Gene Symbol: hth
Description: homothorax
Alias: 1323/07, 1422/04, CG17117, Dm-HTH, Dmel\CG17117, HTH, Hth, Meis1, P53, anon-EST:Liang-2.13, clone 2.13, dtl, hth1, hth2, l(3)05745, l(3)86Ca, homothorax, CG17117-PA, CG17117-PC, CG17117-PE, CG17117-PF, CG17117-PI, dorsotonals, gene II, hth-PA, hth-PC, hth-PE, hth-PF, hth-PI
Species: fruit fly
Products:     hth

Top Publications

  1. Lopes C, Casares F. hth maintains the pool of eye progenitors and its downregulation by Dpp and Hh couples retinal fate acquisition with cell cycle exit. Dev Biol. 2010;339:78-88 pubmed publisher
    ..However, how this coupling operates is still unclear. Here we show that the transcription factor hth, together with eyeless, is required to stimulate proliferation of progenitor cells...
  2. Plaza S, Prince F, Adachi Y, Punzo C, Cribbs D, Gehring W. Cross-regulatory protein-protein interactions between Hox and Pax transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13439-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the homeodomain supports multiple molecular regulatory functions in addition to protein-DNA and protein-RNA interactions; it is also involved in protein-protein interactions. ..
  3. Karlsson D, Baumgardt M, Thor S. Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000368 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a surprisingly restricted, yet multifaceted, function of both anteroposterior and temporal cues with respect to lineage control and cell fate specification...
  4. Kobayashi M, Fujioka M, Tolkunova E, Deka D, Abu Shaar M, Mann R, et al. Engrailed cooperates with extradenticle and homothorax to repress target genes in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:741-51 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the functions of both of the Hox cofactors Extradenticle and Homothorax play essential roles in repression by Engrailed...
  5. Merabet S, Litim Mecheri I, Karlsson D, Dixit R, Saadaoui M, Monier B, et al. Insights into Hox protein function from a large scale combinatorial analysis of protein domains. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002302 pubmed publisher
  6. Suzuki T, Kaido M, Takayama R, Sato M. A temporal mechanism that produces neuronal diversity in the Drosophila visual center. Dev Biol. 2013;380:12-24 pubmed publisher the medulla primordium that are characterized by the expression of four transcription factors, including Homothorax (Hth), Brain-specific homeobox (Bsh), Runt (Run) and Drifter (Drf), correspond to types of medulla neurons...
  7. Merabet S, Kambris Z, Capovilla M, Bérenger H, Pradel J, Graba Y. The hexapeptide and linker regions of the AbdA Hox protein regulate its activating and repressive functions. Dev Cell. 2003;4:761-8 pubmed
    ..Our in vivo data thus reveal functions not previously anticipated from in vitro analyses for the hexapeptide motif in the regulation of Hox activity. ..
  8. Hudry B, Viala S, Graba Y, Merabet S. Visualization of protein interactions in living Drosophila embryos by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. BMC Biol. 2011;9:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish the general suitability of BiFC for revealing and studying protein interactions in their physiological context during the rapid course of Drosophila embryonic development. ..
  9. Casares F, Mann R. The ground state of the ventral appendage in Drosophila. Science. 2001;293:1477-80 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that, during evolution, leglike appendages could have developed without selector gene activity. ..

More Information


  1. Corsetti E, Azpiazu N. Functional dissection of the splice variants of the Drosophila gene homothorax (hth). Dev Biol. 2013;384:72-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Homothorax belongs to the TALE-homeodomain family of transcription factors, together with its vertebrate counterparts, the Meis family of proto-oncogenes...
  2. Estella C, Mann R. Logic of Wg and Dpp induction of distal and medial fates in the Drosophila leg. Development. 2008;135:627-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we present a model for how Dpp and Wg, which are present as dorsal and ventral gradients, respectively, induce nearly circular domains of gene expression along the PD axis. ..
  3. Jaw T, You L, Knoepfler P, Yao L, Pai C, Tang C, et al. Direct interaction of two homeoproteins, homothorax and extradenticle, is essential for EXD nuclear localization and function. Mech Dev. 2000;91:279-91 pubmed
    The Drosophila Homothorax (HTH) and Extradenticle (EXD) are two homeoproteins required in a number of developmental processes. EXD can function as a cofactor to Hox proteins. Its nuclear localization is dependent on HTH...
