Hsp70Aa

Summary

Gene Symbol: Hsp70Aa
Description: Heat-shock-protein-70Aa
Alias: 87A, CG31366, Dm-hsp70, DmHSP70AA, Dmel\CG31366, HSP70, Hsp 70, Hsp-70, Hsp-70Aa, Hsp70, Hsp70A, Hsp70a, dHsp70, dhsp70, dhsp70Aa, hs70, hsp 70, hsp-70, hsp70, hsp70 87A, hsp70 Aa, hsp70(87A), hsp70A, hsp70Aa, hsp70a, Heat-shock-protein-70Aa, 87A locus, CG31366-PA, Hsp70Aa-PA, heat shock 70, heat shock protein-70, heat-shock protein 70, hsp70 87A, protein 70
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Hsp70Aa

Top Publications

  1. O BRIEN T, Wilkins R, Giardina C, Lis J. Distribution of GAGA protein on Drosophila genes in vivo. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1098-110 pubmed
    ..GAGA protein has been implicated in the transcription of numerous Drosophila genes, including hsp70, hsp26, actin 5C, and Ubx...
  2. Amin J, Ananthan J, Voellmy R. Key features of heat shock regulatory elements. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:3761-9 pubmed
    ..Second, the nucleotides at the two positions immediately upstream from GAA segments played an important role in defining the competence of regulatory elements. ..
  3. Landis G, Abdueva D, Skvortsov D, Yang J, Rabin B, Carrick J, et al. Similar gene expression patterns characterize aging and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7663-8 pubmed
    ..Immune reporter expression in young flies was partially predictive of remaining life span, suggesting their potential as biomonitors of aging. ..
  4. Bettencourt B, Feder M. Hsp70 duplication in the Drosophila melanogaster species group: how and when did two become five?. Mol Biol Evol. 2001;18:1272-82 pubmed publisher
    To determine how the modern copy number (5) of hsp70 genes in Drosophila melanogaster evolved, we localized the duplication events that created the genes in the phylogeny of the melanogaster group, examined D...
  5. Morettini S, Tribus M, Zeilner A, Sebald J, Campo Fernandez B, Scheran G, et al. The chromodomains of CHD1 are critical for enzymatic activity but less important for chromatin localization. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:3103-15 pubmed publisher
    ..II localization and H3K4 methylation but loss of CHD1 decreases transcription-induced histone eviction at the Hsp70 gene in vivo...
  6. Boehm A, Saunders A, Werner J, Lis J. Transcription factor and polymerase recruitment, modification, and movement on dhsp70 in vivo in the minutes following heat shock. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7628-37 pubmed
    The uninduced Drosophila hsp70 gene is poised for rapid activation...
  7. Gatfield D, Le Hir H, Schmitt C, Braun I, Kocher T, Wilm M, et al. The DExH/D box protein HEL/UAP56 is essential for mRNA nuclear export in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1716-21 pubmed
    ..We conclude that HEL is essential for the export of bulk mRNA in Drosophila. The association of human UAP56 with spliced mRNAs suggests that this protein might provide a functional link between splicing and export. ..
  8. DiDomenico B, Bugaisky G, Lindquist S. Heat shock and recovery are mediated by different translational mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:6181-5 pubmed
    ..Their repression was asynchronous, with translation of hsp70 always the first and translation of hsp82 always the last to be repressed...
  9. Lis J. Promoter-associated pausing in promoter architecture and postinitiation transcriptional regulation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1998;63:347-56 pubmed

More Information

Publications68

  1. Shilova V, Garbuz D, Myasyankina E, Chen B, Evgen ev M, Feder M, et al. Remarkable site specificity of local transposition into the Hsp70 promoter of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;173:809-20 pubmed
    ..have exploited a local transposition technique and Drosophila melanogaster strains with EPgy2 insertions near the Hsp70 gene cluster at 87A7 to produce numerous novel EPgy2 insertions into these Hsp70 genes...
  2. Buszczak M, Spradling A. The Drosophila P68 RNA helicase regulates transcriptional deactivation by promoting RNA release from chromatin. Genes Dev. 2006;20:977-89 pubmed
    ..Full-length hsp70 mRNA accumulates in the nucleus near its sites of transcription following heat shock of p68 homozygotes, and hsp70 ..
