Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: imd
Description: immune deficiency
Alias: BG5, CG5576, Dmel\CG5576, IMD, Imd, anon-WO0172774.166, shadok, CG5576-PA, CG5576-PB, imd-PA, imd-PB, immune deficient, immunodeficiency
Species: fruit fly
- The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adultsB Lemaitre
Institut de Biologie Moléculaire at Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France
Cell 86:973-83. 1996..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways.
- A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defenseB Lemaitre
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9465-9. 1995In this paper we report a recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), that impairs the inducibility of all genes encoding antibacterial peptides during the immune response of Drosophila...
- Pathogen entrapment by transglutaminase--a conserved early innate immune mechanismZhi Wang
Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000763. 2010..nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria while neither phagocytosis, phenoloxidase or-as previously shown-the Toll or imd pathway contribute to immunity...
- Two roles for the Drosophila IKK complex in the activation of Relish and the induction of antimicrobial peptide genesDeniz Erturk-Hasdemir
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9779-84. 2009..Instead they are critical for recruitment of RNA polymerase II and antimicrobial peptide gene induction, whereas IKK functions noncatalytically to support Dredd-mediated cleavage of Relish...
- The phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora infects Drosophila and activates an immune responseA Basset
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:3376-81. 2000....
- Caspar, a suppressor of antibacterial immunity in DrosophilaMyungjin Kim
National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373 1 Kusong Dong, Yusong, Taejon 305 701, Korea
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:16358-63. 2006..Consistent with these physiological phenotypes, Caspar negatively regulated the immune deficiency (Imd)-mediated immune responses by blocking nuclear translocation of Relish, an NF-kappaB transcription factor...
- Interactions between the cellular and humoral immune responses in DrosophilaM Elrod-Erickson
Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
Curr Biol 10:781-4. 2000..However, when performed on flies carrying the mutation immune deficiency (imd), which affects the humoral immune response , the treatment results in a striking decrease in resistance to ..
- The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infectionF Leulier
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France
EMBO Rep 1:353-8. 2000....
- The roles of JAK/STAT signaling in Drosophila immune responsesHerve Agaisse
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Immunol Rev 198:72-82. 2004....
- Nitric oxide contributes to induction of innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria in DrosophilaEdan Foley
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
Genes Dev 17:115-25. 2003..NO induction of Diptericin reporters in the fat body required immune deficiency (imd) and domino...
- Caspase-mediated processing of the Drosophila NF-kappaB factor RelishSvenja Stoven
Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:5991-6. 2003..Finally, an N-terminal serine-rich region in Relish and the PEST domain were found to negatively regulate Relish activation...
- The imd gene is required for local Cecropin expression in Drosophila barrier epitheliaT Onfelt Tingvall
Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Arrhenius Laboratories for Natural Sciences, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
EMBO Rep 2:239-43. 2001..The immune deficiency (imd) gene was found to be a crucial component of the signal-induced epidermal expression in both embryos and larvae...
- Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitismElissa A Hallem
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
Curr Biol 17:898-904. 2007....
- The Drosophila immune defense against gram-negative infection requires the death protein dFADDSilvia Naitza
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Cedex, Strasbourg, France
Immunity 17:575-81. 2002Drosophila responds to Gram-negative infections by mounting an immune response that depends on components of the IMD pathway. We recently showed that imd encodes a protein with a death domain with high similarity to that of mammalian RIP...
- Constitutive expression of a single antimicrobial peptide can restore wild-type resistance to infection in immunodeficient Drosophila mutantsPhoebe Tzou
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:2152-7. 2002..peptides in host defense is supported by the observation that flies deficient for the Toll or Immune deficiency (Imd) pathway, which affects AMP gene expression, are extremely susceptible to microbial infection...
- Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in DrosophilaKwang Min Choe
Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 296:359-62. 2002....
- Microfluorometer assay to measure the expression of beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein reporter genes in single Drosophila fliesA C Jung
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France
Biotechniques 30:594-8, 600-1. 2001..This method may be used in any screen that requires the quantification of reporter gene activity in individual insects...
