imd

Summary

Gene Symbol: imd
Description: immune deficiency
Alias: BG5, CG5576, Dmel\CG5576, IMD, Imd, anon-WO0172774.166, shadok, CG5576-PA, imd-PA, immune deficient, immunodeficiency
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults
    B Lemaitre
    Institut de Biologie Moléculaire at Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France
    Cell 86:973-83. 1996
  2. pmc A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defense
    B Lemaitre
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9465-9. 1995
  3. pmc Pathogen entrapment by transglutaminase--a conserved early innate immune mechanism
    Zhi Wang
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000763. 2010
  4. pmc Two roles for the Drosophila IKK complex in the activation of Relish and the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes
    Deniz Erturk-Hasdemir
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9779-84. 2009
  5. pmc The phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora infects Drosophila and activates an immune response
    A Basset
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:3376-81. 2000
  6. pmc Caspar, a suppressor of antibacterial immunity in Drosophila
    Myungjin Kim
    National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373 1 Kusong Dong, Yusong, Taejon 305 701, Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:16358-63. 2006
  7. ncbi Interactions between the cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila
    M Elrod-Erickson
    Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Curr Biol 10:781-4. 2000
  8. pmc The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infection
    F Leulier
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France
    EMBO Rep 1:353-8. 2000
  9. ncbi The roles of JAK/STAT signaling in Drosophila immune responses
    Herve Agaisse
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Immunol Rev 198:72-82. 2004
  10. pmc Nitric oxide contributes to induction of innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila
    Edan Foley
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Genes Dev 17:115-25. 2003

Scientific Experts

  • BRIAN LAZZARO
  • Harlan Robins
  • Madeline R Galac
  • Angela E Douglas
  • Claudine Neyen
  • S Akira
  • Dominic P Kwiatkowski
  • Shubha Govind
  • François Leulier
  • DEBORAH KIMBRELL
  • Herve Agaisse
  • Ranjiv S Khush
  • Jun Aruga
  • Svenja Stoven
  • Jules Hoffmann
  • Silvia Naitza
  • Vishva Dixit
  • Neal Silverman
  • B Lemaitre
  • Tamaki Yano
  • Deniz Erturk-Hasdemir
  • Viola Gesellchen
  • Yoshiteru Oshima
  • Shoichiro Kurata
  • J M Reichhart
  • Kwang Min Choe
  • Michael Boutros
  • Akira Goto
  • Aya Takehana
  • Kamna Aggarwal
  • William E Goldman
  • Bryce Nelson
  • Edan Foley
  • E A Levashina
  • Idir Akhouayri
  • D Ferrandon
  • Anan Ragab
  • Jeremy K Herren
  • Keetae Kim
  • Zhi Wang
  • Vasanthi Avadhanula
  • Dan Hultmark
  • Ulrich Theopold
  • Nicholas Paquette
  • Malin Vonkavaara
  • Sean Ramsden
  • Lihua Tan
  • David Bond
  • Elissa A Hallem
  • Theodore Tsichritzis
  • Jun R Huh
  • Pascale F Dijkers
  • Katherine Taylor
  • Keita Koizumi
  • Christine Lesch
  • David Kuttenkeuler
  • Bruno Lemaitre
  • Julien Royet
  • A C Jung
  • Myungjin Kim
  • Shizuka Mita
  • Takashi Kaneko
  • P Tzou
  • S Rutschmann
  • Jean Marc Reichhart
  • Peter Mellroth
  • J McGettigan
  • Kimberly A Mace
  • Subhamoy Pal
  • Jing Peng
  • Rui Zhou
  • Haruhiko Takada
  • PATRICK H O'FARRELL
  • Melissa Zerofsky
  • M Lagueux
  • Raul Bettencourt
  • L P Wu
  • Kathryn V Anderson
  • M Meister
  • E Nicolas
  • P Georgel
  • A Braun
  • S Janssens
  • M D Lavine
  • Heinrich Jasper
  • Marie Gottar
  • Phoebe Tzou
  • Naoaki Shinzawa
  • Kiyoshi Okado
  • Shinya Fukumoto

Detail Information

Publications88

  1. ncbi The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults
    B Lemaitre
    Institut de Biologie Moléculaire at Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France
    Cell 86:973-83. 1996
    ..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways.
