Gene Symbol: Ilk
Description: Integrin linked kinase
Alias: CG10504, CT29478, DmILK, Dmel\CG10504, ILK, ilk, l(3)78Ca, integrin linked kinase, CG10504-PA, CG10504-PB, Ilk-PA, Ilk-PB, Integrin-linked kinase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Perkins A, Ellis S, Asghari P, Shamsian A, Moore E, Tanentzapf G. Integrin-mediated adhesion maintains sarcomeric integrity. Dev Biol. 2010;338:15-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that integrin-mediated adhesion is essential for maintaining sarcomeric integrity and illustrate that the seemingly stable adhesive contacts underlying sarcomeric architecture are inherently dynamic...
  2. Yuan L, Fairchild M, Perkins A, Tanentzapf G. Analysis of integrin turnover in fly myotendinous junctions. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:939-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that IAC turnover is tightly regulated in long-term cell-ECM adhesions to allow normal tissue growth and maintenance. ..
  3. Löer B, Bauer R, Bornheim R, Grell J, Kremmer E, Kolanus W, et al. The NHL-domain protein Wech is crucial for the integrin-cytoskeleton link. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:422-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the numerous linker proteins identified, only a few, including Talin and Integrin-linked-kinase (ILK), are essential and evolutionarily conserved...
  4. Knox J, Moyer K, Yacoub N, Soldaat C, Komosa M, Vassilieva K, et al. Syndecan contributes to heart cell specification and lumen formation during Drosophila cardiogenesis. Dev Biol. 2011;356:279-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Phenotypic interactions of syndecan with slit and Integrin mutants suggest intersecting function, consistent with Syndecan acting as a co-receptor for Slit in the Drosophila heart. ..
  5. Elias M, Pronovost S, Cahill K, Beckerle M, Kadrmas J. A crucial role for Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1) revealed when PINCH and ILK binding is disrupted. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3185-94 pubmed publisher
    PINCH, integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1) are molecular scaffolding proteins that form a physical complex downstream of integrins, and have overlapping roles in cellular adhesion...
  6. Kadrmas J, Smith M, Clark K, Pronovost S, Muster N, Yates J, et al. The integrin effector PINCH regulates JNK activity and epithelial migration in concert with Ras suppressor 1. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:1019-24 pubmed
    ..Genetic interaction analyses reveal that both PINCH and RSU-1 antagonize JNK signaling during DC. Our results suggest that PINCH and RSU-1 contribute to the integration of JNK and integrin functions during Drosophila development. ..
  7. Grabbe C, Zervas C, Hunter T, Brown N, Palmer R. Focal adhesion kinase is not required for integrin function or viability in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:5795-805 pubmed
    ..Despite this, overexpressed Fak56 is a potent inhibitor of integrins binding to the extracellular matrix, suggesting that Fak56 may play a subtle role in the negative regulation of integrin adhesion. ..
  8. Torgler C, Narasimha M, Knox A, Zervas C, Vernon M, Brown N. Tensin stabilizes integrin adhesive contacts in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2004;6:357-69 pubmed
  9. Pines M, Das R, Ellis S, Morin A, Czerniecki S, Yuan L, et al. Mechanical force regulates integrin turnover in Drosophila in vivo. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:935-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that integrin-ECM adhesive stability is continuously controlled by force in vivo through integrin-dependent auto-regulatory feedback mechanisms so that tissues can quickly adapt to and withstand mechanical stresses. ..

More Information


  1. Clark K, McGrail M, Beckerle M. Analysis of PINCH function in Drosophila demonstrates its requirement in integrin-dependent cellular processes. Development. 2003;130:2611-21 pubmed
    ..The integrin-linked kinase, ILK, is also essential for integrin function...
  2. Zervas C, Gregory S, Brown N. Drosophila integrin-linked kinase is required at sites of integrin adhesion to link the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:1007-18 pubmed
    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) was identified by its interaction with the cytoplasmic tail of human beta1 integrin and previous data suggest that ILK is a component of diverse signaling pathways, including integrin, Wnt, and protein kinase ..