  4. Merabet S, Saadaoui M, Sambrani N, Hudry B, Pradel J, Affolter M, et al. A unique Extradenticle recruitment mode in the Drosophila Hox protein Ultrabithorax. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16946-51 pubmed
  5. Ebner A, Cabernard C, Affolter M, Merabet S. Recognition of distinct target sites by a unique Labial/Extradenticle/Homothorax complex. Development. 2005;132:1591-600 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, Hox proteins bind to target DNA sequences in association with the Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth) co-factors...
  6. Singh A, Kango Singh M, Choi K, Sun Y. Dorso-ventral asymmetric functions of teashirt in Drosophila eye development depend on spatial cues provided by early DV patterning genes. Mech Dev. 2004;121:365-70 pubmed
    ..development: promoting eye development in dorsal and suppressing eye development in ventral by Wingless mediated Homothorax (HTH) induction [Development 129 (2002) 4271]...
  7. Azpiazu N, Morata G. Distinct functions of homothorax in leg development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2002;119:55-67 pubmed
    ..The proximal domain is defined by the activity of the homeobox genes homothorax and extradenticle and the distal one by the Dpp/Wg targets Distal-less (Dll) and dachshund (dac)...
  8. Xin N, Benchabane H, Tian A, Nguyen K, Klofas L, Ahmed Y. Erect Wing facilitates context-dependent Wnt/Wingless signaling by recruiting the cell-specific Armadillo-TCF adaptor Earthbound to chromatin. Development. 2011;138:4955-67 pubmed publisher
  9. Weihe U, Dorfman R, Wernet M, Cohen S, Milan M. Proximodistal subdivision of Drosophila legs and wings: the elbow-no ocelli gene complex. Development. 2004;131:767-74 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that the zinc-finger proteins encoded by the elbow and no ocelli genes act in leg and wing primordia to repress body wall-specifying genes and thereby direct appendage formation. ..
  10. Casares F, Mann R. Control of antennal versus leg development in Drosophila. Nature. 1998;392:723-6 pubmed
    ..Here we present four lines of evidence that identify extradenticle (exd) and homothorax (hth) as antennal-determining genes...
  11. Bryantsev A, Duong S, Brunetti T, Chechenova M, Lovato T, Nelson C, et al. Extradenticle and homothorax control adult muscle fiber identity in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2012;23:664-73 pubmed publisher
    Here we identify a key role for the homeodomain proteins Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth) in the specification of muscle fiber fate in Drosophila...
  12. Neto Silva R, de Beco S, Johnston L. Evidence for a growth-stabilizing regulatory feedback mechanism between Myc and Yorkie, the Drosophila homolog of Yap. Dev Cell. 2010;19:507-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the codependent regulatory relationship functionally coordinates the cellular activities of Yki and Myc and provides a mechanism of growth control that regulates organ size and has broad implications for cancer. ..
  13. Li X, Erclik T, Bertet C, Chen Z, Voutev R, Venkatesh S, et al. Temporal patterning of Drosophila medulla neuroblasts controls neural fates. Nature. 2013;498:456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Five transcription factors-Homothorax, Eyeless, Sloppy paired, Dichaete and Tailless-are sequentially expressed in a temporal cascade in each of the ..
  14. Kannan R, Berger C, Myneni S, Technau G, Shashidhara L. Abdominal-A mediated repression of Cyclin E expression during cell-fate specification in the Drosophila central nervous system. Mech Dev. 2010;127:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data suggest a complex network to regulate CycE expression where AbdA functions as a key regulator. ..
  15. Bessa J, Carmona L, Casares F. Zinc-finger paralogues tsh and tio are functionally equivalent during imaginal development in Drosophila and maintain their expression levels through auto- and cross-negative feedback loops. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism might be required to maintain a tight control on the total levels of tio/tsh and could help explaining why Drosophila keeps an apparently dispensable gene. ..