- The immune response of DrosophilaJules A Hoffmann
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nature 426:33-8. 2003..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity...
- Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein LC (PGRP-LC) acts as a signal-transducing innate immune receptorKwang Min Choe
Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:1122-6. 2005..to bacterial infection, acts at the top of a cytoplasmic signaling cascade that requires the death-domain protein Imd and an IkappaB kinase to activate Relish, an NF-kappaB family member...
- Rudra interrupts receptor signaling complexes to negatively regulate the IMD pathwayKamna Aggarwal
Divison of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 4:e1000120. 2008..Antimicrobial peptide gene expression is regulated by the IMD and Toll pathways...
- Drosophila melanogaster as a model for elucidating the pathogenicity of Francisella tularensisMalin Vonkavaara
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umea University, 90185 Umea, Sweden
Cell Microbiol 10:1327-38. 2008..e. production of antimicrobial peptides under control of the imd/Relish signalling pathway, was observed and it may have contributed to the relative resistance to F...
- Drosophila calcineurin promotes induction of innate immune responsesPascale F Dijkers
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 2200, USA
Curr Biol 17:2087-93. 2007..infection with gram-negative bacteria promotes the activation of the Relish transcription factor through the Imd pathway. The activity of this pathway in the larva is modulated by nitric oxide (NO)...
- Two distinct pathways can control expression of the gene encoding the Drosophila antimicrobial peptide metchnikowinE A Levashina
Réponse Immunitaire et Développement chez les Insectes, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, Strasbourg, 67000, France
J Mol Biol 278:515-27. 1998..evidence that induction of metchnikowin gene expression can be mediated either by the TOLL pathway or by the imd gene product...
- Signaling role of hemocytes in Drosophila JAK/STAT-dependent response to septic injuryHerve Agaisse
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Dev Cell 5:441-50. 2003....
- Differential display of peptides induced during the immune response of Drosophila: a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry studyS Uttenweiler-Joseph
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15, rue René Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:11342-7. 1998..Finally, molecular cloning and Northern blot analyses revealed that one of the DIMs is produced as a prepropeptide and is inducible on a bacterial challenge...
- An RNA interference screen identifies Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 2 as a regulator of innate immune signalling in DrosophilaViola Gesellchen
German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Boveri Group Signaling and Functional Genomics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
EMBO Rep 6:979-84. 2005..To find novel components of the Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) pathway in cultured haemocyte-like cells, we screened an RNA interference library for modifiers of a pathway-..
- Ligand-induced dimerization of Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vitroPeter Mellroth
Department of Genetics, Microbiology, and Toxicology, University of Stockholm, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6455-60. 2005..PGRP-LCx, the default peptidoglycan receptor of the Imd/Relish pathway, has strong affinity for all polymeric peptidoglycans tested and for monomeric peptidoglycan...
- PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE have essential yet distinct functions in the drosophila immune response to monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycanTakashi Kaneko
Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
Nat Immunol 7:715-23. 2006..by two receptors, PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE, and activates a homolog of transcription factor NF-kappaB through the Imd signaling pathway...
- Insect hemocytes and their role in immunityM D Lavine
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 32:1295-309. 2002..Cross-talk between the immune and nervous system may also play a role in regulating inflammation-like responses in insects during infection...
- Genetic basis of natural variation in D. melanogaster antibacterial immunityBrian P Lazzaro
Department of Entomology, 4138 Comstock Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Science 303:1873-6. 2004..Variation in these genes, therefore, seems to drive variability in immunocompetence among wild Drosophila...
- Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvaeAya Takehana
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:13705-10. 2002..activation of proteolytic cascades in the hemolymph and intracellular signaling pathways, the immune deficiency (imd) and Toll pathways, in immune-responsive tissues. The mechanisms for microbial recognition are largely unknown...
- The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognitionFrançois Leulier
Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Nat Immunol 4:478-84. 2003..with pathogen-specific defense reactions through selective activation of the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathways...