  3. Russell S, Heimbeck G, Goddard C, Carpenter A, Ashburner M. The Drosophila Eip78C gene is not vital but has a role in regulating chromosome puffs. Genetics. 1996;144:159-70 pubmed
    ..These data indicate either that Eip78C function is redundant or that it plays a subtle modulating role in the regulation of chromosome puffing. ..
  4. Vakaloglou K, Chountala M, Zervas C. Functional analysis of parvin and different modes of IPP-complex assembly at integrin sites during Drosophila development. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3221-32 pubmed publisher
    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK), PINCH and parvin constitute the tripartite IPP complex that maintains the integrin-actin link at embryonic muscle attachment sites (MASs) in Drosophila...
  5. Zervas C, Psarra E, Williams V, Solomon E, Vakaloglou K, Brown N. A central multifunctional role of integrin-linked kinase at muscle attachment sites. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:1316-27 pubmed publisher
    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an essential component of a multiprotein complex that links actin to the plasma membrane...
  6. Liu Z, Geisbrecht E. Moleskin is essential for the formation of the myotendinous junction in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2011;359:176-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that Msk signals non-autonomously through the Vein-Egfr signaling pathway for late tendon cell late differentiation and/or maintenance. ..
  7. Vanderploeg J, Vazquez Paz L, MacMullin A, Jacobs J. Integrins are required for cardioblast polarisation in Drosophila. BMC Dev Biol. 2012;12:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal an instructive role for Integrins in communicating polarising information to cells during migration, and during transition to an epithelial tube structure. ..
  8. Krzemien J, Fabre C, Casal J, Lawrence P. The muscle pattern of the Drosophila abdomen depends on a subdivision of the anterior compartment of each segment. Development. 2012;139:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The dorsal adult muscles are polarised in the anteroposterior axis: we disprove the hypothesis that muscle orientation depends on genes that define planar cell polarity in the epidermis. ..
  9. Pronovost S, Beckerle M, Kadrmas J. Elevated expression of the integrin-associated protein PINCH suppresses the defects of Drosophila melanogaster muscle hypercontraction mutants. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003406 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in myopathies that exhibit hypercontraction, strategic PINCH expression may have therapeutic potential in preserving muscle structure and function. ..
  10. Schotman H, Karhinen L, Rabouille C. dGRASP-mediated noncanonical integrin secretion is required for Drosophila epithelial remodeling. Dev Cell. 2008;14:171-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that this mechanism might be used during development as a means of targeting a specific subset of transmembrane proteins to the plasma membrane. ..
  11. Delon I, Brown N. The integrin adhesion complex changes its composition and function during morphogenesis of an epithelium. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:4363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular variation of the integrin complex is thus a key component of developmentally programmed morphogenesis. ..
  12. Chountala M, Vakaloglou K, Zervas C. Parvin overexpression uncovers tissue-specific genetic pathways and disrupts F-actin to induce apoptosis in the developing epithelia in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47355 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-expression of both ILK and the apoptosis inhibitor DIAP1 blocked Parvin-induced lethality and apoptosis and partially ameliorated cell ..
  13. Uchino R, Nonaka Y, Horigome T, Sugiyama S, Furukawa K. Loss of Drosophila A-type lamin C initially causes tendon abnormality including disintegration of cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina in muscular defects. Dev Biol. 2013;373:216-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the critical function of A-type lamin C proteins in Drosophila musculature is to maintain proper function and morphology of tendon cells. ..
  14. Stambolic V, Mak T, Woodgett J. Modulation of cellular apoptotic potential: contributions to oncogenesis. Oncogene. 1999;18:6094-103 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the regulation and mechanisms by which PKB activation protects cells and the oncologic consequences of dysregulation of the pathway. ..
  15. Lin G, Zhang X, Ren J, Pang Z, Wang C, Xu N, et al. Integrin signaling is required for maintenance and proliferation of intestinal stem cells in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2013;377:177-87 pubmed publisher
    ..requires the intercellular and intracellular integrin signaling components including Talin, Integrin-linked kinase (Ilk), and the ligand, Laminin A...
