D. Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in Drosophila. J Biochem. 2002;132:523-7 pubmedSix protein kinase C (PKC) genes are present in Drosophila, comprising two classical PKCs (PKC53E and eye-PKC), two novel PKCs (PKC98E and PKCdelta), an atypical PKC (DaPKC), and a PKC-related kinase...
- Broughton S, Kane N, Arthur B, Yoder M, Greenspan R, Robichon A. Endogenously inhibited protein kinase C in transgenic Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts down regulates the outgrowth of type I and II processes of cultured mature neurons. J Cell Biochem. 1996;60:584-99 pubmed..cultured from transgenic Drosophila melanogaster expressing a highly specific pseudosubstrate inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC)...
- Ranganathan R, Harris G, Stevens C, Zuker C. A Drosophila mutant defective in extracellular calcium-dependent photoreceptor deactivation and rapid desensitization. Nature. 1991;354:230-2 pubmed..is a key regulator of both the activation and deactivation phases of the phototransduction cascade, and that inaC mutant photoreceptors are specifically defective in the calcium-dependent deactivation mechanism...
- Chyb S, Raghu P, Hardie R. Polyunsaturated fatty acids activate the Drosophila light-sensitive channels TRP and TRPL. Nature. 1999;397:255-9 pubmed..As arachidonic acid may not be found in Drosophila, we suggest that another polyunsaturated fatty acid, such as linolenic acid, may be a messenger of excitation in Drosophila photoreceptors. ..
- Mecklenburg K, Takemori N, Komori N, Chu B, Hardie R, Matsumoto H, et al. Retinophilin is a light-regulated phosphoprotein required to suppress photoreceptor dark noise in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1238-49 pubmed publisher..We propose that RTP is a light-regulated phosphoprotein that organizes rhabdomeric components to suppress random activation of the phototransduction cascade and thus increases the signaling fidelity of dark-adapted photoreceptors. ..
- Smith D, Ranganathan R, Hardy R, Marx J, Tsuchida T, Zuker C. Photoreceptor deactivation and retinal degeneration mediated by a photoreceptor-specific protein kinase C. Science. 1991;254:1478-84 pubmedThe protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine-threonine kinases has been implicated in the regulation of a variety of signaling cascades. One member of this family, eye-PKC, is expressed exclusively in the Drosophila visual system...
- Voolstra O, Bartels J, Oberegelsbacher C, Pfannstiel J, Huber A. Phosphorylation of the Drosophila transient receptor potential ion channel is regulated by the phototransduction cascade and involves several protein kinases and phosphatases. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73787 pubmed publisher..TRP generates the receptor potential upon stimulation of the photoreceptor cell by light. An eye-enriched protein kinase C (eye-PKC) has been implicated in the phosphorylation of TRP by in vitro studies...
- Fanning A, Anderson J. Protein modules as organizers of membrane structure. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1999;11:432-9 pubmed..The organization of these proteins into discreet structures has functional consequences for downstream signaling. ..
- Adamski F, Zhu M, Bahiraei F, Shieh B. Interaction of eye protein kinase C and INAD in Drosophila. Localization of binding domains and electrophysiological characterization of a loss of association in transgenic flies. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:17713-9 pubmedDrosophila eye-specific protein kinase C (eye-PKC) is involved in light adaptation and deactivation...
- Liu M, Parker L, Wadzinski B, Shieh B. Reversible phosphorylation of the signal transduction complex in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12194-9 pubmed..TRP) calcium channel, phospholipase Cbeta (no-receptor-potential A), and an eye-specific isoform of protein kinase C (eye-PKC) comprise a multimolecular signaling complex via their interaction with the scaffold protein INAD...
- Xu X, Choudhury A, Li X, Montell C. Coordination of an array of signaling proteins through homo- and heteromeric interactions between PDZ domains and target proteins. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:545-55 pubmed..The INAD signaling complex also includes rhodopsin, protein kinase C (PKC), and calmodulin, though it is not known whether these proteins bind to INAD...