  3. Gong W, Golic K. Loss of Hsp70 in Drosophila is pleiotropic, with effects on thermotolerance, recovery from heat shock and neurodegeneration. Genetics. 2006;172:275-86 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster the Hsp70 chaperone dominates the profile of protein synthesis during the heat-shock response...
  4. Jin P, Zarnescu D, Zhang F, Pearson C, Lucchesi J, Moses K, et al. RNA-mediated neurodegeneration caused by the fragile X premutation rCGG repeats in Drosophila. Neuron. 2003;39:739-47 pubmed
    ..Although devoid of mutant protein, this neurodegeneration exhibits neuronal inclusion bodies that are Hsp70 and ubiquitin positive. Overexpression of Hsp70 could suppress the neurodegeneration...
  5. Zhao Y, Sun H, Lu J, Li X, Chen X, Tao D, et al. Lifespan extension and elevated hsp gene expression in Drosophila caused by histone deacetylase inhibitors. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:697-705 pubmed
    ..To further determine if hsp22 and hsp70 expression is correlated with lifespan, and if histone acetylation participates in this process, RNA levels for ..
  6. Tian S, Haney R, Feder M. Phylogeny disambiguates the evolution of heat-shock cis-regulatory elements in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10669 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, in the multi-copy gene Hsp70, the number of HSEs is nearly constant across species...
  7. Zobeck K, Buckley M, Zipfel W, Lis J. Recruitment timing and dynamics of transcription factors at the Hsp70 loci in living cells. Mol Cell. 2010;40:965-75 pubmed publisher
    ..to examine at high temporal resolution the recruitment and dynamics of transcription factors to the inducible Hsp70 loci in individual Drosophila salivary gland nuclei...
  8. Chen B, Shilova V, Zatsepina O, Evgen ev M, Feder M. Location of P element insertions in the proximal promoter region of Hsp70A is consequential for gene expression and correlated with fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2008;13:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..strains with P element insertions from -28 to -144 nucleotides 5' to the transcription start site of the Hsp70A genes-corresponding to the range of naturally occurring P element insertion sites-to elucidate the consequences of ..
  9. Rasmussen E, Lis J. In vivo transcriptional pausing and cap formation on three Drosophila heat shock genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:7923-7 pubmed
    The regulation of many eukaryotic genes occurs at the level of transcriptional elongation. On the uninduced hsp70 gene of Drosophila melanogaster, for example, an RNA polymerase II complex has initiated transcription but has paused early ..
  10. Maside X, Bartolomé C, Charlesworth B. S-element insertions are associated with the evolution of the Hsp70 genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1686-91 pubmed
    ..fragments of an S-element are inserted into the 5' regions of three members of a heat shock gene family, Hsp70 (Hsp70Aa and Hsp70Ab in polytene chromosome band 87A, and Hsp70Bb in 87C)...
  11. Sørensen J, Loeschcke V. Larval crowding in Drosophila melanogaster induces Hsp70 expression, and leads to increased adult longevity and adult thermal stress resistance. J Insect Physiol. 2001;47:1301-1307 pubmed
    In this study we show for the first time that moderate high larval density induces Hsp70 expression in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Larval crowding led to both increased mean and maximal longevity in adults of both sexes...
  12. Xiao H, Lis J. Germline transformation used to define key features of heat-shock response elements. Science. 1988;239:1139-42 pubmed
    ..Here, the sequence requirements for heat-shock induction are tested by Drosophila germline transformation with an hsp70-lacZ gene fused to a pair of synthetic HSEs...
  13. Wu C, Lee C, Fan R, Smith M, Yamaguchi Y, Handa H, et al. Molecular characterization of Drosophila NELF. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:1269-79 pubmed
    ..to inhibit transcription elongation in vitro, and are implicated in causing promoter proximal pausing on the hsp70 gene in Drosophila. Here, further characterization of Drosophila NELF is provided...
