Gene Symbol: Ilp1
Description: Insulin-like peptide 1
Alias: CG14173, DILP, DILP-1, DILP1, Dilp, Dilp 1, Dilp-1, Dilp1, Dmel\CG14173, Ilp, Ilp-1, dILP1, dilp, dilp-1, dilp1, ilp1, Insulin-like peptide 1, CG14173-PA, Ilp1-PA, drosophila insulin-like peptide 1, insulin-like peptide
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Slaidina M, Delanoue R, Gronke S, Partridge L, Leopold P. A Drosophila insulin-like peptide promotes growth during nonfeeding states. Dev Cell. 2009;17:874-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that, during metamorphosis, when feeding stops, a specific DILP (Dilp6) is produced by the fat body and relays the growth signal...
  2. Teleman A. Molecular mechanisms of metabolic regulation by insulin in Drosophila. Biochem J. 2009;425:13-26 pubmed publisher
    ..I discuss both the intracellular signalling network, as well as the communication between organs in the fly. ..
  3. Okamoto N, Yamanaka N, Yagi Y, Nishida Y, Kataoka H, O Connor M, et al. A fat body-derived IGF-like peptide regulates postfeeding growth in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2009;17:885-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that DILP6 is a functional, as well as a structural, counterpart of vertebrate IGFs. Our data provide in vivo evidence for a role of ILPs in determining adult body size through the regulation of postfeeding growth...
  4. Lee K, Kwon O, Lee J, Kwon K, Min K, Jung S, et al. Drosophila short neuropeptide F signalling regulates growth by ERK-mediated insulin signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:468-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila sNPF and the evolutionarily conserved mammalian NPY seem to regulate ERK-mediated insulin expression and thus to systemically modulate growth, metabolism and lifespan. ..
  5. Wu Q, Zhang Y, Xu J, Shen P. Regulation of hunger-driven behaviors by neural ribosomal S6 kinase in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13289-94 pubmed
    ..g., a less accessible solid food). Moreover, up-regulation of Drosophila p70/S6 kinase activity in DILP neurons led to attenuated hunger response by fasted larvae, whereas its down-regulation triggered fed larvae to ..
  6. Ikeya T, Galic M, Belawat P, Nairz K, Hafen E. Nutrient-dependent expression of insulin-like peptides from neuroendocrine cells in the CNS contributes to growth regulation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1293-300 pubmed
    ..We show that in addition to the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (dilp2) gene, overexpression of dilp1 and dilp3-7 is sufficient to promote growth...
  7. Brogiolo W, Stocker H, Ikeya T, Rintelen F, Fernandez R, Hafen E. An evolutionarily conserved function of the Drosophila insulin receptor and insulin-like peptides in growth control. Curr Biol. 2001;11:213-21 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the Drosophila insulin receptor autonomously controls cell and organ size, and that overexpression of a gene encoding an insulin-like peptide is sufficient to increase body size. ..
  8. Hwangbo D, Gershman B, Gersham B, Tu M, Palmer M, Tatar M. Drosophila dFOXO controls lifespan and regulates insulin signalling in brain and fat body. Nature. 2004;429:562-6 pubmed
    ..We further show that this limited activation of dFOXO reduces expression of the Drosophila insulin-like peptide dilp-2 synthesized in neurons, and represses endogenous insulin-dependent signalling in peripheral fat body...
  9. Zhang H, Liu J, Li C, Momen B, Kohanski R, Pick L. Deletion of Drosophila insulin-like peptides causes growth defects and metabolic abnormalities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19617-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, circulating sugar levels are elevated in Df [dilp1-5] homozygotes during eating and fasting...

More Information


  1. Wu Q, Brown M. Signaling and function of insulin-like peptides in insects. Annu Rev Entomol. 2006;51:1-24 pubmed
    ..a) an integrated summary of the efforts to characterize the distribution of ILPs in insects and to define this pathway and its functions in Drosophila and (b) a few considerations for future studies of ILP endocrinology in insects.