  2. pmc A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defense
    B Lemaitre
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9465-9. 1995
    In this paper we report a recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), that impairs the inducibility of all genes encoding antibacterial peptides during the immune response of Drosophila...
  3. pmc Pathogen entrapment by transglutaminase--a conserved early innate immune mechanism
    Zhi Wang
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000763. 2010
    ..nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria while neither phagocytosis, phenoloxidase or-as previously shown-the Toll or imd pathway contribute to immunity...
  4. pmc Two roles for the Drosophila IKK complex in the activation of Relish and the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes
    Deniz Erturk-Hasdemir
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9779-84. 2009
    ..Instead they are critical for recruitment of RNA polymerase II and antimicrobial peptide gene induction, whereas IKK functions noncatalytically to support Dredd-mediated cleavage of Relish...
  5. pmc The phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora infects Drosophila and activates an immune response
    A Basset
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:3376-81. 2000
    ....
  6. pmc Caspar, a suppressor of antibacterial immunity in Drosophila
    Myungjin Kim
    National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373 1 Kusong Dong, Yusong, Taejon 305 701, Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:16358-63. 2006
    ..Consistent with these physiological phenotypes, Caspar negatively regulated the immune deficiency (Imd)-mediated immune responses by blocking nuclear translocation of Relish, an NF-kappaB transcription factor...
  7. ncbi Interactions between the cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila
    M Elrod-Erickson
    Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Curr Biol 10:781-4. 2000
    ..However, when performed on flies carrying the mutation immune deficiency (imd), which affects the humoral immune response [3], the treatment results in a striking decrease in resistance to ..
  8. pmc The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infection
    F Leulier
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France
    EMBO Rep 1:353-8. 2000
    ....
  9. ncbi The roles of JAK/STAT signaling in Drosophila immune responses
    Herve Agaisse
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Immunol Rev 198:72-82. 2004
    ....
  10. pmc Nitric oxide contributes to induction of innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila
    Edan Foley
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Genes Dev 17:115-25. 2003
    ..NO induction of Diptericin reporters in the fat body required immune deficiency (imd) and domino...
  11. pmc Caspase-mediated processing of the Drosophila NF-kappaB factor Relish
    Svenja Stoven
    Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:5991-6. 2003
    ..Finally, an N-terminal serine-rich region in Relish and the PEST domain were found to negatively regulate Relish activation...
  12. pmc The imd gene is required for local Cecropin expression in Drosophila barrier epithelia
    T Onfelt Tingvall
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Arrhenius Laboratories for Natural Sciences, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    EMBO Rep 2:239-43. 2001
    ..The immune deficiency (imd) gene was found to be a crucial component of the signal-induced epidermal expression in both embryos and larvae...
  13. ncbi Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitism
    Elissa A Hallem
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Curr Biol 17:898-904. 2007
    ....
  14. ncbi The Drosophila immune defense against gram-negative infection requires the death protein dFADD
    Silvia Naitza
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Cedex, Strasbourg, France
    Immunity 17:575-81. 2002
    Drosophila responds to Gram-negative infections by mounting an immune response that depends on components of the IMD pathway. We recently showed that imd encodes a protein with a death domain with high similarity to that of mammalian RIP...
  15. pmc Constitutive expression of a single antimicrobial peptide can restore wild-type resistance to infection in immunodeficient Drosophila mutants
    Phoebe Tzou
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:2152-7. 2002
    ..peptides in host defense is supported by the observation that flies deficient for the Toll or Immune deficiency (Imd) pathway, which affects AMP gene expression, are extremely susceptible to microbial infection...
  16. ncbi Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila
    Kwang Min Choe
    Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 296:359-62. 2002
    ....
  17. ncbi Microfluorometer assay to measure the expression of beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein reporter genes in single Drosophila flies
    A C Jung
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France
    Biotechniques 30:594-8, 600-1. 2001
    ..This method may be used in any screen that requires the quantification of reporter gene activity in individual insects...
  18. ncbi The immune response of Drosophila
    Jules A Hoffmann
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Nature 426:33-8. 2003
    ..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity...
  19. pmc Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein LC (PGRP-LC) acts as a signal-transducing innate immune receptor
    Kwang Min Choe
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:1122-6. 2005
    ..to bacterial infection, acts at the top of a cytoplasmic signaling cascade that requires the death-domain protein Imd and an IkappaB kinase to activate Relish, an NF-kappaB family member...
