imd

Summary

Gene Symbol: imd
Description: immune deficiency
Alias: BG5, CG5576, Dmel\CG5576, IMD, Imd, anon-WO0172774.166, shadok, immune deficiency, CG5576-PA, CG5576-PB, imd-PA, imd-PB, immune deficient, immunodeficiency
Species: fruit fly
Products:     imd

Top Publications

  1. Rutschmann S, Kilinc A, Ferrandon D. Cutting edge: the toll pathway is required for resistance to gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila. J Immunol. 2002;168:1542-6 pubmed
    ..On the one hand, the immune deficiency pathway regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides that are active against Gram-negative bacteria...
  2. Takehana A, Katsuyama T, Yano T, Oshima Y, Takada H, Aigaki T, et al. Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13705-10 pubmed
    ..involving the activation of proteolytic cascades in the hemolymph and intracellular signaling pathways, the immune deficiency (imd) and Toll pathways, in immune-responsive tissues...
  3. Tzou P, Ohresser S, Ferrandon D, Capovilla M, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B, et al. Tissue-specific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epithelia. Immunity. 2000;13:737-48 pubmed
    ..The imd gene plays a critical role in the activation of this local response to infection...
  4. Naitza S, Rosse C, Kappler C, Georgel P, Belvin M, Gubb D, et al. The Drosophila immune defense against gram-negative infection requires the death protein dFADD. Immunity. 2002;17:575-81 pubmed
    Drosophila responds to Gram-negative infections by mounting an immune response that depends on components of the IMD pathway. We recently showed that imd encodes a protein with a death domain with high similarity to that of mammalian RIP...
  5. Onfelt Tingvall T, Roos E, Engstrom Y. The imd gene is required for local Cecropin expression in Drosophila barrier epithelia. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:239-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Drosophila epidermis plays an active role in the innate defence against microorganisms. The immune deficiency (imd) gene was found to be a crucial component of the signal-induced epidermal expression in both embryos ..
  6. Jung A, Criqui M, Rutschmann S, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. Microfluorometer assay to measure the expression of beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein reporter genes in single Drosophila flies. Biotechniques. 2001;30:594-8, 600-1 pubmed
    ..This method may be used in any screen that requires the quantification of reporter gene activity in individual insects. ..
  7. Lemaitre B, Kromer Metzger E, Michaut L, Nicolas E, Meister M, Georgel P, et al. A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9465-9 pubmed
    In this paper we report a recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), that impairs the inducibility of all genes encoding antibacterial peptides during the immune response of Drosophila...
  8. Lazzaro B, Sceurman B, Clark A. Genetic basis of natural variation in D. melanogaster antibacterial immunity. Science. 2004;303:1873-6 pubmed
    ..Variation in these genes, therefore, seems to drive variability in immunocompetence among wild Drosophila. ..
  9. Kim M, Lee J, Lee S, Kim E, Chung J. Caspar, a suppressor of antibacterial immunity in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16358-63 pubmed
    ..Consistent with these physiological phenotypes, Caspar negatively regulated the immune deficiency (Imd)-mediated immune responses by blocking nuclear translocation of Relish, an NF-kappaB transcription ..

More Information

Publications65

  1. Gottar M, Gobert V, Michel T, Belvin M, Duyk G, Hoffmann J, et al. The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature. 2002;416:640-4 pubmed
    ..mediated by the Toll signalling pathway, whereas defence against Gram-negative bacteria is dependent on the Immune deficiency (IMD) pathway...
  2. Georgel P, Naitza S, Kappler C, Ferrandon D, Zachary D, Swimmer C, et al. Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) is a death domain protein that activates antibacterial defense and can promote apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2001;1:503-14 pubmed
    We report the molecular characterization of the immune deficiency (imd) gene, which controls antibacterial defense in Drosophila...
  3. Apidianakis Y, Rahme L. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for human intestinal infection and pathology. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:21-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Perspective, we discuss recent advances in the study of Drosophila intestinal infection and pathology, and briefly review the parallels and differences between human and Drosophila intestinal regeneration and disease. ..
