Gene Symbol: IKKepsilon
Description: I-kappaB kinase epsilon
Alias: 38D.31, APTX7, CG2615, DIK2, Dik2, DmIKKepsilon, DmIKKepsilon/dIK2, Dmel\CG2615, Dmik2, IK2, IKK, Ik2, Ik2/DmIKK, dIKK, dik2, ik2, l(2)38Ea, I-kappaB kinase epsilon, CG2615-PB, CG2615-PC, IKK-related kinase, IKKepsilon-PB, IKKepsilon-PC, IkappaB kinase-like 2, apoptoxin 7, ik2, lethal (2) 38Ea
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Otani T, Oshima K, Onishi S, Takeda M, Shinmyozu K, Yonemura S, et al. IKK? regulates cell elongation through recycling endosome shuttling. Dev Cell. 2011;20:219-32 pubmed publisher
    b>IKK-related kinases are key regulators of innate immunity and oncogenesis. While their effects on transcription are well characterized, their cytoplasmic functions remain poorly understood...
  2. Koto A, Kuranaga E, Miura M. Temporal regulation of Drosophila IAP1 determines caspase functions in sensory organ development. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:219-31 pubmed publisher
  3. Shapiro R, Anderson K. Drosophila Ik2, a member of the I kappa B kinase family, is required for mRNA localization during oogenesis. Development. 2006;133:1467-75 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that this IkappaB kinase has an NF-kappaB-independent role in mRNA localization and helps to link microtubule minus-ends to the oocyte cortex, a novel function of the IKK family.
  4. Oshima K, Takeda M, Kuranaga E, Ueda R, Aigaki T, Miura M, et al. IKK epsilon regulates F actin assembly and interacts with Drosophila IAP1 in cellular morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1531-7 pubmed
    ..These processes require the restricted organization of the actin cytoskeleton at limited subcellular regions. IKK epsilon is a member of the IkappaB kinase family, and its developmental role has not been clear...
  5. Lee H, Jan L, Jan Y. Drosophila IKK-related kinase Ik2 and Katanin p60-like 1 regulate dendrite pruning of sensory neuron during metamorphosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6363-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dendrite severing. Here, we show that both the Ik2 kinase and Katanin p60-like 1 (Kat-60L1) of the Katanin family of microtubule severing proteins are required for ..
  6. Dubin Bar D, Bitan A, Bakhrat A, Kaiden Hasson R, Etzion S, Shaanan B, et al. The Drosophila IKK-related kinase (Ik2) and Spindle-F proteins are part of a complex that regulates cytoskeleton organization during oogenesis. BMC Cell Biol. 2008;9:51 pubmed publisher
    ..The Drosophila genome encodes two members of the IKK family...
  7. Bitan A, Rosenbaum I, Abdu U. Stable and dynamic microtubules coordinately determine and maintain Drosophila bristle shape. Development. 2012;139:1987-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Actin filament bundling subsequently supports the newly formed shaft extensions. Analysis of ik2 mutant bristles, established by elongation defects in the Drosophila ikk? homolog, led to the observation that ..
  8. Kuranaga E, Kanuka H, Tonoki A, Takemoto K, Tomioka T, Kobayashi M, et al. Drosophila IKK-related kinase regulates nonapoptotic function of caspases via degradation of IAPs. Cell. 2006;126:583-96 pubmed
    ..Here we describe Drosophila IKK-related kinase (DmIKKvarepsilon) as a regulator of caspase activation in a nonapoptotic context...
  9. Sun H, Bristow B, Qu G, Wasserman S. A heterotrimeric death domain complex in Toll signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12871-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, functional assays confirm that the formation of this heterotrimer is critical for signal transduction by the Toll pathway. ..

More Information


  1. Orme M, Liccardi G, Moderau N, Feltham R, Wicky John S, Tenev T, et al. The unconventional myosin CRINKLED and its mammalian orthologue MYO7A regulate caspases in their signalling roles. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10972 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results expose a conserved role for unconventional myosins in transducing caspase-dependent regulation of kinases, allowing them to take part in specific signalling events. ..
  2. Bergmann A. IKK epsilon signaling: not just NF-kappaB. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R588-90 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, three recent reports implicate IKKs in Drosophila in seemingly unrelated functions, including non-apoptotic caspase activation and cytoskeleton organization. ..
  3. Lazzaro B, Sackton T, Clark A. Genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster resistance to infection: a comparison across bacteria. Genetics. 2006;174:1539-54 pubmed
    ..lactis and E. faecalis, respectively, most of the molecular polymorphisms tested explain <10% of the total variance in bacterial load sustained after infection...