  20. pmc Rudra interrupts receptor signaling complexes to negatively regulate the IMD pathway
    Kamna Aggarwal
    Divison of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000120. 2008
    ..Antimicrobial peptide gene expression is regulated by the IMD and Toll pathways...
  21. doi Drosophila melanogaster as a model for elucidating the pathogenicity of Francisella tularensis
    Malin Vonkavaara
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umea University, 90185 Umea, Sweden
    Cell Microbiol 10:1327-38. 2008
    ..e. production of antimicrobial peptides under control of the imd/Relish signalling pathway, was observed and it may have contributed to the relative resistance to F...
  22. pmc Drosophila calcineurin promotes induction of innate immune responses
    Pascale F Dijkers
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 2200, USA
    Curr Biol 17:2087-93. 2007
    ..infection with gram-negative bacteria promotes the activation of the Relish transcription factor through the Imd pathway. The activity of this pathway in the larva is modulated by nitric oxide (NO)...
  23. ncbi Two distinct pathways can control expression of the gene encoding the Drosophila antimicrobial peptide metchnikowin
    E A Levashina
    Réponse Immunitaire et Développement chez les Insectes, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, Strasbourg, 67000, France
    J Mol Biol 278:515-27. 1998
    ..evidence that induction of metchnikowin gene expression can be mediated either by the TOLL pathway or by the imd gene product...
  24. ncbi Signaling role of hemocytes in Drosophila JAK/STAT-dependent response to septic injury
    Herve Agaisse
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Dev Cell 5:441-50. 2003
    ....
  25. pmc Differential display of peptides induced during the immune response of Drosophila: a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry study
    S Uttenweiler-Joseph
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15, rue René Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:11342-7. 1998
    ..Finally, molecular cloning and Northern blot analyses revealed that one of the DIMs is produced as a prepropeptide and is inducible on a bacterial challenge...
  26. pmc An RNA interference screen identifies Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 2 as a regulator of innate immune signalling in Drosophila
    Viola Gesellchen
    German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Boveri Group Signaling and Functional Genomics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO Rep 6:979-84. 2005
    ..To find novel components of the Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) pathway in cultured haemocyte-like cells, we screened an RNA interference library for modifiers of a pathway-..
  27. pmc Ligand-induced dimerization of Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vitro
    Peter Mellroth
    Department of Genetics, Microbiology, and Toxicology, University of Stockholm, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6455-60. 2005
    ..PGRP-LCx, the default peptidoglycan receptor of the Imd/Relish pathway, has strong affinity for all polymeric peptidoglycans tested and for monomeric peptidoglycan...
  28. ncbi PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE have essential yet distinct functions in the drosophila immune response to monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycan
    Takashi Kaneko
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:715-23. 2006
    ..by two receptors, PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE, and activates a homolog of transcription factor NF-kappaB through the Imd signaling pathway...
  29. ncbi Insect hemocytes and their role in immunity
    M D Lavine
    Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 32:1295-309. 2002
    ..Cross-talk between the immune and nervous system may also play a role in regulating inflammation-like responses in insects during infection...
  30. ncbi Genetic basis of natural variation in D. melanogaster antibacterial immunity
    Brian P Lazzaro
    Department of Entomology, 4138 Comstock Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Science 303:1873-6. 2004
    ..Variation in these genes, therefore, seems to drive variability in immunocompetence among wild Drosophila...
  31. pmc Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvae
    Aya Takehana
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:13705-10. 2002
    ..activation of proteolytic cascades in the hemolymph and intracellular signaling pathways, the immune deficiency (imd) and Toll pathways, in immune-responsive tissues. The mechanisms for microbial recognition are largely unknown...
  32. ncbi The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognition
    François Leulier
    Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Nat Immunol 4:478-84. 2003
    ..with pathogen-specific defense reactions through selective activation of the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathways...
  33. ncbi Inducible expression of double-stranded RNA reveals a role for dFADD in the regulation of the antibacterial response in Drosophila adults
    François Leulier
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Curr Biol 12:996-1000. 2002
    In Drosophila, the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway controls antibacterial peptide gene expression in the fat body in response to Gram-negative bacterial infection...
  34. pmc The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinase
    Y Lu
    Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Genes Dev 15:104-10. 2001
    ..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member...