  16. Liu Z, Odell N, Geisbrecht E. Drosophila importin-7 functions upstream of the Elmo signaling module to mediate the formation and stability of muscle attachments. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:5210-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that integrins function as upstream signals to mediate Dim7-Elmo enrichment to the MASs. ..
  17. MacMullin A, Jacobs J. Slit coordinates cardiac morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2006;293:154-64 pubmed
    ..interaction with Integrin genes and their ligands, including Laminin and Collagen, and intracellular messengers, including Talin and ILK. This indicates that Slit participates in adhesion or adhesion signaling during heart development.
  18. Brower D. Platelets with wings: the maturation of Drosophila integrin biology. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003;15:607-13 pubmed
    ..Drosophila also is beginning to yield some insights into integrin heterodimer structure and function. ..
  19. Nguyen H, Voza F, Ezzeddine N, Frasch M. Drosophila mind bomb2 is required for maintaining muscle integrity and survival. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:219-27 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest strongly that mib2 is involved in a novel Notch- and integrin-independent pathway that maintains the integrity of fully differentiated muscles and prevents their apoptotic degeneration. ..
  20. Tanentzapf G, Martin Bermudo M, Hicks M, Brown N. Multiple factors contribute to integrin-talin interactions in vivo. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1632-44 pubmed
    ..Mutagenesis of the integrin cytoplasmic domain, within the chimera, showed the dominant-negative inhibition was not due to talin sequestration alone and that additional interactions are required. ..
  21. Wang H, Wang K, Xiao G, Ma J, Wang B, Shen S, et al. Molecular Mechanisms for High Hydrostatic Pressure-Induced Wing Mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Sci Rep. 2015;5:14965 pubmed publisher
    ..This study revealed the mutagenic mechanisms of HHP-induced mutagenesis in D. melanogaster and provided a new model for the study of evolution on organisms. ..
  22. Hudson A, Petrella L, Tanaka A, Cooley L. Mononuclear muscle cells in Drosophila ovaries revealed by GFP protein traps. Dev Biol. 2008;314:329-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this observation, we were able to use the Flp/FRT system to efficiently generate genetic mosaics in the epithelial sheath, suggesting these cells provide a new opportunity for clonal analysis of adult striated muscle. ..
  23. Wang Y, Antunes M, Anderson A, Kadrmas J, Jacinto A, Galko M. Integrin Adhesions Suppress Syncytium Formation in the Drosophila Larval Epidermis. Curr Biol. 2015;25:2215-27 pubmed publisher
    ..knockdown of the integrin focal adhesion (FA) complex components β-integrin, PINCH, and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) caused formation of multinucleate epidermal cells within the Drosophila larval epidermis...
  24. Xie X, GILBERT M, Petley Ragan L, Auld V. Loss of focal adhesions in glia disrupts both glial and photoreceptor axon migration in the Drosophila visual system. Development. 2014;141:3072-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that integrin-mediated extracellular signals are important for multiple aspects of glial development and non-autonomously affect axonal migration during Drosophila eye development. ..
  25. Moon R, Bowerman B, Boutros M, Perrimon N. The promise and perils of Wnt signaling through beta-catenin. Science. 2002;296:1644-6 pubmed
    ..The STKE Connections Maps for these pathways provide an important tool in accessing this large body of complex information. ..
  26. Dawes Hoang R, Wieschaus E. Cell and developmental biology--a shared past, an intertwined future. Dev Cell. 2001;1:27-36 pubmed
    ..Our goal in this commentary is to examine the common origin of cell and developmental biology, to explore ways in which they currently interact, and to consider the connections and differences that exist between these two fields. ..
  27. Vakaloglou K, Chrysanthis G, Rapsomaniki M, Lygerou Z, Zervas C. IPP Complex Reinforces Adhesion by Relaying Tension-Dependent Signals to Inhibit Integrin Turnover. Cell Rep. 2016;14:2668-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The tripartite IPP complex, comprising ILK, Parvin, and PINCH, mediates the integrin-actin link at Drosophila embryo muscle attachment sites (MASs)...