- Chevesich J, Kreuz A, Montell C. Requirement for the PDZ domain protein, INAD, for localization of the TRP store-operated channel to a signaling complex. Neuron. 1997;18:95-105 pubmed..Furthermore, disruption of this interaction results in retinal degeneration. We propose that the TRP channel is linked to NORPA and RH1 to facilitate feedback regulation of these upstream signaling molecules. ..
- Li H, Montell C. TRP and the PDZ protein, INAD, form the core complex required for retention of the signalplex in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:1411-22 pubmed..Other proteins that depend on INAD for localization, phospholipase C and protein kinase C, also mislocalized...
- Tsunoda S, Sierralta J, Sun Y, Bodner R, Suzuki E, Becker A, et al. A multivalent PDZ-domain protein assembles signalling complexes in a G-protein-coupled cascade. Nature. 1997;388:243-9 pubmed..cascade, including the principal light-activated ion channels, the effector phospholipase C-beta and protein kinase C. Null inaD mutants have a dramatically reorganized subcellular distribution of signalling molecules, and a ..
- Shieh B, Zhu M, Lee J, Kelly I, Bahiraei F. Association of INAD with NORPA is essential for controlled activation and deactivation of Drosophila phototransduction in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12682-7 pubmed..Immunoprecipitation studies indicate that INAD also binds to eye-specific protein kinase C and the phospholipase C, no-receptor-potential A (NORPA)...
- Lee S, Montell C. Suppression of constant-light-induced blindness but not retinal degeneration by inhibition of the rhodopsin degradation pathway. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2076-85 pubmed..Our results support a model in which visual impairment caused by continuous illumination occurs through an arrestin-dependent pathway that promotes degradation of rhodopsin. ..
- Wang N, Leung H, Pak W, Carl Y, Wadzinski B, Shieh B. Role of protein phosphatase 2A in regulating the visual signaling in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1444-51 pubmed publisher..To explore whether PP2A (MTS) regulates dephosphorylation of INAD by counteracting eye-PKC [INAC (inactivation no afterpotential C] in vivo, we performed ERG recordings...
- Peng L, Popescu D, Wang N, Shieh B. Anchoring TRP to the INAD macromolecular complex requires the last 14 residues in its carboxyl terminus. J Neurochem. 2008;104:1526-35 pubmed..leading to the co-purification of a partial INAD complex containing INAD, no-receptor-potential A, and eye-protein kinase C (PKC)...
- Tsunoda S, Sun Y, Suzuki E, Zuker C. Independent anchoring and assembly mechanisms of INAD signaling complexes in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2001;21:150-8 pubmed..a macromolecular signaling complex containing the effector PLC, the light-activated TRP channels, and a regulatory PKC. Previously, we showed that the subcellular localization of INAD signaling complexes is critical for signaling...
- Voolstra O, Beck K, Oberegelsbacher C, Pfannstiel J, Huber A. Light-dependent phosphorylation of the drosophila transient receptor potential ion channel. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:14275-84 pubmed publisher..mutant, indicating that phosphorylation of TRP at these sites occurred independently from the eye-enriched protein kinase C. Relative quantification of phosphopeptides revealed that at least seven phosphorylation sites were ..
- Huang J, Liu C, Hughes S, Postma M, Schwiening C, Hardie R. Activation of TRP channels by protons and phosphoinositide depletion in Drosophila photoreceptors. Curr Biol. 2010;20:189-97 pubmed publisher..Together with the demonstration of light-induced, PLC-dependent acidification, this suggests that excitation in Drosophila photoreceptors may be mediated by PLC's dual action of phosphoinositide depletion and proton release. ..
- Lee S, Xu H, Kang L, Amzel L, Montell C. Light adaptation through phosphoinositide-regulated translocation of Drosophila visual arrestin. Neuron. 2003;39:121-32 pubmed..Since phospholipase C activity is required for activation of Drosophila phototransduction, these data point to a dual role of PIs in phototransduction. ..
- Kane N, Robichon A, Dickinson J, Greenspan R. Learning without performance in PKC-deficient Drosophila. Neuron. 1997;18:307-14 pubmed..Transgenic flies specifically inhibited for the enzyme protein kinase C dissociate the acquisition of learning and memory from performance of the task...