  4. Uttenweiler Joseph S, Moniatte M, Lagueux M, Van Dorsselaer A, Hoffmann J, Bulet P. Differential display of peptides induced during the immune response of Drosophila: a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11342-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, molecular cloning and Northern blot analyses revealed that one of the DIMs is produced as a prepropeptide and is inducible on a bacterial challenge. ..
  5. Wang Z, Wilhelmsson C, Hyrsl P, Loof T, Dobes P, Klupp M, et al. Pathogen entrapment by transglutaminase--a conserved early innate immune mechanism. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000763 pubmed publisher
    ..nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria while neither phagocytosis, phenoloxidase or-as previously shown-the Toll or imd pathway contribute to immunity...
  6. Gesellchen V, Kuttenkeuler D, Steckel M, Pelte N, Boutros M. An RNA interference screen identifies Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 2 as a regulator of innate immune signalling in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:979-84 pubmed
    ..To find novel components of the Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) pathway in cultured haemocyte-like cells, we screened an RNA interference library for modifiers of a ..
  7. Levashina E, Ohresser S, Lemaitre B, Imler J. Two distinct pathways can control expression of the gene encoding the Drosophila antimicrobial peptide metchnikowin. J Mol Biol. 1998;278:515-27 pubmed
    ..evidence that induction of metchnikowin gene expression can be mediated either by the TOLL pathway or by the imd gene product...
  8. Dijkers P, O Farrell P. Drosophila calcineurin promotes induction of innate immune responses. Curr Biol. 2007;17:2087-93 pubmed
    ..infection with gram-negative bacteria promotes the activation of the Relish transcription factor through the Imd pathway. The activity of this pathway in the larva is modulated by nitric oxide (NO)...
  9. Maillet F, Bischoff V, Vignal C, Hoffmann J, Royet J. The Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-LF blocks PGRP-LC and IMD/JNK pathway activation. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..PGRP-LC/PGRP-LE constitute the receptor complex in the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway, which is an innate immune cascade triggered upon Gram-negative bacterial infection...
  10. Elrod Erickson M, Mishra S, Schneider D. Interactions between the cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2000;10:781-4 pubmed
    ..However, when performed on flies carrying the mutation immune deficiency (imd), which affects the humoral immune response [3], the treatment results in a striking decrease in ..
  11. Thevenon D, Engel E, Avet Rochex A, Gottar M, Bergeret E, Tricoire H, et al. The Drosophila ubiquitin-specific protease dUSP36/Scny targets IMD to prevent constitutive immune signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:309-20 pubmed publisher
    ..the function of the Drosophila ubiquitin-specific protease 36 (dUSP36) in negative regulation of the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway controlled by the IMD protein...
  12. Foley E, O Farrell P. Nitric oxide contributes to induction of innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2003;17:115-25 pubmed
    ..NO induction of Diptericin reporters in the fat body required immune deficiency (imd) and domino...
  13. Meinander A, Runchel C, Tenev T, Chen L, Kim C, Ribeiro P, et al. Ubiquitylation of the initiator caspase DREDD is required for innate immune signalling. EMBO J. 2012;31:2770-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Signal-dependent ubiquitylation of DREDD is required for full processing of IMD, NF-?B/Relish and expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in response to infection with Gram-negative bacteria...
  14. Agaisse H, Petersen U, Boutros M, Mathey Prevot B, Perrimon N. Signaling role of hemocytes in Drosophila JAK/STAT-dependent response to septic injury. Dev Cell. 2003;5:441-50 pubmed
  15. Paquette N, Broemer M, Aggarwal K, Chen L, Husson M, Erturk Hasdemir D, et al. Caspase-mediated cleavage, IAP binding, and ubiquitination: linking three mechanisms crucial for Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling. Mol Cell. 2010;37:172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..leads to the rapid and robust production of antimicrobial peptides through two NF-kappaB signaling pathways-IMD and Toll. The IMD pathway is triggered by DAP-type peptidoglycan, common to most Gram-negative bacteria...