- Inducible expression of double-stranded RNA reveals a role for dFADD in the regulation of the antibacterial response in Drosophila adultsFrançois Leulier
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Curr Biol 12:996-1000. 2002In Drosophila, the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway controls antibacterial peptide gene expression in the fat body in response to Gram-negative bacterial infection...
- The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinaseY Lu
Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10021, USA
Genes Dev 15:104-10. 2001..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member...
- The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition proteinMarie Gottar
UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg, Cedex, France
Nature 416:640-4. 2002..the Toll signalling pathway, whereas defence against Gram-negative bacteria is dependent on the Immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. Loss-of-function mutations in either pathway reduce the resistance to corresponding infections...
- Antimicrobial peptide defense in DrosophilaM Meister
UPR 9022, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Strasbourg, France
Bioessays 19:1019-26. 1997..An additional pathway, dependent on the as yet unidentified imd (for immune-deficiency) gene, is required for the full induction of the antibacterial peptide genes...
- Role of Drosophila IKK gamma in a toll-independent antibacterial immune responseS Rutschmann
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15, rue R Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg, France
Nat Immunol 1:342-7. 2000..Thus, in contrast to the vertebrate inflammatory response, IKK gamma is required for the activation of only one immune signaling pathway in Drosophila...
- Analysis of the Drosophila host defense in domino mutant larvae, which are devoid of hemocytesA Braun
Unité Propre de Recherche 9022, Réponse Immunitaire et Développement chez les Insectes, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire 15, rue René Descartes, F 67084 Strasbourg CEDEX, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:14337-42. 1998..By working in synergy, they provide Drosophila a highly effective defense against injury and/or infection...
- Regulated nuclear import of Rel proteins in the Drosophila immune responseL P Wu
Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
Nature 392:93-7. 1998..Mutations in three other genes cause constitutive nuclear localization of Dif; these mutations may block Rel protein activity by a novel mechanism...
- Tissue-specific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epitheliaP Tzou
Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Immunity 13:737-48. 2000..The imd gene plays a critical role in the activation of this local response to infection...
- Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LE and PGRP-LC act synergistically in Drosophila immunityAya Takehana
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Sendai, Japan
EMBO J 23:4690-700. 2004..The diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan potently activates imd-dependent induction of antibacterial peptides...
- Aging of the innate immune response in Drosophila melanogasterMelissa Zerofsky
Brown University, Division of Biology and Medicine, Providence, RI 02912, USA
Aging Cell 4:103-8. 2005..Consequently, maximum reproduction will occur when the immune response is tightly controlled in young females, even if this increases infection risk at later ages...
- Drosophila sex-peptide stimulates female innate immune system after mating via the Toll and Imd pathwaysJing Peng
Zoological Institute, University of Zurich Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Curr Biol 15:1690-4. 2005..In Drosophila, the Toll pathway (activated by fungi and gram-positive bacteria) and the Imd pathway (activated by gram-negative bacteria) lead to the synthesis of AMPs...
- Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) is a death domain protein that activates antibacterial defense and can promote apoptosisP Georgel
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Strasbourg, France
Dev Cell 1:503-14. 2001We report the molecular characterization of the immune deficiency (imd) gene, which controls antibacterial defense in Drosophila...
- A role for Hemolectin in coagulation and immunity in Drosophila melanogasterChristine Lesch
Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, University of Stockholm, Svante Arrhenius Väg 16 18, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
Dev Comp Immunol 31:1255-63. 2007..This demonstrates an immunological role of this clotting protein and reinforces the importance of the clot in insect immunity...
- Mutations in the Drosophila dTAK1 gene reveal a conserved function for MAPKKKs in the control of rel/NF-kappaB-dependent innate immune responsesS Vidal
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Genes Dev 15:1900-12. 2001..This phenotype is similar to the phenotypes generated by mutations in components of the Drosophila Imd pathway...