- Shieh B, Zhu M. Regulation of the TRP Ca2+ channel by INAD in Drosophila photoreceptors. Neuron. 1996;16:991-8 pubmed..Given the impaired electrophysiology of the InaD mutant, this novel interaction suggests that INAD functions as a regulatory subunit of the TRP Ca2+ channel. ..
- Schaeffer E, Smith D, Mardon G, Quinn W, Zuker C. Isolation and characterization of two new drosophila protein kinase C genes, including one specifically expressed in photoreceptor cells. Cell. 1989;57:403-12 pubmedWe have isolated and characterized two new protein kinase C (PKC) genes from D. melanogaster...
- Gu Y, Oberwinkler J, Postma M, Hardie R. Mechanisms of light adaptation in Drosophila photoreceptors. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1228-34 pubmed..Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of PLC, but not the LIC, was impaired in mutants (inaC) of protein kinase C (PKC)...
- Taraszka J, Kurulugama R, Sowell R, Valentine S, Koeniger S, Arnold R, et al. Mapping the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster: analysis of embryos and adult heads by LC-IMS-MS methods. J Proteome Res. 2005;4:1223-37 pubmed..All of this information is discussed in terms of the relationship between the predicted genome, and measured transcriptomes and proteomes. Additionally, the merits and weaknesses of current technologies are assessed in some detail. ..
- Pak W. Drosophila in vision research. The Friedenwald Lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995;36:2340-57 pubmed
- Astorga G, Hartel S, Sanhueza M, Bacigalupo J. TRP, TRPL and cacophony channels mediate Ca2+ influx and exocytosis in photoreceptors axons in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44182 pubmed publisher..Other phototransduction proteins are also present, mainly PLC and protein kinase C, while rhodopsin is absent. The voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel cacophony is also present there...
- Elsaesser R, Kalra D, Li R, Montell C. Light-induced translocation of Drosophila visual Arrestin2 depends on Rac2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4740-5 pubmed publisher..Our findings demonstrate that light-induced translocation of Arr2 occurs through a noncanonical rhodopsin/Rac2 pathway, which is distinct from the classical phototransduction cascade. ..
- Han J, Gong P, Reddig K, Mitra M, Guo P, Li H. The fly CAMTA transcription factor potentiates deactivation of rhodopsin, a G protein-coupled light receptor. Cell. 2006;127:847-58 pubmed..Our data suggest that calmodulin/CAMTA/Fbxl4 may mediate a long-term feedback regulation of the activity of Ca(2+)-stimulating GPCRs, which could prevent cell damage due to extra Ca(2+) influx. ..
- Matsumoto H, Kurien B, Takagi Y, Kahn E, Kinumi T, Komori N, et al. Phosrestin I undergoes the earliest light-induced phosphorylation by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in Drosophila photoreceptors. Neuron. 1994;12:997-1010 pubmedActivation of PI-PLC initiates two independent branches of protein phosphorylation cascades catalyzed by either PKC or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)...
- Hardie R, Minke B. Novel Ca2+ channels underlying transduction in Drosophila photoreceptors: implications for phosphoinositide-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Trends Neurosci. 1993;16:371-6 pubmed
- Colomb J, Brembs B. PKC in motorneurons underlies self-learning, a form of motor learning in Drosophila. Peerj. 2016;4:e1971 pubmed publisher..Previous work had shown that Protein Kinase C (PKC) and the transcription factor dFoxP were specifically involved in self-learning, but not in other forms ..
- Huang H, Klein P. The Frizzled family: receptors for multiple signal transduction pathways. Genome Biol. 2004;5:234 pubmed..It is not yet clear how Frizzleds couple to downstream effectors, and this is a focus of intense study. ..
- Murali T, Pacifico S, Finley R. Integrating the interactome and the transcriptome of Drosophila. BMC Bioinformatics. 2014;15:177 pubmed publisher..This organization implies that tissue or stage specific networks can be best identified from interactome data by using filters designed to include both ubiquitously expressed and specifically expressed genes and proteins. ..
- Chen J, Zhang Y, Shen P. A protein kinase C activity localized to neuropeptide Y-like neurons mediates ethanol intoxication in Drosophila melanogaster. Neuroscience. 2008;156:42-7 pubmed publisher..Here we report a critical role of the conserved protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in mediating the intoxicating effect of ethanol...