  14. Kurshakova M, Krasnov A, Kopytova D, Shidlovskii Y, Nikolenko J, Nabirochkina E, et al. SAGA and a novel Drosophila export complex anchor efficient transcription and mRNA export to NPC. EMBO J. 2007;26:4956-65 pubmed
    ..Importantly, E(y)2 and Xmas-2 knockdown decreases the contact between the heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene loci and the nuclear envelope before and after activation and interferes with transcription...
  15. Rasmussen E, Lis J. Short transcripts of the ternary complex provide insight into RNA polymerase II elongational pausing. J Mol Biol. 1995;252:522-35 pubmed
    Expression of the hsp70 gene of Drosophila melanogaster is controlled at the level of transcript elongation...
  16. Perisic O, Xiao H, Lis J. Stable binding of Drosophila heat shock factor to head-to-head and tail-to-tail repeats of a conserved 5 bp recognition unit. Cell. 1989;59:797-806 pubmed
    ..We propose that trimers of HSF bind to DNA and that the number of HSF subunits in direct contact with DNA is determined by the number of correctly positioned 5 bp recognition units. ..
  17. Ni Z, Schwartz B, Werner J, Suarez J, Lis J. Coordination of transcription, RNA processing, and surveillance by P-TEFb kinase on heat shock genes. Mol Cell. 2004;13:55-65 pubmed
    ..Brief treatment of Drosophila cells with flavopiridol leads to a reduction in the accumulation of induced hsp70 and hsp26 RNAs...
  18. Smith E, Lee M, Winter B, Droz N, Eissenberg J, Shiekhattar R, et al. Drosophila UTX is a histone H3 Lys27 demethylase that colocalizes with the elongating form of RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1041-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, heat shock induction results in the recruitment of dUTX to the hsp70 gene, like that of several other Pol II elongation factors...
  19. Papaconstantinou M, Wu Y, Pretorius H, Singh N, Gianfelice G, Tanguay R, et al. Menin is a regulator of the stress response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:9960-72 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of menin enhanced the expression of HSP70 in embryos and interfered with its down-regulation during recovery at the normal temperature...
  20. Murawska M, Hassler M, Renkawitz Pohl R, Ladurner A, Brehm A. Stress-induced PARP activation mediates recruitment of Drosophila Mi-2 to promote heat shock gene expression. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002206 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that stress-induced chromatin PARylation serves to rapidly attract factors that are required for an efficient and timely transcriptional response. ..
  21. Wang X, Lee C, Gilmour D, Gergen J. Transcription elongation controls cell fate specification in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1031-6 pubmed
  22. Piacentini L, Fanti L, Berloco M, Perrini B, Pimpinelli S. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is associated with induced gene expression in Drosophila euchromatin. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:707-14 pubmed
    ..phenotype of intense gene activity, we did a detailed analysis of the heat shock-induced expression of the HSP70 encoding gene in larvae with different doses of HP1 and found that HP1 is positively involved in Hsp70 gene ..
  23. Andrulis E, Guzman E, Döring P, Werner J, Lis J. High-resolution localization of Drosophila Spt5 and Spt6 at heat shock genes in vivo: roles in promoter proximal pausing and transcription elongation. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2635-49 pubmed
    ..These findings provide support for the roles of Spt5 in promoter-associated pausing and of Spt5 and Spt6 in transcriptional elongation in vivo. ..
  24. Giardina C, Lis J. Polymerase processivity and termination on Drosophila heat shock genes. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:23806-11 pubmed
    ..Transcription of the uninduced Drosophila hsp70 gene is likewise restricted to the 5'-end, where the polymerase resides in a paused state...
  25. Warrick J, Chan H, Gray Board G, Chai Y, Paulson H, Bonini N. Suppression of polyglutamine-mediated neurodegeneration in Drosophila by the molecular chaperone HSP70. Nat Genet. 1999;23:425-8 pubmed
    ..melanogaster model of polyglutamine disease, we show that directed expression of the molecular chaperone HSP70 suppresses polyglutamine-induced neurodegeneration in vivo...
  26. King V, Tower J. Aging-specific expression of Drosophila hsp22. Dev Biol. 1999;207:107-18 pubmed
    ..Aging-specific induction of hsp22 is discussed with regard to current evolutionary theories of aging. ..