  35. ncbi The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein
    Marie Gottar
    UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg, Cedex, France
    Nature 416:640-4. 2002
    ..the Toll signalling pathway, whereas defence against Gram-negative bacteria is dependent on the Immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. Loss-of-function mutations in either pathway reduce the resistance to corresponding infections...
  36. ncbi Antimicrobial peptide defense in Drosophila
    M Meister
    UPR 9022, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Strasbourg, France
    Bioessays 19:1019-26. 1997
    ..An additional pathway, dependent on the as yet unidentified imd (for immune-deficiency) gene, is required for the full induction of the antibacterial peptide genes...
  37. ncbi Role of Drosophila IKK gamma in a toll-independent antibacterial immune response
    S Rutschmann
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15, rue R Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg, France
    Nat Immunol 1:342-7. 2000
    ..Thus, in contrast to the vertebrate inflammatory response, IKK gamma is required for the activation of only one immune signaling pathway in Drosophila...
  38. pmc Analysis of the Drosophila host defense in domino mutant larvae, which are devoid of hemocytes
    A Braun
    Unité Propre de Recherche 9022, Réponse Immunitaire et Développement chez les Insectes, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire 15, rue René Descartes, F 67084 Strasbourg CEDEX, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:14337-42. 1998
    ..By working in synergy, they provide Drosophila a highly effective defense against injury and/or infection...
  39. ncbi Regulated nuclear import of Rel proteins in the Drosophila immune response
    L P Wu
    Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Nature 392:93-7. 1998
    ..Mutations in three other genes cause constitutive nuclear localization of Dif; these mutations may block Rel protein activity by a novel mechanism...
  40. ncbi Tissue-specific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epithelia
    P Tzou
    Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Immunity 13:737-48. 2000
    ..The imd gene plays a critical role in the activation of this local response to infection...
  41. pmc Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LE and PGRP-LC act synergistically in Drosophila immunity
    Aya Takehana
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Sendai, Japan
    EMBO J 23:4690-700. 2004
    ..The diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan potently activates imd-dependent induction of antibacterial peptides...
  42. ncbi Aging of the innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster
    Melissa Zerofsky
    Brown University, Division of Biology and Medicine, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Aging Cell 4:103-8. 2005
    ..Consequently, maximum reproduction will occur when the immune response is tightly controlled in young females, even if this increases infection risk at later ages...
  43. ncbi Drosophila sex-peptide stimulates female innate immune system after mating via the Toll and Imd pathways
    Jing Peng
    Zoological Institute, University of Zurich Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Curr Biol 15:1690-4. 2005
    ..In Drosophila, the Toll pathway (activated by fungi and gram-positive bacteria) and the Imd pathway (activated by gram-negative bacteria) lead to the synthesis of AMPs...
  44. ncbi Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) is a death domain protein that activates antibacterial defense and can promote apoptosis
    P Georgel
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Strasbourg, France
    Dev Cell 1:503-14. 2001
    We report the molecular characterization of the immune deficiency (imd) gene, which controls antibacterial defense in Drosophila...
  45. ncbi A role for Hemolectin in coagulation and immunity in Drosophila melanogaster
    Christine Lesch
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, University of Stockholm, Svante Arrhenius Väg 16 18, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    Dev Comp Immunol 31:1255-63. 2007
    ..This demonstrates an immunological role of this clotting protein and reinforces the importance of the clot in insect immunity...
  46. pmc Mutations in the Drosophila dTAK1 gene reveal a conserved function for MAPKKKs in the control of rel/NF-kappaB-dependent innate immune responses
    S Vidal
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Genes Dev 15:1900-12. 2001
    ..This phenotype is similar to the phenotypes generated by mutations in components of the Drosophila Imd pathway...
  47. ncbi A ubiquitin-proteasome pathway represses the Drosophila immune deficiency signaling cascade
    Ranjiv S Khush
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Curr Biol 12:1728-37. 2002
    ..two independent signaling cascades: the Toll pathway that regulates the NF-kappaB homologs, Dorsal and DIF; and the IMD pathway that regulates the compound NF-kappaB-like protein, Relish...
