Gene Symbol: Hug
Description: Hugin
Alias: CG6371, Dmel\CG6371, Drm-MT2, Drm-PK-2, HUG, HUGgamma, Hug-gamma, Hugin-PK-2, PK-2, hug, hug gamma, hug-1, hug-2, hug-PK, hug-gamma, hugg, huggamma, hugin, pyrokinin/PBAN-like, hugin, CG6371-PA, Hug-PA, Hugin-gamma, Hugin-pyrokinin, SVPFKPRLamide, hugin gamma, pyrokinin, pyrokinin-2
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Meng X, Wahlström G, Immonen T, Kolmer M, Tirronen M, Predel R, et al. The Drosophila hugin gene codes for myostimulatory and ecdysis-modifying neuropeptides. Mech Dev. 2002;117:5-13 pubmed
    In a genomic screen we isolated the Drosophila gene hugin (hug, cytology 87C1-2) by cross-hybridisation to a human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor cDNA...
  2. Neupert S, Johard H, Nassel D, Predel R. Single-cell peptidomics of drosophila melanogaster neurons identified by Gal4-driven fluorescence. Anal Chem. 2007;79:3690-4 pubmed
    ..The other peptide predicted from the hugin precursor, hugin gamma, was not detected in any of the cells...
  3. Choi M, Rafaeli A, Jurenka R. Pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides in the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Tissue Res. 2001;306:459-65 pubmed
    The pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family of peptides found in insects is characterized by a 5-amino-acid C-terminal sequence, FXPRLamide...
  4. Marella S, Mann K, Scott K. Dopaminergic modulation of sucrose acceptance behavior in Drosophila. Neuron. 2012;73:941-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate the marked specificity of dopamine signaling and provide a foundation to examine neural mechanisms of feeding modulation in the fly. ..
  5. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila receptor for the neuropeptides capa-1 and -2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:628-33 pubmed
    ..Because capa-1 and -2 and related insect neuropeptides stimulate fluid secretion in insect Malpighian (renal) tubules, the identification of this first insect capa receptor will advance our knowledge on insect renal function. ..
  6. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect ecdysis triggering hormone receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:924-31 pubmed
    ..Ecdysis (cuticle shedding) is an important behaviour, allowing growth and metamorphosis in insects and other arthropods. Our paper is the first report on the molecular identification of ecdysis triggering hormone receptors from insects. ..
  7. Wegener C, Reinl T, Jänsch L, Predel R. Direct mass spectrometric peptide profiling and fragmentation of larval peptide hormone release sites in Drosophila melanogaster reveals tagma-specific peptide expression and differential processing. J Neurochem. 2006;96:1362-74 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the peptidome of the neurohaemal organs is tagma-specific and does not change during metamorphosis. We also provide evidence for the first case of differential prohormone processing in Drosophila. ..
  8. J rgensen L, Hauser F, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first SIFamide receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper is the first report on the identification of a SIFamide receptor...
  9. Johnson E, Shafer O, Trigg J, Park J, Schooley D, Dow J, et al. A novel diuretic hormone receptor in Drosophila: evidence for conservation of CGRP signaling. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:1239-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it appears that both the molecular details as well as the functional organization of CGRP signaling have been conserved. ..

More Information


  1. Baggerman G, Boonen K, Verleyen P, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomic analysis of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by two-dimensional capillary liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2005;40:250-60 pubmed
    ..This clearly demonstrates that the two-dimensional capillary LC approach enhances the coverage of the peptidomic analysis. ..
  2. Cazzamali G, Torp M, Hauser F, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. The Drosophila gene CG9918 codes for a pyrokinin-1 receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:14-9 pubmed
    ..on the expressed receptor and found that it was activated by low concentrations of the Drosophila neuropeptide, pyrokinin-1 (TGPSASSGLWFGPRLamide; EC50, 5 x 10(-8) M)...
  3. Bader R, Wegener C, Pankratz M. Comparative neuroanatomy and genomics of hugin and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN). Fly (Austin). 2007;1:228-31 pubmed
    The Drosophila hugin gene encodes a prepropeptide that can potentially generate several neuropeptides.(1) The gene is expressed in 20 cells of the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) that are involved in modulating feeding behavior...