  16. Papadopoulos D, Vukojevic V, Adachi Y, Terenius L, Rigler R, Gehring W. Function and specificity of synthetic Hox transcription factors in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4087-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate that synthetic peptides behave largely in a predictable way, by exhibiting Scr-specific phenotypes throughout development, which makes them an important tool for synthetic biology. ..
  17. Brockmann A, Domínguez Cejudo M, Amore G, Casares F. Regulation of ocellar specification and size by twin of eyeless and homothorax. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..a set of simple eyes located on the fly's dorsal head, by studying the expression, regulation, and function of toy, hth, eya, and so, members of the Pax6, Meis, Eya, and Six gene families...
  18. Merabet S, Pradel J, Graba Y. Getting a molecular grasp on Hox contextual activity. Trends Genet. 2005;21:477-80 pubmed
    ..A recent study identified novel Hox molecular partners, whose properties set a conceptual framework to understand how Hox proteins use and integrate contextual information. ..
  19. Stevens K, Mann R. A balance between two nuclear localization sequences and a nuclear export sequence governs extradenticle subcellular localization. Genetics. 2007;175:1625-36 pubmed
    ..such that Exd is cytoplasmic by default, but is nuclear when complexed with another homeodomain protein, Homothorax (Hth)...
  20. Escudero L, Freeman M. Mechanism of G1 arrest in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:13 pubmed
    ..The unexpectedly complex network of regulation may reflect the importance of cells being uniformly ready to respond to the inductive signals that coordinate retinal differentiation. ..
  21. Singh A, Kango Singh M, Sun Y. Eye suppression, a novel function of teashirt, requires Wingless signaling. Development. 2002;129:4271-80 pubmed
    ..We report that tsh can suppress eye development. This novel function of tsh is due to the induction of homothorax (hth), a known repressor of eye development, and requires Wingless (WG) signaling...
  22. Estella C, Mann R. Non-redundant selector and growth-promoting functions of two sister genes, buttonhead and Sp1, in Drosophila leg development. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001001 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that an ancient Sp8/Dlx gene cassette was used in an early metazoan for primitive limb-like outgrowths and that this cassette was co-opted multiple times for appendage formation in multiple animal phyla. ..
  23. Salvany L, Aldaz S, Corsetti E, Azpiazu N. A new role for hth in the early pre-blastodermic divisions in drosophila. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:2748-55 pubmed
    ..In this report, we show that the Homothorax (Hth) transcription factor is maternally provided and that its function is necessary for the proper assembly of ..
  24. Firth L, Baker N. Retinal determination genes as targets and possible effectors of extracellular signals. Dev Biol. 2009;327:366-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic mosaic studies establish that expression of the retinal determination genes eyeless, teashirt, homothorax, eyes absent, sine oculis, and dachshund are each regulated by combinations of Dpp, Hh, N, Wg, and Ras signals ..
  25. Nagaraj R, Gururaja Rao S, Jones K, Slattery M, Negre N, Braas D, et al. Control of mitochondrial structure and function by the Yorkie/YAP oncogenic pathway. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2027-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mitochondrial fusion is an essential and direct target of the Yorkie/YAP pathway in the regulation of organ size control during development and could play a similar role in the genesis of cancer. ..
  26. Wernet M, VELEZ M, Clark D, Baumann Klausener F, Brown J, Klovstad M, et al. Genetic dissection reveals two separate retinal substrates for polarization vision in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2012;22:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This work establishes a behavioral paradigm that will enable genetic dissection of the circuits underlying polarization vision. ..
  27. Estella C, Rieckhof G, Calleja M, Morata G. The role of buttonhead and Sp1 in the development of the ventral imaginal discs of Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:5929-41 pubmed
    ..We propose that this property is a reflection of the initial function of the btd/Sp1 genes that consists of establishing the fate of the ventral disc primordia and determining their pattern and growth...
  28. Pai C, Kuo T, Jaw T, Kurant E, Chen C, Bessarab D, et al. The Homothorax homeoprotein activates the nuclear localization of another homeoprotein, extradenticle, and suppresses eye development in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1998;12:435-46 pubmed
    ..Its nuclear localization is regulated. We report the cloning of the Drosophila homothorax (hth) gene, a homolog of the mouse Meis1 proto-oncogene that has a homeobox related to that of exd...