  2. Al Anzi B, Sapin V, Waters C, Zinn K, Wyman R, Benzer S. Obesity-blocking neurons in Drosophila. Neuron. 2009;63:329-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the fly brain measures fat store levels and can induce changes in food intake and metabolism to maintain them within normal limits. ..
  3. Gronke S, Clarke D, Broughton S, Andrews T, Partridge L. Molecular evolution and functional characterization of Drosophila insulin-like peptides. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000857 pubmed publisher
    ..sequences of 12 Drosophila species, and functional analysis, based on newly-generated knock-out mutations for all 7 dilp genes in D. melanogaster...
  4. Oldham S, Hafen E. Insulin/IGF and target of rapamycin signaling: a TOR de force in growth control. Trends Cell Biol. 2003;13:79-85 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes current studies primarily from Drosophila regarding the function of the insulin/IGF system in the control of growth. ..
  5. Sousa Nunes R, Yee L, Gould A. Fat cells reactivate quiescent neuroblasts via TOR and glial insulin relays in Drosophila. Nature. 2011;471:508-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila thus contains two segregated ILP pools, one regulating proliferation within the central nervous system and the other controlling tissue growth ..
  6. Shingleton A. Body-size regulation: combining genetics and physiology. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R825-7 pubmed
    ..New research has revealed that the activity of the insulin-signaling pathway in the prothoracic gland of Drosophila modulates ecdysone release and thereby influences both the duration and rate of larval growth. ..
  7. Giannakou M, Goss M, Jacobson J, Vinti G, Leevers S, Partridge L. Dynamics of the action of dFOXO on adult mortality in Drosophila. Aging Cell. 2007;6:429-38 pubmed
    ..The decreased mortality and increased lifespan of dFOXO overexpressing flies was uncoupled from any effect on female fecundity and from expression levels of Drosophila insulin-like peptides in the brain. ..
  8. Levayer R, Hauert B, Moreno E. Cell mixing induced by myc is required for competitive tissue invasion and destruction. Nature. 2015;524:476-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish the first link between cell-cell intercalation induced by a proto-oncogene and how it promotes invasiveness and destruction of healthy tissues. ..
  9. Post S, Tatar M. Nutritional Geometric Profiles of Insulin/IGF Expression in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0155628 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand how dietary protein and sugar affect dilp expression, we followed the analytical concepts of the Nutritional Geometric Framework, feeding Drosophila adults ..
  10. Shandala T, Kortschak R, Saint R. The Drosophila retained/dead ringer gene and ARID gene family function during development. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:423-30 pubmed
    ..Finally, we have used germline clone analysis to reveal a requirement for retn/dri in the Drosophila preblastoderm syncytial mitoses. ..
  11. Claeys I, Simonet G, Poels J, Van Loy T, Vercammen L, De Loof A, et al. Insulin-related peptides and their conserved signal transduction pathway. Peptides. 2002;23:807-16 pubmed
  12. Leevers S. Growth control: invertebrate insulin surprises!. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R209-12 pubmed
    ..Invertebrates have been found to possess more insulin-like ligands than predicted, some of which behave as receptor antagonists. ..
  13. Guirao Rico S, Aguade M. Patterns of nucleotide diversity at the regions encompassing the Drosophila insulin-like peptide (dilp) genes: demography vs. positive selection in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53593 pubmed publisher
    ..With this aim, we have surveyed nucleotide sequence variation at the dilp1-7 genes in a natural population of D. melanogaster. The comparison of polymorphism in D...
  14. Ostojic I, Boll W, Waterson M, Chan T, Chandra R, Pletcher S, et al. Positive and negative gustatory inputs affect Drosophila lifespan partly in parallel to dFOXO signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:8143-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our data suggest that different gustatory cues can modulate the activities of distinct signaling pathways, including different insulin-like peptides, to promote physiological changes that ultimately affect lifespan. ..
  15. Liu Y, Liao S, Veenstra J, Nässel D. Drosophila insulin-like peptide 1 (DILP1) is transiently expressed during non-feeding stages and reproductive dormancy. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26620 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) are known, six of which have been investigated in some detail, whereas expression and functions of DILP1 and ..