- A ubiquitin-proteasome pathway represses the Drosophila immune deficiency signaling cascadeRanjiv S Khush
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Curr Biol 12:1728-37. 2002..two independent signaling cascades: the Toll pathway that regulates the NF-kappaB homologs, Dorsal and DIF; and the IMD pathway that regulates the compound NF-kappaB-like protein, Relish...
- Toll-8/Tollo negatively regulates antimicrobial response in the Drosophila respiratory epitheliumIdir Akhouayri
IBDML, UMR 6216 CNRS, Universite Aix Marseille, Marseille, France
PLoS Pathog 7:e1002319. 2011..AMP gene transcription is activated by the inducible IMD pathway that acts non-cell autonomously in trachea...
- Activation of Imd pathway in hemocyte confers infection resistance through humoral response in DrosophilaBryce Nelson
National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 430:1120-5. 2013..resistance to the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus upon ectopic expression in immune response tissues uncovered imd gene...
- Spiroplasma and host immunity: activation of humoral immune responses increases endosymbiont load and susceptibility to certain Gram-negative bacterial pathogens in Drosophila melanogasterJeremy K Herren
Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Cell Microbiol 13:1385-96. 2011..unexpected insight into host factors that can promote Spiroplasma growth by showing that activation of Toll and Imd immune pathways actually increases Sprioplasma titre...
- Quantitative evaluation of signaling events in Drosophila S2 cellsDavid Bond
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
Biol Proced Online 10:20-8. 2008Drosophila activates a robust defense response to gram-negative bacteria through the Immune deficiency (Imd) pathway. Imd signaling proceeds through c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK), NF-kB and caspase modules...
- Enhancement of stress resistances and downregulation of Imd pathway by lower developmental temperature in Drosophila melanogasterKeetae Kim
Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, United States
Exp Gerontol 45:984-7. 2010..We also showed that development at a lower temperature represented by 18°C significantly downregulates anti-microbial peptide genes, AttA and DptB, of Imd pathway.
- A novel system for the launch of alphavirus RNA synthesis reveals a role for the Imd pathway in arthropod antiviral responseVasanthi Avadhanula
Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000582. 2009..We demonstrate deficits in the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway enhance viral replication while mutations in the Toll pathway fail to affect replication...
- Functional analysis of the Drosophila immune response during agingSean Ramsden
Department of Biology, Queen s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
Aging Cell 7:225-36. 2008..In contrast, we found no evidence that aging affects the ability to eliminate bacteria indicating that the mechanisms underlying immune senescence are not involved in eliminating bacteria or preventing their proliferation...
- Akirins are highly conserved nuclear proteins required for NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in drosophila and miceAkira Goto
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UPR 9022, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nat Immunol 9:97-104. 2008..called Akirin, encoded a protein that acted in parallel with the NF-kappaB transcription factor downstream of the Imd pathway and was required for defense against Gram-negative bacteria...
- In vivo regulation of the IkappaB homologue cactus during the immune response of DrosophilaE Nicolas
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
J Biol Chem 273:10463-9. 1998..This degradation is also dependent on the Toll signaling pathway. Altogether, our results underline the striking similarities between the regulation of IkappaB and cactus during the immune response...
- Host immune response and differential survival of the sexes in DrosophilaKatherine Taylor
Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
Fly (Austin) 1:197-204. 2007..after a fungal or bacterial infection, varied according to the combination of signaling pathway (Toll and Imd) and sex tested...
- A mosaic analysis in Drosophila fat body cells of the control of antimicrobial peptide genes by the Rel proteins Dorsal and DIFP Manfruelli
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15, rue René Descartes, F 67084 Strasbourg CEDEX, France
EMBO J 18:3380-91. 1999..Finally, we have used fat body cell clones homozygous for various mutations to show that a linear activation cascade Spaetzle--> Toll-->Cactus-->Dorsal/DIF leads to the induction of the drosomycin gene in larval fat body cells...