  29. Azpiazu N, Morata G. Function and regulation of homothorax in the wing imaginal disc of Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:2685-93 pubmed
    The gene homothorax (hth) is originally expressed uniformly in the wing imaginal disc but, during development, its activity is restricted to the cells that form the thorax and the hinge, where the wing blade attaches to the thorax, and ..
  30. Merabet S, Ebner A, Affolter M. The Drosophila Extradenticle and Homothorax selector proteins control branchless/FGF expression in mesodermal bridge-cells. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:762-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the Extradenticle and Homothorax selector proteins control bnl transcription in a single cell per segment, the mesodermal bridge-cell...
  31. Saadaoui M, Merabet S, Litim Mecheri I, Arbeille E, Sambrani N, Damen W, et al. Selection of distinct Hox-Extradenticle interaction modes fine-tunes Hox protein activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2276-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify Hox-PBC interaction as a template for subtle regulation of Hox protein activity that may have played a major role in the diversification of Hox protein function in development and evolution. ..
  32. Slattery M, Riley T, Liu P, Abe N, Gomez Alcala P, Dror I, et al. Cofactor binding evokes latent differences in DNA binding specificity between Hox proteins. Cell. 2011;147:1270-82 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that they obtain novel recognition properties when they bind DNA with the dimeric cofactor Extradenticle-Homothorax (Exd)...
  33. Aldaz S, Morata G, Azpiazu N. Patterning function of homothorax/extradenticle in the thorax of Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:439-46 pubmed
    ..Here, we have investigated the role of the homothorax/extradenticle (hth/exd) gene pair in the elaboration of the pattern of the anterior mesothorax (notum)...
  34. Mckay D, Estella C, Mann R. The origins of the Drosophila leg revealed by the cis-regulatory architecture of the Distalless gene. Development. 2009;136:61-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings provide a complete and high-resolution fate map of the Drosophila appendage primordia, linking the primary domains to specific cis-regulatory elements in Dll. ..
  35. Morata G, Sánchez Herrero E. Patterning mechanisms in the body trunk and the appendages of Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:2823-8 pubmed
    ..We speculate that, although the basic mechanisms are similar, there are significant differences in the manner the body trunk and appendages respond to them. ..
  36. Mukherjee K, Burglin T. Comprehensive analysis of animal TALE homeobox genes: new conserved motifs and cases of accelerated evolution. J Mol Evol. 2007;65:137-53 pubmed
    ..In addition, several instances of gene loss were identified. In conclusion, our comprehensive analysis provides a defining framework for the classification of animal TALE homeobox genes and the understanding of their evolution. ..
  37. Zhang T, Zhou Q, Pignoni F. Yki/YAP, Sd/TEAD and Hth/MEIS control tissue specification in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22278 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that knockdown of the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth), known to partner Yki in some developmental contexts, also induces an ectopic retina domain, that Yki and ..
  38. Affolter M, Mann R. Development. Legs, eyes, or wings--selectors and signals make the difference. Science. 2001;292:1080-1 pubmed
  39. Perea D, Terriente J, Diaz Benjumea F. Temporal and spatial windows delimit activation of the outer ring of wingless in the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2009;328:445-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Later in development, wingless expression is maintained by an autoregulatory loop that involves the product of homothorax. We have analyzed the phenotype of a wingless allelic combination that specifically removes the outer ring, and ..
  40. Noro B, Lelli K, Sun L, Mann R. Competition for cofactor-dependent DNA binding underlies Hox phenotypic suppression. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2327-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that Hox-specific motifs endow posterior Hox proteins with the ability to dominate over more anterior ones via a cofactor-dependent DNA-binding mechanism. ..
  41. Gebelein B, Culi J, Ryoo H, Zhang W, Mann R. Specificity of Distalless repression and limb primordia development by abdominal Hox proteins. Dev Cell. 2002;3:487-98 pubmed
    ..We show that the Hox cofactors Extradenticle and Homothorax selectively enhance Ubx, but not Antp, binding to a Distalless regulatory sequence...