  16. Choe K, Lee H, Anderson K. Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein LC (PGRP-LC) acts as a signal-transducing innate immune receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1122-6 pubmed
    ..to bacterial infection, acts at the top of a cytoplasmic signaling cascade that requires the death-domain protein Imd and an IkappaB kinase to activate Relish, an NF-kappaB family member...
  17. Tzou P, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B. Constitutive expression of a single antimicrobial peptide can restore wild-type resistance to infection in immunodeficient Drosophila mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2152-7 pubmed
    ..of these peptides in host defense is supported by the observation that flies deficient for the Toll or Immune deficiency (Imd) pathway, which affects AMP gene expression, are extremely susceptible to microbial infection...
  18. Costa A, Jan E, Sarnow P, Schneider D. The Imd pathway is involved in antiviral immune responses in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7436 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling pathways to antiviral innate immune responses, CrPV was injected into isogenic mutants of the Immune Deficiency (Imd) pathway, which resembles the mammalian Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor (TNFR) pathway...
  19. Vidal S, Khush R, Leulier F, Tzou P, Nakamura M, Lemaitre B. Mutations in the Drosophila dTAK1 gene reveal a conserved function for MAPKKKs in the control of rel/NF-kappaB-dependent innate immune responses. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1900-12 pubmed
    ..This phenotype is similar to the phenotypes generated by mutations in components of the Drosophila Imd pathway...
  20. Tsichritzis T, Gaentzsch P, Kosmidis S, Brown A, SKOULAKIS E, Ligoxygakis P, et al. A Drosophila ortholog of the human cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene regulates triglyceride content and antibacterial defense. Development. 2007;134:2605-14 pubmed
    ..All mutant phenotypes described were reversible upon conditional expression of CYLD transgenes. Our results implicate CYLD in a broad range of functions associated with fat homeostasis and host defence in Drosophila. ..
  21. Wu L, Anderson K. Regulated nuclear import of Rel proteins in the Drosophila immune response. Nature. 1998;392:93-7 pubmed
    ..Mutations in three other genes cause constitutive nuclear localization of Dif; these mutations may block Rel protein activity by a novel mechanism. ..
  22. Bangi E, Pitsouli C, Rahme L, Cagan R, Apidianakis Y. Immune response to bacteria induces dissemination of Ras-activated Drosophila hindgut cells. EMBO Rep. 2012;13:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Cross-talk between infection and dissemination requires sustained activation by the bacteria of the Imd-dTab2-dTak1 innate immune pathway, which converges with Ras1V12 signalling on JNK pathway activation, culminating ..
  23. Hallem E, Rengarajan M, Ciche T, Sternberg P. Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitism. Curr Biol. 2007;17:898-904 pubmed
  24. Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell. 2006;124:783-801 pubmed
    ..New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity. ..
  25. Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996;86:973-83 pubmed
    ..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways.
  26. Agaisse H, Perrimon N. The roles of JAK/STAT signaling in Drosophila immune responses. Immunol Rev. 2004;198:72-82 pubmed
  27. Leulier F, Parquet C, Pili Floury S, Ryu J, Caroff M, Lee W, et al. The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognition. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:478-84 pubmed
    ..and responds with pathogen-specific defense reactions through selective activation of the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathways...
  28. Lee K, Kim S, Kim E, Ha E, You H, Kim B, et al. Bacterial-derived uracil as a modulator of mucosal immunity and gut-microbe homeostasis in Drosophila. Cell. 2013;153:797-811 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that bacteria with distinct abilities to activate uracil-induced gut inflammation, in terms of intensity and duration, act as critical factors that determine homeostasis or pathogenesis in gut-microbe interactions. ..
  29. Rutschmann S, Jung A, Zhou R, Silverman N, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. Role of Drosophila IKK gamma in a toll-independent antibacterial immune response. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:342-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to the vertebrate inflammatory response, IKK gamma is required for the activation of only one immune signaling pathway in Drosophila. ..