- Cronin M, Lieu M, Tsunoda S. Two stages of light-dependent TRPL-channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2935-44 pubmed..Genetic analyses suggest that activation of the other light-activated TRP channel and eye-protein-kinase C (eye-PKC) are both required for the second stage of TRPL translocation in R1 to R6 photoreceptor cells, whereas only ..
- Wang T, Jiao Y, Montell C. Dissecting independent channel and scaffolding roles of the Drosophila transient receptor potential channel. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:685-94 pubmed..This retinal degeneration was greatly suppressed by elimination of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, CalX, indicating that the cell death was due primarily to deficient Ca(2+) entry rather than disruption of the TRP-anchoring function. ..
- Hardie R, Minke B. Calcium-dependent inactivation of light-sensitive channels in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 1994;103:409-27 pubmed..light-sensitive channel, but appears unaffected by the inaC mutant which lacks an eye-specific protein kinase C. Hyperpolarizing voltage steps applied during light responses in wild-type (WT) flies before rundown induce a ..
- Hardie R, Liu C, Randall A, Sengupta S. In vivo tracking of phosphoinositides in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:4328-40 pubmed publisher..dimmer intensities in mutants lacking Ca(2+)-permeable transient receptor potential (TRP) channels or protein kinase C (PKC)...
- Landry C, Castillo Davis C, Ogura A, Liu J, Hartl D. Systems-level analysis and evolution of the phototransduction network in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3283-8 pubmed..These results provide a preliminary quantification of variation and divergence of gene expression between species in a known gene network and provide a foundation for a system-level understanding of functional and evolutionary change. ..
- Suh P, Hwang J, Ryu S, Donowitz M, Kim J. The roles of PDZ-containing proteins in PLC-beta-mediated signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;288:1-7 pubmed..E3KARP up-regulates the PLC-beta3 activation coupled to muscarinic receptor. In this review, the role of signaling complexes mediated by PDZ-containing proteins in the regulation of PLC-beta isoforms will be discussed. ..
- Hardie R. Phototransduction in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:3403-9 pubmed
- Harteneck C. Proteins modulating TRP channel function. Cell Calcium. 2003;33:303-10 pubmed..The prototype of calcium-binding protein used for experiments is calmodulin; whether or not calmodulin is also the natural interaction partner of TRP channels is an open question. ..
- Ranganathan R, Harris W, Zuker C. The molecular genetics of invertebrate phototransduction. Trends Neurosci. 1991;14:486-93 pubmed..The results of a combination of molecular, genetic, physiological and biochemical studies are beginning to produce a clearer model for the complex mechanisms involved in invertebrate visual transduction. ..
- Selinger Z, Doza Y, Minke B. Mechanisms and genetics of photoreceptors desensitization in Drosophila flies. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1179:283-99 pubmed
- Han J, Reddig K, Li H. Prolonged G(q) activity triggers fly rhodopsin endocytosis and degradation, and reduces photoreceptor sensitivity. EMBO J. 2007;26:4966-73 pubmed..Our work has identified an arrestin-independent endocytic pathway of G protein-coupled receptor in the fly. This pathway may also function in mammals and mediate an early feedback regulation of receptor signaling. ..
- Rajaram S, Scott R, Nash H. Retrograde signaling from the brain to the retina modulates the termination of the light response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17840-5 pubmed..Although the mechanism of this retrograde signaling remains to be discerned, the phenomenon establishes a previously unappreciated mode of control of the temporal responsiveness of a primary sensory neuron. ..
- Cronin M, Diao F, Tsunoda S. Light-dependent subcellular translocation of Gqalpha in Drosophila photoreceptors is facilitated by the photoreceptor-specific myosin III NINAC. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:4797-806 pubmed
- Peretz A, Sandler C, Kirschfeld K, Hardie R, Minke B. Genetic dissection of light-induced Ca2+ influx into Drosophila photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 1994;104:1057-77 pubmed..photoreceptors and that the trp mutation blocks a large fraction of this Ca2+ influx, while the absence of eye specific PKC leads to enhancement of light-induced Ca2+ influx...