  42. Peng H, Slattery M, Mann R. Transcription factor choice in the Hippo signaling pathway: homothorax and yorkie regulation of the microRNA bantam in the progenitor domain of the Drosophila eye imaginal disc. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2307-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide evidence that Yki can also regulate target genes in conjunction with Homothorax (Hth) and Teashirt (Tsh), two DNA-binding transcription factors expressed in the uncommitted progenitor cells of ..
  43. Perrin L, Monier B, Ponzielli R, Astier M, Semeriva M. Drosophila cardiac tube organogenesis requires multiple phases of Hox activity. Dev Biol. 2004;272:419-31 pubmed
    ..This analysis illustrates the mechanisms by which Hox genes can orchestrate organogenesis and, in particular, allows a clear uncoupling of the different phases of Hox activity in this process. ..
  44. Luque C, Milan M. Growth control in the proliferative region of the Drosophila eye-head primordium: the elbow-noc gene complex. Dev Biol. 2007;301:327-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, tight regulation of the size of the eye-head primordium by elbow and no ocelli is crucial for proper fate specification and generation of the adult structures. ..
  45. Joshi R, Passner J, Rohs R, Jain R, Sosinsky A, Crickmore M, et al. Functional specificity of a Hox protein mediated by the recognition of minor groove structure. Cell. 2007;131:530-43 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that these residues, which are conserved in a paralog-specific manner, confer specificity by recognizing a sequence-dependent DNA structure instead of directly reading a specific DNA sequence. ..
  46. Grienenberger A, Merabet S, Manak J, Iltis I, Fabre A, B renger H, et al. Tgfbeta signaling acts on a Hox response element to confer specificity and diversity to Hox protein function. Development. 2003;130:5445-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The signal, acting through Mad and Creb, provides spatial information that subdivides the domain of Abdominal A function through direct combinatorial action, conferring specificity and diversity upon Abdominal A activity...
  47. Zirin J, Mann R. Differing strategies for the establishment and maintenance of teashirt and homothorax repression in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2004;131:5683-93 pubmed
    ..Two such factors, teashirt (tsh) and homothorax (hth), are initially co-expressed throughout the entire wing disc, but are later repressed in distal cells, ..
  48. Lebreton G, Faucher C, Cribbs D, Benassayag C. Timing of Wingless signalling distinguishes maxillary and antennal identities in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2008;135:2301-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterised: (1) the action of Wg through ss selector function in distinguishing maxillary from antenna; and (2) its direct contribution to identity choice. ..
  49. Spletter M, Schnorrer F. Transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing cooperate in muscle fiber-type specification in flies and mammals. Exp Cell Res. 2014;321:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, research in Drosophila can provide important mechanistic insight into muscle fiber specification, which is relevant to homologous processes in mammals and to the pathology of muscle diseases. ..
  50. Fujioka M, Gebelein B, COFER Z, Mann R, Jaynes J. Engrailed cooperates directly with Extradenticle and Homothorax on a distinct class of homeodomain binding sites to repress sloppy paired. Dev Biol. 2012;366:382-92 pubmed publisher
    ..cooperative binding sites for En, with the homeodomain-containing Hox cofactors Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth), within two CRMs that drive similar expression patterns...
  51. Silver S, Rebay I. Signaling circuitries in development: insights from the retinal determination gene network. Development. 2005;132:3-13 pubmed
    ..Further study of the RDGN may provide insights into how common cues can generate context-specific responses, a key aspect of developmental regulation that remains poorly understood. ..
  52. Bessa J, Casares F. Restricted teashirt expression confers eye-specific responsiveness to Dpp and Wg signals during eye specification in Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:5011-20 pubmed
    ..Under these conditions, though, terminal eye differentiation proceeds only if tsh expression is transient. ..
  53. Rivas M, Espinosa Vázquez J, Sambrani N, Greig S, Merabet S, Graba Y, et al. Antagonism versus cooperativity with TALE cofactors at the base of the functional diversification of Hox protein function. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003252 pubmed publisher
    Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth) function as positive transcriptional cofactors of Hox proteins, helping them to bind specifically their direct targets...
  54. Pichaud F, Casares F. homothorax and iroquois-C genes are required for the establishment of territories within the developing eye disc. Mech Dev. 2000;96:15-25 pubmed
    ..Yet the molecular basis for its regionalization during development is poorly understood. Here we show that homothorax is required early during development for normal eye development and is necessary for the formation of the ..