- A Drosophila ortholog of the human cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene regulates triglyceride content and antibacterial defenseTheodore Tsichritzis
Institute of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center Al Fleming, 34 Al Fleming Street, 16672 Vari, Greece
Development 134:2605-14. 2007..All mutant phenotypes described were reversible upon conditional expression of CYLD transgenes. Our results implicate CYLD in a broad range of functions associated with fat homeostasis and host defence in Drosophila...
- The Toll-->NFkappaB signaling pathway mediates the neuropathological effects of the human Alzheimer's Abeta42 polypeptide in DrosophilaLihua Tan
Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
PLoS ONE 3:e3966. 2008....
- Insect renal tubules constitute a cell-autonomous immune system that protects the organism against bacterial infectionJ McGettigan
Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:741-54. 2005..Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) shows that tubules express those genes encoding components of the Imd pathway...
- Drosophila innate immunity: a genomic view of pathogen defenseHeinrich Jasper
Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Mol Cell 10:967-9. 2002
- Flies kNOw how to signalNeal Silverman
Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Road, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
Dev Cell 4:5-6. 2003..NO-mediated signaling was implicated in the communication between the site of a localized infection and the major immune organ of the fly, the fat body...
- A cytokine in the Drosophila stress responseDan Hultmark
Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 901 87, Umea, Sweden
Dev Cell 5:360-1. 2003..However, in this issue of Developmental Cell, show that cytokines do play a role in mediating an acute phase response in this organism...
- Constitutive activation of toll-mediated antifungal defense in serpin-deficient DrosophilaE A Levashina
UPR 9022 CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, Strasbourg 67084, France
Science 285:1917-9. 1999..Hence, Spn43Ac negatively regulates the Toll signaling pathway, and Toll does not function as a pattern recognition receptor in the Drosophila host defense...
- Drosophila Ras/MAPK signalling regulates innate immune responses in immune and intestinal stem cellsAnan Ragab
German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Division of Signaling and Functional Genomics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Heidelberg, Faculty of Medicine Mannheim, Heidelberg, Germany
EMBO J 30:1123-36. 2011..In a genome-wide RNAi screen for modulators of Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD)/NF-κB signalling, we identified components of the Ras/MAPK pathway as essential for suppression of IMD pathway ..
- Characterization of an immunodeficiency mutant in DrosophilaJ C Corbo
Department of Biology, Center for Molecular Genetics, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093 0347, USA
Mech Dev 55:211-20. 1996..to identify additional components that influence Rel-domain gene function we have conducted a search for immunodeficiency mutants in Drosophila...
- The role of Zic genes in neural developmentJun Aruga
Laboratory for Comparative Neurogenesis, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
Mol Cell Neurosci 26:205-21. 2004..This association might be is a clue toward understanding of the multifunctional property of Zic proteins because Notch signaling also is implicated in the control of several developmental processes...
- Innate immunity in fruit flies: a textbook example of genomic recyclingShubha Govind
Department of Biology and The Graduate Center, City College of New York, New York, New York, USA
PLoS Biol 2:E276. 2004
- Guts and glory: balancing microbes and the immune responseSubhamoy Pal
Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 5115 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Dev Cell 8:1-2. 2005..In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ha et al. demonstrate a central role of a redox balance in microbial interactions in the fruit fly gut...
- Constitutive expression of a complement-like protein in toll and JAK gain-of-function mutants of DrosophilaM Lagueux
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Propre de Recherche, Strasbourg, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:11427-32. 2000..We also observe a constitutive expression in gain-of-function Toll mutants. We discuss the possible roles of these novel complement-like proteins in the Drosophila host defense...
- Autophagic control of listeria through intracellular innate immune recognition in drosophilaTamaki Yano
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
Nat Immunol 9:908-16. 2008..Autophagy induction occurred independently of the Toll and IMD innate signaling pathways...
- Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have itRanjiv S Khush
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Science 296:273-5. 2002
- Mammalian and Drosophila blood: JAK of all trades?B Mathey-Prevot
Pediatric Oncology, The Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Cell 92:697-700. 1998
- RNA interference screen to identify genes required for Drosophila embryonic nervous system developmentKeita Koizumi
Kanazawa University, 21st Century Centers of Excellence Program on Innovative Brain Science on Development, Learning, and Memory, Kanazawa 920 8640, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:5626-31. 2007..The total number of dsRNAs that we have tested for an RNAi-induced phenotype affecting the embryonic nervous system, including our previous study, is 7,312, which corresponds to approximately 50% of the genes in the Drosophila genome...
- NF-kappaB signaling. Many roads lead to madridVishva Dixit
Genentech, Inc, 1 DNA Way, Building 10, Room 290, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
Cell 111:615-9. 2002..The emerging understanding of new roles for NF-kappaB and complexities of the regulation of its function was the focus of a recent Juan March workshop held recently in Madrid, Spain...
- A humoral stress response in DrosophilaS Ekengren
Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 90 187, Umea, Sweden
Curr Biol 11:714-8. 2001..Although TotA is only induced by severe stress, it responds to a much wider range of stimuli than heat shock genes such as hsp70 or immune genes such as Cecropin A1...
- Role of Toll-like receptors in pathogen recognitionS Janssens
Unit for Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation, Department of Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University VIB, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium
Clin Microbiol Rev 16:637-46. 2003..The fact that TLR expression is regulated in both a cell type- and stimulus-dependent fashion further contributes to the complexity...
- Learning the codes of fly immunityRaul Bettencourt
Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 373 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
Mol Cell 13:1-2. 2004..In this issue of Molecular Cell, Senger and colleagues demonstrate that a large number of immunity genes in Drosophila fat bodies can be regulated by a simple code, REL-GATA...
- Expression and evolution of the Drosophila attacin/diptericin gene familyM Hedengren
Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, Umea, S 901 87, Sweden
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 279:574-81. 2000..All attacin and diptericin genes are induced after bacterial challenge. This induction is reduced in imd mutants, and unexpectedly also in Tl(-) mutants...
- The complexity of genetic variation in a simple immune systemDominic P Kwiatkowski
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK OX3 7BN
Trends Genet 21:197-9. 2005..However, the effects of individual polymorphisms on the resistance phenotype were modest, and epistatic interactions appeared to be common. What might these findings tell us about genetic resistance to infection in humans?..
- An epidermal barrier wound repair pathway in Drosophila is mediated by grainy headKimberly A Mace
Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Science 308:381-5. 2005..The conservation of this Grh-dependent pathway suggests that the repair of insect cuticle and mammal skin is controlled by an ancient, shared control system for constructing and healing the animal body surface barrier...
- The role of ubiquitination in Drosophila innate immunityRui Zhou
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
J Biol Chem 280:34048-55. 2005Infection of Drosophila by Gram-negative bacteria triggers a signal transduction pathway (the IMD pathway) culminating in the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides...
- Pathogen recognition and innate immunityShizuo Akira
Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Cell 124:783-801. 2006..New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity...
- Drosophila Thor participates in host immune defense and connects a translational regulator with innate immunityA Bernal
Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:6019-24. 2000..Our results suggest either a role for translational regulation in humoral immunity or a new, nontranslational function for 4E-BP type genes...
- The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) DIAP2 is dispensable for cell survival, required for the innate immune response to gram-negative bacterial infection, and can be negatively regulated by the reaper/hid/grim family of IAP-binding apoptosis induceJun R Huh
Division of Biology, MC 156 29, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
J Biol Chem 282:2056-68. 2007..Therefore, diap2 may identify a point of convergence between apoptosis and immune signaling pathways...
- Bug detectorsT Kaisho
Nature 414:701-3. 2001
- Evolutionary Genomics of Anti-Malaria Genes in MosquitoBrian P Lazzaro; Fiscal Year: 2010..Evolutionary patterns in mosquito defense genes will be used to identify proteins that coevolve with malaria parasites. This work may suggest genetic targets that could be manipulated to limit malaria transmission. ..
- REGULATION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE AND CELL GROWTHDEBORAH KIMBRELL; Fiscal Year: 2001..abstract_text> ..