  48. pmc Toll-8/Tollo negatively regulates antimicrobial response in the Drosophila respiratory epithelium
    Idir Akhouayri
    IBDML, UMR 6216 CNRS, Universite Aix Marseille, Marseille, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002319. 2011
    ..AMP gene transcription is activated by the inducible IMD pathway that acts non-cell autonomously in trachea...
  49. doi Activation of Imd pathway in hemocyte confers infection resistance through humoral response in Drosophila
    Bryce Nelson
    National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 430:1120-5. 2013
    ..resistance to the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus upon ectopic expression in immune response tissues uncovered imd gene...
  50. doi Spiroplasma and host immunity: activation of humoral immune responses increases endosymbiont load and susceptibility to certain Gram-negative bacterial pathogens in Drosophila melanogaster
    Jeremy K Herren
    Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Cell Microbiol 13:1385-96. 2011
    ..unexpected insight into host factors that can promote Spiroplasma growth by showing that activation of Toll and Imd immune pathways actually increases Sprioplasma titre...
  51. pmc Quantitative evaluation of signaling events in Drosophila S2 cells
    David Bond
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Biol Proced Online 10:20-8. 2008
    Drosophila activates a robust defense response to gram-negative bacteria through the Immune deficiency (Imd) pathway. Imd signaling proceeds through c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK), NF-kB and caspase modules...
  52. doi Enhancement of stress resistances and downregulation of Imd pathway by lower developmental temperature in Drosophila melanogaster
    Keetae Kim
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, United States
    Exp Gerontol 45:984-7. 2010
    ..We also showed that development at a lower temperature represented by 18°C significantly downregulates anti-microbial peptide genes, AttA and DptB, of Imd pathway.
  53. pmc A novel system for the launch of alphavirus RNA synthesis reveals a role for the Imd pathway in arthropod antiviral response
    Vasanthi Avadhanula
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000582. 2009
    ..We demonstrate deficits in the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway enhance viral replication while mutations in the Toll pathway fail to affect replication...
  54. doi Functional analysis of the Drosophila immune response during aging
    Sean Ramsden
    Department of Biology, Queen s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
    Aging Cell 7:225-36. 2008
    ..In contrast, we found no evidence that aging affects the ability to eliminate bacteria indicating that the mechanisms underlying immune senescence are not involved in eliminating bacteria or preventing their proliferation...
  55. pmc Akirins are highly conserved nuclear proteins required for NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in drosophila and mice
    Akira Goto
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UPR 9022, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Nat Immunol 9:97-104. 2008
    ..called Akirin, encoded a protein that acted in parallel with the NF-kappaB transcription factor downstream of the Imd pathway and was required for defense against Gram-negative bacteria...
  56. ncbi In vivo regulation of the IkappaB homologue cactus during the immune response of Drosophila
    E Nicolas
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 273:10463-9. 1998
    ..This degradation is also dependent on the Toll signaling pathway. Altogether, our results underline the striking similarities between the regulation of IkappaB and cactus during the immune response...
  57. ncbi Host immune response and differential survival of the sexes in Drosophila
    Katherine Taylor
    Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Fly (Austin) 1:197-204. 2007
    ..after a fungal or bacterial infection, varied according to the combination of signaling pathway (Toll and Imd) and sex tested...
  58. pmc A mosaic analysis in Drosophila fat body cells of the control of antimicrobial peptide genes by the Rel proteins Dorsal and DIF
    P Manfruelli
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15, rue René Descartes, F 67084 Strasbourg CEDEX, France
    EMBO J 18:3380-91. 1999
    ..Finally, we have used fat body cell clones homozygous for various mutations to show that a linear activation cascade Spaetzle--> Toll-->Cactus-->Dorsal/DIF leads to the induction of the drosomycin gene in larval fat body cells...
  59. ncbi A Drosophila ortholog of the human cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene regulates triglyceride content and antibacterial defense
    Theodore Tsichritzis
    Institute of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center Al Fleming, 34 Al Fleming Street, 16672 Vari, Greece
    Development 134:2605-14. 2007
    ..All mutant phenotypes described were reversible upon conditional expression of CYLD transgenes. Our results implicate CYLD in a broad range of functions associated with fat homeostasis and host defence in Drosophila...
  60. pmc The Toll-->NFkappaB signaling pathway mediates the neuropathological effects of the human Alzheimer's Abeta42 polypeptide in Drosophila
    Lihua Tan
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3966. 2008
    ....