  55. Choo S, White R, Russell S. Genome-wide analysis of the binding of the Hox protein Ultrabithorax and the Hox cofactor Homothorax in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14778 pubmed publisher
    ..We also performed genome-wide analysis of the binding sites for the Hox cofactor Homothorax (Hth), revealing a striking similarity with the Ubx binding profile...
  56. Hasegawa E, Kitada Y, Kaido M, Takayama R, Awasaki T, Tabata T, et al. Concentric zones, cell migration and neuronal circuits in the Drosophila visual center. Development. 2011;138:983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..subdivided into concentric zones characterized by the expression of four transcription factors: Drifter, Runt, Homothorax and Brain-specific homeobox (Bsh)...
  57. Sun Y, Tsai C, Green M, Chao J, Yu C, Jaw T, et al. White as a reporter gene to detect transcriptional silencers specifying position-specific gene expression during Drosophila melanogaster eye development. Genetics. 1995;141:1075-86 pubmed
    ..teashirt is also implicated as a candidate gene. We propose that this "silencer trap"' may be an efficient way of identifying genes involved in imaginal pattern formation...
  58. Slattery M, Voutev R, Ma L, Negre N, White K, Mann R. Divergent transcriptional regulatory logic at the intersection of tissue growth and developmental patterning. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003753 pubmed publisher the nucleus to regulate gene expression; in Drosophila, the developmental regulators Scalloped (Sd) and Homothorax (Hth) are two such partners...
  59. Bessa J, Gebelein B, Pichaud F, Casares F, Mann R. Combinatorial control of Drosophila eye development by eyeless, homothorax, and teashirt. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2415-27 pubmed
    ..One subdomain, anterior to the MF, expresses two homeobox genes, eyeless (ey) and homothorax (hth), and the zinc-finger gene teashirt (tsh)...
  60. Abu Shaar M, Mann R. Generation of multiple antagonistic domains along the proximodistal axis during Drosophila leg development. Development. 1998;125:3821-30 pubmed
    b>homothorax (hth) is a Drosophila member of the Meis family of homeobox genes. hth function is required for the nuclear localization of the Hox cofactor Extradenticle (EXD)...
  61. Estella C, Mckay D, Mann R. Molecular integration of wingless, decapentaplegic, and autoregulatory inputs into Distalless during Drosophila leg development. Dev Cell. 2008;14:86-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The "trigger-maintenance" model describes a mechanism by which secreted morphogens act combinatorially to induce the stable expression of target genes. ..
  62. Noro B, Culi J, Mckay D, Zhang W, Mann R. Distinct functions of homeodomain-containing and homeodomain-less isoforms encoded by homothorax. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1636-50 pubmed publisher
    The homothorax (hth) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is required for executing Hox functions, for head development, and for forming the proximodistal (PD) axis of the appendages...
  63. Ryoo H, Marty T, Casares F, Affolter M, Mann R. Regulation of Hox target genes by a DNA bound Homothorax/Hox/Extradenticle complex. Development. 1999;126:5137-48 pubmed
    ..EXD to bind DNA, it must be in the nucleus, and its nuclear localization requires a third homeodomain protein, Homothorax (HTH)...
  64. Casares F, Mann R. A dual role for homothorax in inhibiting wing blade development and specifying proximal wing identities in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:1499-508 pubmed
    ..Here we show that wg activates the gene homothorax (hth) in the hinge and that hth is necessary for hinge development...
  65. Culi J, Aroca P, Modolell J, Mann R. jing is required for wing development and to establish the proximo-distal axis of the leg in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;173:255-66 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that jing represses transcription and that it is necessary to keep the proximal gene homothorax (hth) repressed in the medial domain of the PD axis...
  66. Wu J, Cohen S. Proximal distal axis formation in the Drosophila leg: distinct functions of teashirt and homothorax in the proximal leg. Mech Dev. 2000;94:47-56 pubmed
    ..The homeodomain protein Homothorax and the zinc-finger protein Teashirt are broadly coexpressed in the presumptive body wall and proximal leg ..