  4. Gould G. IKKepsilon: a kinase at the intersection of signaling and membrane traffic. Sci Signal. 2011;4:pe30 pubmed publisher
    ..a study has uncovered a role for localized activation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor ?B kinase, subtype ? (IKK?) at the tip of these bristles, where it regulates the trafficking of recycling endosomal vesicles into and out of ..
  5. Dubin Bar D, Bitan A, Bakhrat A, Amsalem S, Abdu U. Drosophila javelin-like encodes a novel microtubule-associated protein and is required for mRNA localization during oogenesis. Development. 2011;138:4661-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results show that we have identified a novel MT-associated protein that affects mRNA localization in the oocyte by regulating MT organization. ..
  6. Otani T, Oshima K, Kimpara A, Takeda M, Abdu U, Hayashi S. A transport and retention mechanism for the sustained distal localization of Spn-F-IKKε during Drosophila bristle elongation. Development. 2015;142:2338-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila bristle elongation, the protein kinase IKKε is activated at the distal tip of the growing bristle and regulates the shuttling movement of recycling ..
  7. Lin T, Pan P, Lai Y, Chiang K, Hsieh H, Wu Y, et al. Spindle-F Is the Central Mediator of Ik2 Kinase-Dependent Dendrite Pruning in Drosophila Sensory Neurons. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005642 pubmed publisher
    ..Spn-F acts downstream of IKK-related kinase Ik2 in the same pathway for dendrite pruning...
  8. Fan Y, Ye M, Wu L, Lv S, Wu M, Xiao B, et al. Overexpression of miR-98 inhibits cell invasion in glioma cell lines via downregulation of IKKε. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015;19:3593-604 pubmed
    ..quantitative RT-PCR, and a western blot analysis confirmed that miR-98 suppressed the expression of IκB kinase (IKKε) by directly targeting its 3'-untranslated region, also, the NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and matrix ..
  9. Caussinus E, Colombelli J, Affolter M. Tip-cell migration controls stalk-cell intercalation during Drosophila tracheal tube elongation. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1727-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, in tracheal branches, one or two leading cells produce enough mechanical power to intercalate many lagging cells. This may apply to other tubular networks. ..
  10. Montell D. A kinase gets caspases into shape. Cell. 2006;126:450-2 pubmed
    ..However, DmIKK epsilon-mediated degradation of DIAP1 does not regulate apoptosis as might be predicted but instead regulates actin dynamics, cell morphology, and the differentiation of sensory organ precursor cells. ..
  11. Bitan A, Guild G, Bar Dubin D, Abdu U. Asymmetric microtubule function is an essential requirement for polarized organization of the Drosophila bristle. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:496-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential markers for studying the importance of properly polarized MTs to bristle axial growth are Ik2 and Spindle-F (Spn-F), since mutations in spn-F and ik2 affect bristle development...
  12. Lazzaro B, Sceurman B, Clark A. Genetic basis of natural variation in D. melanogaster antibacterial immunity. Science. 2004;303:1873-6 pubmed
    ..Variation in these genes, therefore, seems to drive variability in immunocompetence among wild Drosophila. ..
  13. Amsalem S, Bakrhat A, Otani T, Hayashi S, Goldstein B, Abdu U. Drosophila oocyte polarity and cytoskeleton organization require regulation of Ik2 activity by Spn-F and Javelin-like. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4371-80 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila melanogaster Spn-F, Ik2, and Javelin-like (Jvl) proteins interact to regulate oocyte mRNA localization and cytoskeleton organization. However, the mechanism by which these proteins interact remains unclear...
  14. Otani T, Ogura Y, Misaki K, Maeda T, Kimpara A, Yonemura S, et al. IKK? inhibits PKC to promote Fascin-dependent actin bundling. Development. 2016;143:3806-3816 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that a protein kinase, IKK?, is active at the growing bristle tip and regulates actin bundle organization during Drosophila bristle ..
  15. Kozlova T, Lam G, Thummel C. Drosophila DHR38 nuclear receptor is required for adult cuticle integrity at eclosion. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:701-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, cuticle gene expression is significantly reduced in DHR38(Y214) mutant pupae. These studies define the essential functions of DHR38 and provide a genetic context for further characterization of its roles during development. ..
  16. Tao J, Rolls M. Dendrites have a rapid program of injury-induced degeneration that is molecularly distinct from developmental pruning. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5398-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, dendrites do have a rapid program of degeneration, as do axons, but this program does not require the machinery used during developmental pruning. ..
  17. Kozlova T, Pokholkova G, Tzertzinis G, Sutherland J, Zhimulev I, Kafatos F. Drosophila hormone receptor 38 functions in metamorphosis: a role in adult cuticle formation. Genetics. 1998;149:1465-75 pubmed
    ..Dhr38 alleles cause localized fragility and rupturing of the adult cuticle, demonstrating that Dhr38 plays an important role in late stages of epidermal metamorphosis. ..