- Masai I, Suzuki E, Yoon C, Kohyama A, Hotta Y. Immunolocalization of Drosophila eye-specific diacylgylcerol kinase, rdgA, which is essential for the maintenance of the photoreceptor. J Neurobiol. 1997;32:695-706 pubmed..The analysis of the eyes of mutants homozygous for rdgA and eye-protein kinase C mutations indicates that retinal degeneration is caused by the deficiency of PA rather than excessive ..
- Chen Z, Chen H, Montell C. TRP and Rhodopsin Transport Depends on Dual XPORT ER Chaperones Encoded by an Operon. Cell Rep. 2015;13:573-584 pubmed publisher..Our work highlights a coordinated network of chaperones required for the biosynthesis of the TRP channel and rhodopsin in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. ..
- Voolstra O, SpÃ¤t P, Oberegelsbacher C, Claussen B, Pfannstiel J, Huber A. Light-dependent phosphorylation of the Drosophila inactivation no afterpotential D (INAD) scaffolding protein at Thr170 and Ser174 by eye-specific protein kinase C. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0122039 pubmed publisher..INAD phosphorylation at Thr170/Ser174 depends on light, the phototransduction cascade, and on eye-Protein kinase C that is attached to INAD via one of its PDZ domains.
- Sha K, Choi S, Im J, Lee G, Loeffler F, Park J. Regulation of ethanol-related behavior and ethanol metabolism by the Corazonin neurons and Corazonin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e87062 pubmed publisher..Our study provides new insights into the neuroendocrine-associated ethanol-related behavior and metabolism. ..
- Wheeler D, Nijhout H. A perspective for understanding the modes of juvenile hormone action as a lipid signaling system. Bioessays. 2003;25:994-1001 pubmed..Since small lipids can be inserted into many different pathways, lipid-activated proteins have evolved to play a great diversity of roles in physiology and development. ..
- Lee H, Rohila S, Han K. The octopamine receptor OAMB mediates ovulation via Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the Drosophila oviduct epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4716 pubmed publisher..It is conceivable that the OAMB-mediated cellular activities stimulated upon mating are crucial for secretory activities suitable for egg transfer from the ovary to the uterus. ..
- Robinson L, Marchant J. Calcium influx: beyond 'current' biology. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R548-50 pubmed..This huge advance will enable molecular dissection of the CRAC channel complex, moving the field beyond Icrac signature to structure. ..
- Bahner M, Sander P, Paulsen R, Huber A. The visual G protein of fly photoreceptors interacts with the PDZ domain assembled INAD signaling complex via direct binding of activated Galpha(q) to phospholipase cbeta. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:2901-4 pubmed..pathway, including the principal light-activated Ca(2+) channel transient receptor potential, an eye-specific protein kinase C, and the norpA-encoded phospholipase Cbeta, are assembled into a supramolecular signaling complex by the ..
- Lee Y, Shah S, Suzuki E, Zars T, O Day P, Hyde D. The Drosophila dgq gene encodes a G alpha protein that mediates phototransduction. Neuron. 1994;13:1143-57 pubmed..These results indicate that DGq1 mediates the stimulation by light-activated rhodopsin of the norpA-encoded phospholipase C in the visual transduction cascade. ..
- Meunier N, Marion Poll F, Lucas P. Water taste transduction pathway is calcium dependent in Drosophila. Chem Senses. 2009;34:441-9 pubmed publisher..A protein kinase C (PKC) may also be involved as W cell responses were blocked by PKC inhibitors, chelerythrine (IC(50) = 20 ..
- Hiesinger P, Zhai R, Zhou Y, Koh T, Mehta S, Schulze K, et al. Activity-independent prespecification of synaptic partners in the visual map of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1835-43 pubmed..Our data suggest cell-autonomous control of synapse numbers as part of a developmental program of activity-independent steps that lead to a "hard-wired" visual map in the fly brain. ..
- Smith D. Olfactory mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1996;6:500-5 pubmed..In addition, members of the family of invertebrate odorant-binding proteins have been identified in Drosophila and may play an important role in the olfactory process. ..