  28. Tanentzapf G, Devenport D, Godt D, Brown N. Integrin-dependent anchoring of a stem-cell niche. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:1413-8 pubmed
    ..On the basis of our data, we propose that integrins are required for the attachment of the hub cells to the ECM, which is essential for maintaining the stem-cell niche. ..
  29. Ojelade S, Jia T, Rodan A, Chenyang T, Kadrmas J, Cattrell A, et al. Rsu1 regulates ethanol consumption in Drosophila and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E4085-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest a conserved role for integrin/Rsu1/Rac1/actin signaling in modulating reward-related phenotypes, including ethanol consumption, across phyla. ..
  30. Nishimura M, Kumsta C, Kaushik G, Diop S, Ding Y, Bisharat Kernizan J, et al. A dual role for integrin-linked kinase and ?1-integrin in modulating cardiac aging. Aging Cell. 2014;13:431-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigating the role of integrin-linked kinase (ilk) and ?1-integrin (myospheroid, mys) in Drosophila, which colocalize near cardiomyocyte contacts and Z-bands, we ..
  31. Dibya D, Sander S, Smith E. Identifying cytoplasmic proteins that affect receptor clustering using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and RNA interference. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009;395:2303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate the utility of this assay format, and provide insight into the function of cytoplasmic proteins in integrin microclustering. ..
  32. Levi B, Ghabrial A, Krasnow M. Drosophila talin and integrin genes are required for maintenance of tracheal terminal branches and luminal organization. Development. 2006;133:2383-93 pubmed
    ..Similar complexes may stabilize other tubular networks and may be targeted for inactivation during network remodeling events. ..
  33. Alves Silva J, Hahn I, Huber O, Mende M, Reissaus A, Prokop A. Prominent actin fiber arrays in Drosophila tendon cells represent architectural elements different from stress fibers. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4287-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Features reported here and elsewhere for tendon cells are reminiscent of the structural and molecular features of support cells in the inner ear of vertebrates, and they might have potential translational value. ..
  34. Zervas C, Brown N. Integrin adhesion: when is a kinase a kinase?. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R350-1 pubmed
    ..Recent genetic studies in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and fruitfly Drosophila have revealed the essential role integrin-linked kinase plays in integrin adhesion - but it apparently acts in this role as an adaptor rather than a kinase. ..
  35. Kumsta C, Ching T, Nishimura M, Davis A, Gelino S, Catan H, et al. Integrin-linked kinase modulates longevity and thermotolerance in C. elegans through neuronal control of HSF-1. Aging Cell. 2014;13:419-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a key component of the integrin-signaling complex, in lifespan determination...
  36. Bökel C, Prokop A, Brown N. Papillote and Piopio: Drosophila ZP-domain proteins required for cell adhesion to the apical extracellular matrix and microtubule organization. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:633-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, ZP domain-containing proteins may have shared functions within the aECM, while also exhibiting specific interactions with the cytoskeleton. ..
  37. Xie X, Auld V. Integrins are necessary for the development and maintenance of the glial layers in the Drosophila peripheral nerve. Development. 2011;138:3813-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that integrins are employed in different glial layers to mediate the development and maintenance of the protective glial sheath in Drosophila peripheral nerves. ..
  38. Anamika K, Abhinandan K, Deshmukh K, Srinivasan N. Classification of nonenzymatic homologues of protein kinases. Comp Funct Genomics. 2009;:365637 pubmed publisher
    ..The current classification scheme hopes to provide a convenient framework to classify the PKLNKs from other eukaryotes which would be helpful in deciphering their roles in cellular processes. ..
  39. Lo S. Focal adhesions: what's new inside. Dev Biol. 2006;294:280-91 pubmed
    ..Recent studies using genetic approaches in invertebrate and vertebrate systems have begun to reveal the structure and function of these complexes in vivo. ..