  30. Lu Y, Wu L, Anderson K. The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinase. Genes Dev. 2001;15:104-10 pubmed
    ..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member. ..
  31. Leulier F, Vidal S, Saigo K, Ueda R, Lemaitre B. Inducible expression of double-stranded RNA reveals a role for dFADD in the regulation of the antibacterial response in Drosophila adults. Curr Biol. 2002;12:996-1000 pubmed
    In Drosophila, the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway controls antibacterial peptide gene expression in the fat body in response to Gram-negative bacterial infection...
  32. Lesch C, Goto A, Lindgren M, Bidla G, Dushay M, Theopold U. A role for Hemolectin in coagulation and immunity in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Comp Immunol. 2007;31:1255-63 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates an immunological role of this clotting protein and reinforces the importance of the clot in insect immunity. ..
  33. Lavine M, Strand M. Insect hemocytes and their role in immunity. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;32:1295-309 pubmed
    ..Cross-talk between the immune and nervous system may also play a role in regulating inflammation-like responses in insects during infection. ..
  34. Hyrsl P, Dobes P, Wang Z, Hauling T, Wilhelmsson C, Theopold U. Clotting factors and eicosanoids protect against nematode infections. J Innate Immun. 2011;3:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide biochemical and genetic evidence for an involvement of eicosanoids in the same infection model. Taken together, our results confirm the conserved nature of the immune function of clot formation...
  35. Khush R, Cornwell W, Uram J, Lemaitre B. A ubiquitin-proteasome pathway represses the Drosophila immune deficiency signaling cascade. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1728-37 pubmed
    ..two independent signaling cascades: the Toll pathway that regulates the NF-kappaB homologs, Dorsal and DIF; and the IMD pathway that regulates the compound NF-kappaB-like protein, Relish...
  36. Leulier F, Lhocine N, Lemaitre B, Meier P. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein DIAP2 functions in innate immunity and is essential to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7821-31 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, infection by gram-negative bacteria triggers the innate immune response by activating the immune deficiency (imd) signaling cascade, a NF-kappaB-dependent pathway that shares striking similarities with the pathway of ..
  37. Pham L, Dionne M, Shirasu Hiza M, Schneider D. A specific primed immune response in Drosophila is dependent on phagocytes. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e26 pubmed
    ..This work contradicts the paradigm that insect immune responses cannot adapt and will promote the search for similar responses overlooked in organisms with an adaptive immune response. ..
  38. Zhou R, Silverman N, Hong M, Liao D, Chung Y, Chen Z, et al. The role of ubiquitination in Drosophila innate immunity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34048-55 pubmed
    Infection of Drosophila by Gram-negative bacteria triggers a signal transduction pathway (the IMD pathway) culminating in the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides...
  39. Nehme N, Liegeois S, Kele B, Giammarinaro P, Pradel E, Hoffmann J, et al. A model of bacterial intestinal infections in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e173 pubmed
    ..We find that S. marcescens resistance to the Drosophila immune deficiency (imd)-mediated humoral response requires the bacterial lipopolysaccharide O-antigen...
  40. Takehana A, Yano T, Mita S, Kotani A, Oshima Y, Kurata S. Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LE and PGRP-LC act synergistically in Drosophila immunity. EMBO J. 2004;23:4690-700 pubmed
    ..The diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan potently activates imd-dependent induction of antibacterial peptides...
  41. Vonkavaara M, Telepnev M, Ryden P, Sjostedt A, Stoven S. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for elucidating the pathogenicity of Francisella tularensis. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1327-38 pubmed publisher
    ..e. production of antimicrobial peptides under control of the imd/Relish signalling pathway, was observed and it may have contributed to the relative resistance to F...
  42. Hoffmann J. The immune response of Drosophila. Nature. 2003;426:33-8 pubmed
    ..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity. ..
  43. Basset A, Khush R, Braun A, Gardan L, Boccard F, Hoffmann J, et al. The phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora infects Drosophila and activates an immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3376-81 pubmed
  44. Zerofsky M, Harel E, Silverman N, Tatar M. Aging of the innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Aging Cell. 2005;4:103-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that fecundity is reduced by induction of innate immunity via the immune deficiency pathway...