  4. Bader R, Sarraf Zadeh L, Peters M, Moderau N, Stocker H, Kohler K, et al. The IGFBP7 homolog Imp-L2 promotes insulin signaling in distinct neurons of the Drosophila brain. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:2571-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Imp-L2 acts as a licensing factor for neuronal IIS activation through Dilp-2 to further increase the precision of insulin activity in the brain. ..
  5. Melcher C, Bader R, Walther S, Simakov O, Pankratz M. Neuromedin U and its putative Drosophila homolog hugin. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e68 pubmed
  6. Predel R, Wegener C, Russell W, Tichy S, Russell D, Nachman R. Peptidomics of CNS-associated neurohemal systems of adult Drosophila melanogaster: a mass spectrometric survey of peptides from individual flies. J Comp Neurol. 2004;474:379-92 pubmed
    ..neurohemal organs and their supplying peptidergic neurons contain the capa gene products periviscerokinins and pyrokinin-1, thoracic neurohemal organs contain FMRFamides, and the neurohemal release sites of the brain contain ..
  7. Park Y, Kim Y, Adams M. Identification of G protein-coupled receptors for Drosophila PRXamide peptides, CCAP, corazonin, and AKH supports a theory of ligand-receptor coevolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11423-8 pubmed
    ..These findings support a theory of coevolution for NMU and Drosophila PRXa peptides and their respective receptors. ..
  8. Rosenkilde C, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Søndergaard L, DeLotto R, et al. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and gene silencing of two Drosophila receptors for the Drosophila neuropeptide pyrokinin-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;309:485-94 pubmed
    ..The precise role of Drosophila pyrokinin-2 (SVPFKPRLamide) in Drosophila is unknown, but in other insects, pyrokinins have diverse myotropic actions and are also ..
  9. Bader R, Colomb J, Pankratz B, Schröck A, Stocker R, Pankratz M. Genetic dissection of neural circuit anatomy underlying feeding behavior in Drosophila: distinct classes of hugin-expressing neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2007;502:848-56 pubmed
    The hugin gene of Drosophila encodes a neuropeptide with homology to mammalian neuromedin U...
  10. Kean L, Cazenave W, Costes L, Broderick K, Graham S, Pollock V, et al. Two nitridergic peptides are encoded by the gene capability in Drosophila melanogaster. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;282:R1297-307 pubmed
    ..2b, while capa-3 is a novel member of the pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide/diapause hormone/pyrokinin family...
  11. Cazzamali G, Hauser F, Kobberup S, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor specific for crustacean cardioactive peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:146-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we identified a gene sequence in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that very likely codes for a crustacean cardioactive peptide receptor. ..
  12. Rajan A, Perrimon N. Of flies and men: insights on organismal metabolism from fruit flies. BMC Biol. 2013;11:38 pubmed publisher
  13. Shang Y, Donelson N, Vecsey C, Guo F, Rosbash M, Griffith L. Short neuropeptide F is a sleep-promoting inhibitory modulator. Neuron. 2013;80:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..sNPF acutely increases sleep without altering feeding behavior, which it affects only on a much longer time scale. The profound effect of sNPF on sleep indicates that it is an important sleep-promoting molecule. ..
  14. Niwa Y, Niwa R. Neural control of steroid hormone biosynthesis during development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Genet Syst. 2014;89:27-34 pubmed
    ..The implications from studies with other insects are also discussed. ..
  15. Verleyen P, Clynen E, Huybrechts J, Van Lommel A, Vanden Bosch L, De Loof A, et al. Fraenkel's pupariation factor identified at last. Dev Biol. 2004;273:38-47 pubmed
    ..We have now identified this pupariation factor as SVQFKPRLamide, designated Neb-pyrokinin-2 (Neb-PK-2). To achieve this, the central nervous system of N...
  16. Park Y, Kim Y, Dupriez V, Adams M. Two subtypes of ecdysis-triggering hormone receptor in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17710-5 pubmed
  17. Santos J, Vömel M, Struck R, Homberg U, Nässel D, Wegener C. Neuroarchitecture of peptidergic systems in the larval ventral ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e695 pubmed
    ..The data can further be useful to identify colocalized transmitters and receptors, and develop peptidergic neurons as new landmarks. ..
  18. Pool A, Scott K. Feeding regulation in Drosophila. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2014;29:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These neuromodulators in turn promote or inhibit discrete feeding behavioral subprograms. This review highlights the links between physiological needs, neuromodulatory states, and feeding decisions. ..