  16. Lee K, Hong S, Kim A, Ju S, Kwon O, Yu K. Processed short neuropeptide F peptides regulate growth through the ERK-insulin pathway in Drosophila melanogaster. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:2573-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that sNPF1 and sNPF2 peptides processed from the sNPF precursor are sufficient for regulating body growth through the ERK-insulin pathway in Drosophila. ..
  17. De Velasco B, Erclik T, Shy D, Sclafani J, Lipshitz H, McInnes R, et al. Specification and development of the pars intercerebralis and pars lateralis, neuroendocrine command centers in the Drosophila brain. Dev Biol. 2007;302:309-23 pubmed
    ..NSCs labeled by the expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptide (Dilp), FMRF, and myomodulin form part of the Dchx1 expressing PI domain...
  18. Okamoto N, Nakamori R, Murai T, Yamauchi Y, Masuda A, Nishimura T. A secreted decoy of InR antagonizes insulin/IGF signaling to restrict body growth in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2013;27:87-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Drosophila uses a secreted decoy to fine-tune systemic growth against fluctuations of circulating insulin levels. ..
  19. Kim J, Neufeld T. Dietary sugar promotes systemic TOR activation in Drosophila through AKH-dependent selective secretion of Dilp3. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6846 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IPCs integrate multiple cues to regulate the secretion of distinct insulin subtypes under varying nutrient conditions. ..
  20. Flatt T, Tu M, Tatar M. Hormonal pleiotropy and the juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila development and life history. Bioessays. 2005;27:999-1010 pubmed
    ..In particular, we illustrate the role of JH as a key mediator of life history trade-offs. ..
  21. Bai H, Kang P, Tatar M. Drosophila insulin-like peptide-6 (dilp6) expression from fat body extends lifespan and represses secretion of Drosophila insulin-like peptide-2 from the brain. Aging Cell. 2012;11:978-85 pubmed publisher diverse species, including Drosophila melanogaster where the genome encodes seven insulin-like peptides (dilp1-7)...
  22. Wesolowska N, Rong Y. Long-range targeted manipulation of the Drosophila genome by site-specific integration and recombinational resolution. Genetics. 2013;193:411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Excitingly, all of the components involved are likely functional in other eukaryotes, making our scheme for long-range targeted manipulation readily applicable to other systems. ..
  23. Libert S. Insights into physiology of aging and novel ways to increase lifespan. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:113-5 pubmed
  24. Rajan A, Perrimon N. Of flies and men: insights on organismal metabolism from fruit flies. BMC Biol. 2013;11:38 pubmed publisher
  25. Kim J, Bang H, Ko S, Jung I, Hong H, Kim Ha J. Drosophila ia2 modulates secretion of insulin-like peptide. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2008;151:180-4 pubmed publisher
    ..As the pancreas develops from the gut during vertebrate development, our results suggest a possible role of IA-2 in insulin and hexokinase regulation. ..
  26. Bradley G, Leevers S. Amino acids and the humoral regulation of growth: fat bodies use slimfast. Cell. 2003;114:656-8 pubmed
    ..In this issue of Cell, Colombani et al. demonstrate that amino acid-responsive TOR signaling in the Drosophila fat body modulates insulin signaling and growth in peripheral tissues. ..
  27. Guirao Rico S, Aguade M. Molecular evolution of the ligands of the insulin-signaling pathway: dilp genes in the genus Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:1557-60 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila melanogaster, unlike mammals, has seven insulin-like peptides (DILPS). In Drosophila, all seven genes (dilp1-7) are single copy in the 12 species studied, except for D. grimshawi with two tandem copies of dilp2...
  28. Humphrey D, Toivonen J, Giannakou M, Partridge L, Brand M. Expression of human uncoupling protein-3 in Drosophila insulin-producing cells increases insulin-like peptide (DILP) levels and shortens lifespan. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44:316-27 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that lowering mitochondrial coupling by high expression of hUCP3 alters mNSC function in a way that appears to increase DILP-levels in fly heads and lead to a concomitant decrease in lifespan.