  27. Shopland L, Lis J. HSF recruitment and loss at most Drosophila heat shock loci is coordinated and depends on proximal promoter sequences. Chromosoma. 1996;105:158-71 pubmed
    ..Finally, the distribution of the heat shock protein HSP70 is examined for its role in regulating the attenuated response of HSF to heat shock.
  28. Auluck P, Chan H, Trojanowski J, Lee V, Bonini N. Chaperone suppression of alpha-synuclein toxicity in a Drosophila model for Parkinson's disease. Science. 2002;295:865-8 pubmed
    ..We report that directed expression of the molecular chaperone Hsp70 prevented dopaminergic neuronal loss associated with alpha-synuclein in Drosophila and that interference with ..
  29. Fernandes M, Xiao H, Lis J. Binding of heat shock factor to and transcriptional activation of heat shock genes in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:4799-804 pubmed
    ..This last result suggests that close proximity of HSEs for cooperative binding of HSF is a result of protein-protein interactions near the point of DNA contact. ..
  30. Auluck P, Meulener M, Bonini N. Mechanisms of Suppression of {alpha}-Synuclein Neurotoxicity by Geldanamycin in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2873-8 pubmed
    ..The molecular chaperone Hsp70 protects cells from the deleterious effects of alpha-synuclein, indicating a potential therapeutic approach to ..
  31. Rabindran S, Wisniewski J, Li L, Li G, Wu C. Interaction between heat shock factor and hsp70 is insufficient to suppress induction of DNA-binding activity in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:6552-60 pubmed
    ..In addition, elevated concentrations of hsp70 alone could not significantly inhibit induction of the DNA-binding activity of endogenous HSF in cultured rat ..
  32. Ish Horowicz D, Pinchin S, Schedl P, Artavanis Tsakonas S, Mirault M. Genetic and molecular analysis of the 87A7 and 87C1 heat-inducible loci of D. melanogaster. Cell. 1979;18:1351-8 pubmed
    ..melanogaster. One of these codes for the 70,000 dalton heat shock protein (hsp 70) and is found at both loci...
  33. Giardina C, Pérez Riba M, Lis J. Promoter melting and TFIID complexes on Drosophila genes in vivo. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2190-200 pubmed
    ..Melted DNA helices are found associated with the pause site of the uninduced hsp70 and hsp26 heat shock genes and the constitutively expressed beta-1 tubulin gene...
  34. Herold A, Klymenko T, Izaurralde E. NXF1/p15 heterodimers are essential for mRNA nuclear export in Drosophila. RNA. 2001;7:1768-80 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Dm NXF1/p15 heterodimers only (but not NXF2-NXF4) mediate the export of the majority of mRNAs in Drosophila cells and that the other members of the NXF family play more specialized or different roles. ..
  35. Kopytova D, Orlova A, Krasnov A, Gurskiy D, Nikolenko J, Nabirochkina E, et al. Multifunctional factor ENY2 is associated with the THO complex and promotes its recruitment onto nascent mRNA. Genes Dev. 2010;24:86-96 pubmed publisher
    ..ENY2 and THO arrive on the transcribed region of the hsp70 gene after its activation, and ENY2 plays an important role in THO recruitment...
  36. Jedlicka P, Mortin M, Wu C. Multiple functions of Drosophila heat shock transcription factor in vivo. EMBO J. 1997;16:2452-62 pubmed
  37. Pelham H. A regulatory upstream promoter element in the Drosophila hsp 70 heat-shock gene. Cell. 1982;30:517-28 pubmed
    Deletion mutants of the Drosophila hsp 70 heat-shock gene have been assayed in COS cells using a vector that contains an SV40 replication origin...
  38. Zatsepina O, Velikodvorskaia V, Molodtsov V, Garbuz D, Lerman D, Bettencourt B, et al. A Drosophila melanogaster strain from sub-equatorial Africa has exceptional thermotolerance but decreased Hsp70 expression. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:1869-81 pubmed
    ..of high temperatures, which in Drosophila melanogaster is due in part to the inducible molecular chaperone Hsp70, is only modest in this strain...