  67. Dong P, Dicks J, Panganiban G. Distal-less and homothorax regulate multiple targets to pattern the Drosophila antenna. Development. 2002;129:1967-74 pubmed
    ..The nuclear factors, Homothorax, Distal-less and Spineless, are each required for particular aspects of antennal fate...
  68. Passner J, Ryoo H, Shen L, Mann R, Aggarwal A. Structure of a DNA-bound Ultrabithorax-Extradenticle homeodomain complex. Nature. 1999;397:714-9 pubmed
    ..Together, these protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions define the general principles by which homeotic proteins interact with Extradenticle (or Pbx1) to affect development along the anterior-posterior axis of animals. ..
  69. Wu J, Cohen S. Proximodistal axis formation in the Drosophila leg: subdivision into proximal and distal domains by Homothorax and Distal-less. Development. 1999;126:109-17 pubmed
    ..legs of Drosophila are subdivided into proximal and distal domains by the activity of the homeodomain proteins Homothorax (Hth) and Distal-less (Dll). The expression domains of Dll and Hth are initially reciprocal...
  70. Glazov E, Pheasant M, McGraw E, Bejerano G, Mattick J. Ultraconserved elements in insect genomes: a highly conserved intronic sequence implicated in the control of homothorax mRNA splicing. Genome Res. 2005;15:800-8 pubmed
    ..The longest identical, nongapped orthologous match between the three genomes was found within the homothorax (hth) gene...
  71. Abu Shaar M, Ryoo H, Mann R. Control of the nuclear localization of Extradenticle by competing nuclear import and export signals. Genes Dev. 1999;13:935-45 pubmed
    ..Exd) is regulated at the level of its subcellular distribution: It is cytoplasmic in the absence of Homothorax (Hth), a Meis family member, and nuclear in the presence of Hth...
  72. Inbal A, Halachmi N, Dibner C, Frank D, Salzberg A. Genetic evidence for the transcriptional-activating function of Homothorax during adult fly development. Development. 2001;128:3405-13 pubmed
    b>Homothorax (HTH) is a homeobox-containing protein, which plays multiple roles in the development of the embryo and the adult fly. HTH binds to the homeotic cofactor Extradenticle (EXD) and translocates it to the nucleus...
  73. Wernet M, Labhart T, Baumann F, Mazzoni E, Pichaud F, Desplan C. Homothorax switches function of Drosophila photoreceptors from color to polarized light sensors. Cell. 2003;115:267-79 pubmed
    ..We show that homothorax is both necessary and sufficient for inner PRs to adopt the polarization-sensitive DRA fate instead of the color-..
  74. Ryoo H, Mann R. The control of trunk Hox specificity and activity by Extradenticle. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1704-16 pubmed
    ..element during the early stages of embryogenesis because, by stage 11, Scr negatively regulates the gene homothorax (hth), which is required for the nuclear localization of Exd...
  75. Agelopoulos M, Mckay D, Mann R. Developmental regulation of chromatin conformation by Hox proteins in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2012;1:350-9 pubmed
    ..The pattern of binding by GAGA factor and the variant histone H2Av suggest that they play a role in the regulation of Dll chromatin conformation in expressing and nonexpressing cell types, respectively. ..
  76. Löhr U, Pick L. Cofactor-interaction motifs and the cooption of a homeotic Hox protein into the segmentation pathway of Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2005;15:643-9 pubmed
    ..Strengthening the Ftz/Ftz-F1 interaction led to degeneration of the YPWM and loss of homeotic activity. Thus, small changes in protein sequence can result in a qualitative switch in function during evolution. ..
  77. Li Kroeger D, Witt L, Grimes H, Cook T, Gebelein B. Hox and senseless antagonism functions as a molecular switch to regulate EGF secretion in the Drosophila PNS. Dev Cell. 2008;15:298-308 pubmed publisher
    ..As the vertebrate senseless homolog is essential for neural development as well as hematopoiesis, we propose Hox-Senseless antagonism will broadly control cell fate decisions. ..
  78. Gebelein B, Mckay D, Mann R. Direct integration of Hox and segmentation gene inputs during Drosophila development. Nature. 2004;431:653-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that these two classes of proteins may collaborate to directly control gene expression at many downstream target genes. ..