  61. ncbi Insect renal tubules constitute a cell-autonomous immune system that protects the organism against bacterial infection
    J McGettigan
    Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:741-54. 2005
    ..Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) shows that tubules express those genes encoding components of the Imd pathway...
  62. ncbi Drosophila innate immunity: a genomic view of pathogen defense
    Heinrich Jasper
    Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Mol Cell 10:967-9. 2002
  63. ncbi Flies kNOw how to signal
    Neal Silverman
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Road, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Dev Cell 4:5-6. 2003
    ..NO-mediated signaling was implicated in the communication between the site of a localized infection and the major immune organ of the fly, the fat body...
  64. ncbi A cytokine in the Drosophila stress response
    Dan Hultmark
    Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 901 87, Umea, Sweden
    Dev Cell 5:360-1. 2003
    ..However, in this issue of Developmental Cell, show that cytokines do play a role in mediating an acute phase response in this organism...
  65. ncbi Constitutive activation of toll-mediated antifungal defense in serpin-deficient Drosophila
    E A Levashina
    UPR 9022 CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, Strasbourg 67084, France
    Science 285:1917-9. 1999
    ..Hence, Spn43Ac negatively regulates the Toll signaling pathway, and Toll does not function as a pattern recognition receptor in the Drosophila host defense...
  66. pmc Drosophila Ras/MAPK signalling regulates innate immune responses in immune and intestinal stem cells
    Anan Ragab
    German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Division of Signaling and Functional Genomics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Heidelberg, Faculty of Medicine Mannheim, Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 30:1123-36. 2011
    ..In a genome-wide RNAi screen for modulators of Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD)/NF-κB signalling, we identified components of the Ras/MAPK pathway as essential for suppression of IMD pathway ..
  67. ncbi Characterization of an immunodeficiency mutant in Drosophila
    J C Corbo
    Department of Biology, Center for Molecular Genetics, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093 0347, USA
    Mech Dev 55:211-20. 1996
    ..to identify additional components that influence Rel-domain gene function we have conducted a search for immunodeficiency mutants in Drosophila...
  68. ncbi The role of Zic genes in neural development
    Jun Aruga
    Laboratory for Comparative Neurogenesis, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Mol Cell Neurosci 26:205-21. 2004
    ..This association might be is a clue toward understanding of the multifunctional property of Zic proteins because Notch signaling also is implicated in the control of several developmental processes...
  69. pmc Innate immunity in fruit flies: a textbook example of genomic recycling
    Shubha Govind
    Department of Biology and The Graduate Center, City College of New York, New York, New York, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E276. 2004
  70. ncbi Guts and glory: balancing microbes and the immune response
    Subhamoy Pal
    Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 5115 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Dev Cell 8:1-2. 2005
    ..In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ha et al. demonstrate a central role of a redox balance in microbial interactions in the fruit fly gut...
  71. pmc Constitutive expression of a complement-like protein in toll and JAK gain-of-function mutants of Drosophila
    M Lagueux
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Propre de Recherche, Strasbourg, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:11427-32. 2000
    ..We also observe a constitutive expression in gain-of-function Toll mutants. We discuss the possible roles of these novel complement-like proteins in the Drosophila host defense...
  72. pmc Autophagic control of listeria through intracellular innate immune recognition in drosophila
    Tamaki Yano
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
    Nat Immunol 9:908-16. 2008
    ..Autophagy induction occurred independently of the Toll and IMD innate signaling pathways...
  73. ncbi Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it
    Ranjiv S Khush
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 296:273-5. 2002
  74. ncbi Mammalian and Drosophila blood: JAK of all trades?
    B Mathey-Prevot
    Pediatric Oncology, The Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 92:697-700. 1998
  75. pmc RNA interference screen to identify genes required for Drosophila embryonic nervous system development
    Keita Koizumi
    Kanazawa University, 21st Century Centers of Excellence Program on Innovative Brain Science on Development, Learning, and Memory, Kanazawa 920 8640, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:5626-31. 2007
    ..The total number of dsRNAs that we have tested for an RNAi-induced phenotype affecting the embryonic nervous system, including our previous study, is 7,312, which corresponds to approximately 50% of the genes in the Drosophila genome...