  19. Thomas A, Lee P, Dalton J, Nomie K, Stoica L, Costa Mattioli M, et al. A versatile method for cell-specific profiling of translated mRNAs in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40276 pubmed publisher
    ..This method can be used to determine the unique translatome profiles in different cell-types under varied physiological, pharmacological and pathological conditions. ..
  20. Wegener C, Herbert H, Kahnt J, Bender M, Rhea J. Deficiency of prohormone convertase dPC2 (AMONTILLADO) results in impaired production of bioactive neuropeptide hormones in Drosophila. J Neurochem. 2011;118:581-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of AMON activity resulted in a deficiency of L3 larva to enter the wandering phase. In conclusion, our findings provide the first direct evidence that AMON is a key enzyme in the production of neuropeptides in the fruitfly. ..
  21. Thum A, Leisibach B, Gendre N, Selcho M, Stocker R. Diversity, variability, and suboesophageal connectivity of antennal lobe neurons in D. melanogaster larvae. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:3415-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In the latter, they may overlap with primary gustatory terminals and with arborizations of hugin cells, which are involved in feeding control...
  22. Terhzaz S, Cabrero P, Robben J, Radford J, Hudson B, Milligan G, et al. Mechanism and function of Drosophila capa GPCR: a desiccation stress-responsive receptor with functional homology to human neuromedinU receptor. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29897 pubmed publisher
    ..agonist effects of human NMU-25 and the insect -PRLamides [Drosophila pyrokinins Drm-PK-1 (capa-3), Drm-PK-2 and hugin-gamma [hugg]] against capaR were investigated...
  23. Ierusalimsky V, Balaban P. Neuropeptides of Drosophila related to molluscan neuropeptides: dependence of the immunoreactivity pattern on the ontogenetic stage and functional state. Brain Res. 2007;1152:32-41 pubmed
    ..against CNP2, which was expected to recognize peptide products of the genes "hugin", "capa", CG6371, and a second antiserum against CNP4, which was expected to recognize neuropeptides encoded by the gene "capa&..
  24. Yew J, Wang Y, Barteneva N, Dikler S, Kutz Naber K, Li L, et al. Analysis of neuropeptide expression and localization in adult drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by affinity cell-capture mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuropeptide profiling also was performed on targeted populations of cells which were enriched with immunoaffinity purification using a genetically expressed marker. ..
  25. Wegener C, Gorbashov A. Molecular evolution of neuropeptides in the genus Drosophila. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R131 pubmed publisher
    ..The last common ancestor of Drosophila obviously had a set of neuropeptides and peptide hormones identical to that of modern fruit flies. This is remarkable, since drosophilid flies have adapted to very different environments. ..
  26. Egerod K, Reynisson E, Hauser F, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first two specific insect myosuppressin receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9808-13 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the molecular identification of specific insect myosuppressin receptors. ..
  27. Egerod K, Reynisson E, Hauser F, Williamson M, Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect proctolin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:437-42 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila receptor reported here is the first invertebrate proctolin receptor to be identified. ..
  28. Colomb J, Stocker R. Combined rather than separate pathways for hedonic and sensory aspects of taste in fly larvae?. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:232-4 pubmed
  29. Carlsson M, Enell L, Nassel D. Distribution of short neuropeptide F and its receptor in neuronal circuits related to feeding in larval Drosophila. Cell Tissue Res. 2013;353:511-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, sNPF was expressed in a subpopulation of Hugin cells (second-order gustatory neurons) only in adult flies...
  30. Baggerman G, Cerstiaens A, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomics of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40368-74 pubmed
    ..This neuropeptide expression profiling study also opens perspectives for other eukaryotic model systems, for which genome projects are completed or in progress. ..
  31. Schoofs A, Hückesfeld S, Schlegel P, Miroschnikow A, Peters M, Zeymer M, et al. Selection of motor programs for suppressing food intake and inducing locomotion in the Drosophila brain. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001893 pubmed publisher
    ..behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing ..
  32. Nässel D, Williams M. Cholecystokinin-Like Peptide (DSK) in Drosophila, Not Only for Satiety Signaling. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014;5:219 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity in the DSK-producing neurons is regulated by octopamine. We discuss mechanisms behind CCK function in satiety, aggression, and locomotion in some detail and highlight similarities to mammalian CCK signaling. ..