  45. Mellroth P, Karlsson J, Håkansson J, Schultz N, Goldman W, Steiner H. Ligand-induced dimerization of Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6455-60 pubmed
    ..PGRP-LCx, the default peptidoglycan receptor of the Imd/Relish pathway, has strong affinity for all polymeric peptidoglycans tested and for monomeric peptidoglycan...
  46. Leulier F, Rodriguez A, Khush R, Abrams J, Lemaitre B. The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:353-8 pubmed
    ..results demonstrate that Dredd regulates antibacterial peptide gene expression, and we propose that Dredd, Immune Deficiency and the P105-like rel protein Relish define a pathway that is required to resist gram-negative bacterial ..
  47. Erturk Hasdemir D, Broemer M, Leulier F, Lane W, Paquette N, Hwang D, et al. Two roles for the Drosophila IKK complex in the activation of Relish and the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead they are critical for recruitment of RNA polymerase II and antimicrobial peptide gene induction, whereas IKK functions noncatalytically to support Dredd-mediated cleavage of Relish. ..
  48. Braun A, Hoffmann J, Meister M. Analysis of the Drosophila host defense in domino mutant larvae, which are devoid of hemocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:14337-42 pubmed
    ..resistance was also observed in mutant larvae in which the synthesis of antibacterial peptides is impaired (immune deficiency larvae) and in mutants that are deficient for humoral melanization (Black cells larvae)...
  49. Aggarwal K, Rus F, Vriesema Magnuson C, Erturk Hasdemir D, Paquette N, Silverman N. Rudra interrupts receptor signaling complexes to negatively regulate the IMD pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000120 pubmed publisher
    ..Antimicrobial peptide gene expression is regulated by the IMD and Toll pathways...
  50. Meister M, Lemaitre B, Hoffmann J. Antimicrobial peptide defense in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1997;19:1019-26 pubmed
    ..An additional pathway, dependent on the as yet unidentified imd (for immune-deficiency) gene, is required for the full induction of the antibacterial peptide genes...
  51. Stoven S, Silverman N, Junell A, Hedengren Olcott M, Erturk D, Engstrom Y, et al. Caspase-mediated processing of the Drosophila NF-kappaB factor Relish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5991-6 pubmed
    ..Finally, an N-terminal serine-rich region in Relish and the PEST domain were found to negatively regulate Relish activation. ..
  52. Choe K, Werner T, Stoven S, Hultmark D, Anderson K. Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila. Science. 2002;296:359-62 pubmed
  53. Peng J, Zipperlen P, Kubli E. Drosophila sex-peptide stimulates female innate immune system after mating via the Toll and Imd pathways. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1690-4 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, the Toll pathway (activated by fungi and gram-positive bacteria) and the Imd pathway (activated by gram-negative bacteria) lead to the synthesis of AMPs...
  54. Ha E, Lee K, Seo Y, Kim S, Lim J, Oh B, et al. Coordination of multiple dual oxidase-regulatory pathways in responses to commensal and infectious microbes in drosophila gut. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the coordinated regulation of DUOX enables the host to achieve gut-microbe homeostasis by efficiently combating infection while tolerating commensal microbes. ..
  55. Lhocine N, Ribeiro P, Buchon N, Wepf A, Wilson R, Tenev T, et al. PIMS modulates immune tolerance by negatively regulating Drosophila innate immune signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:147-58 pubmed publisher
    ..pims expression is Imd (immune deficiency) dependent, and its basal expression relies on the presence of commensal flora...
  56. Kaneko T, Yano T, Aggarwal K, Lim J, Ueda K, Oshima Y, et al. PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE have essential yet distinct functions in the drosophila immune response to monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycan. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:715-23 pubmed
    ..by two receptors, PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE, and activates a homolog of transcription factor NF-kappaB through the Imd signaling pathway...