  76. ncbi NF-kappaB signaling. Many roads lead to madrid
    Vishva Dixit
    Genentech, Inc, 1 DNA Way, Building 10, Room 290, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Cell 111:615-9. 2002
    ..The emerging understanding of new roles for NF-kappaB and complexities of the regulation of its function was the focus of a recent Juan March workshop held recently in Madrid, Spain...
  77. ncbi A humoral stress response in Drosophila
    S Ekengren
    Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 90 187, Umea, Sweden
    Curr Biol 11:714-8. 2001
    ..Although TotA is only induced by severe stress, it responds to a much wider range of stimuli than heat shock genes such as hsp70 or immune genes such as Cecropin A1...
  78. pmc Role of Toll-like receptors in pathogen recognition
    S Janssens
    Unit for Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation, Department of Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University VIB, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium
    Clin Microbiol Rev 16:637-46. 2003
    ..The fact that TLR expression is regulated in both a cell type- and stimulus-dependent fashion further contributes to the complexity...
  79. ncbi Learning the codes of fly immunity
    Raul Bettencourt
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 373 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Mol Cell 13:1-2. 2004
    ..In this issue of Molecular Cell, Senger and colleagues demonstrate that a large number of immunity genes in Drosophila fat bodies can be regulated by a simple code, REL-GATA...
  80. ncbi Expression and evolution of the Drosophila attacin/diptericin gene family
    M Hedengren
    Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, Umea, S 901 87, Sweden
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 279:574-81. 2000
    ..All attacin and diptericin genes are induced after bacterial challenge. This induction is reduced in imd mutants, and unexpectedly also in Tl(-) mutants...
  81. ncbi The complexity of genetic variation in a simple immune system
    Dominic P Kwiatkowski
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK OX3 7BN
    Trends Genet 21:197-9. 2005
    ..However, the effects of individual polymorphisms on the resistance phenotype were modest, and epistatic interactions appeared to be common. What might these findings tell us about genetic resistance to infection in humans?..
  82. ncbi An epidermal barrier wound repair pathway in Drosophila is mediated by grainy head
    Kimberly A Mace
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 308:381-5. 2005
    ..The conservation of this Grh-dependent pathway suggests that the repair of insect cuticle and mammal skin is controlled by an ancient, shared control system for constructing and healing the animal body surface barrier...
  83. ncbi The role of ubiquitination in Drosophila innate immunity
    Rui Zhou
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:34048-55. 2005
    Infection of Drosophila by Gram-negative bacteria triggers a signal transduction pathway (the IMD pathway) culminating in the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides...
  84. ncbi Pathogen recognition and innate immunity
    Shizuo Akira
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Cell 124:783-801. 2006
    ..New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity...
  85. pmc Drosophila Thor participates in host immune defense and connects a translational regulator with innate immunity
    A Bernal
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:6019-24. 2000
    ..Our results suggest either a role for translational regulation in humoral immunity or a new, nontranslational function for 4E-BP type genes...
  86. ncbi The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) DIAP2 is dispensable for cell survival, required for the innate immune response to gram-negative bacterial infection, and can be negatively regulated by the reaper/hid/grim family of IAP-binding apoptosis induce
    Jun R Huh
    Division of Biology, MC 156 29, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:2056-68. 2007
    ..Therefore, diap2 may identify a point of convergence between apoptosis and immune signaling pathways...
  87. ncbi Bug detectors
    T Kaisho
    Nature 414:701-3. 2001

Research Grants10

  1. Evolutionary Genomics of Anti-Malaria Genes in Mosquito
    Brian P Lazzaro; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Evolutionary patterns in mosquito defense genes will be used to identify proteins that coevolve with malaria parasites. This work may suggest genetic targets that could be manipulated to limit malaria transmission. ..
  2. Genetic Network Linking Immunity to Energetic Stress, Metabolism and Reproduction
    Brian P Lazzaro; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..REVISED PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE STATEMENT SECTION Program Director/Principal Investigator (Last, First, Middle): Swain, Susan L. 1R01 AI076534-01A1 NO text ..
  3. Evolutionary Genomics of Anti-Malaria Genes in Mosquito
    BRIAN LAZZARO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Evolutionary patterns in mosquito defense genes will be used to identify proteins that coevolve with malaria parasites. This work may suggest genetic targets that could be manipulated to limit malaria transmission. ..
  4. REGULATION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE AND CELL GROWTH
    DEBORAH KIMBRELL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..