  39. Smith S, Petruk S, Sedkov Y, Cho E, Tillib S, Canaani E, et al. Modulation of heat shock gene expression by the TAC1 chromatin-modifying complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:162-7 pubmed
    Rapid induction of the Drosophila melanogaster heat shock gene hsp70 is achieved through the binding of heat shock factor (HSF) to heat shock elements (HSEs) located upstream of the transcription start site (reviewed in ref. 3)...
  40. Lebedeva L, Nabirochkina E, Kurshakova M, Robert F, Krasnov A, Evgen ev M, et al. Occupancy of the Drosophila hsp70 promoter by a subset of basal transcription factors diminishes upon transcriptional activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18087-92 pubmed
    The presence of general transcription factors and other coactivators at the Drosophila hsp70 gene promoter in vivo has been examined by polytene chromosome immunofluorescence and chromatin immunoprecipitation at endogenous heat-shock ..
  41. Eissenberg J, Shilatifard A, Dorokhov N, Michener D. Cdk9 is an essential kinase in Drosophila that is required for heat shock gene expression, histone methylation and elongation factor recruitment. Mol Genet Genomics. 2007;277:101-14 pubmed
    ..b>Hsp 70 mRNA induction by heat shock was attenuated in Cdk9 knockdown larvae...
  42. Winegarden N, Wong K, Sopta M, Westwood J. Sodium salicylate decreases intracellular ATP, induces both heat shock factor binding and chromosomal puffing, but does not induce hsp 70 gene transcription in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:26971-80 pubmed
    ..the induction of HSF binding and heat shock puffs in polytene chromosomes, we found no evidence for increased hsp 70 gene transcription suggesting that chromosomal puffing and gene transcription may be separable events...
  43. Pauli D, Arrigo A, Tissieres A. Heat shock response in Drosophila. Experientia. 1992;48:623-9 pubmed
    ..Several of the most important aspects of the regulation of the heat shock response and of the functions of the heat shock proteins have been unraveled in Drosophila. ..
  44. Petesch S, Lis J. Rapid, transcription-independent loss of nucleosomes over a large chromatin domain at Hsp70 loci. Cell. 2008;134:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Many genes, including Drosophila melanogaster Hsp70, undergo changes in chromatin structure upon activation...
  45. Silbermann R, Tatar M. Reproductive costs of heat shock protein in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution. 2000;54:2038-45 pubmed
    ..The molecular chaperone hsp70 may be a candidate for such a gene...
  46. Folk D, Zwollo P, Rand D, Gilchrist G. Selection on knockdown performance in Drosophila melanogaster impacts thermotolerance and heat-shock response differently in females and males. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:3964-73 pubmed
    ..Finally, we compared temporal profiles of the combined expression of two major heat-shock proteins, HSC70 and HSP70, during heat stress among the females and males from the selected T(KD) lines...
  47. Zeitlinger J, Stark A, Kellis M, Hong J, Nechaev S, Adelman K, et al. RNA polymerase stalling at developmental control genes in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1512-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that Pol II stalling facilitates rapid temporal and spatial changes in gene activity during development. ..
  48. Bettencourt B, Feder M. Rapid concerted evolution via gene conversion at the Drosophila hsp70 genes. J Mol Evol. 2002;54:569-86 pubmed publisher
    We analyzed nucleotide variation in the hsp70 genes of Drosophila melanogaster (five genes) and D. simulans (four genes) to characterize the homogenizing and diversifying roles of gene conversion in their evolution...
  49. Yao J, Munson K, Webb W, Lis J. Dynamics of heat shock factor association with native gene loci in living cells. Nature. 2006;442:1050-3 pubmed
    ..After heat shock, we have visualized the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to native hsp70 gene loci 87A and 87C in real time...
  50. Lakhotia S, Prasanth K. Tissue- and development-specific induction and turnover of hsp70 transcripts from loci 87A and 87C after heat shock and during recovery in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:345-58 pubmed
    ..genome of Drosophila melanogaster normally carries at least five nearly identical copies of heat-shock-inducible hsp70 genes, two copies at the 87A7 and three copies at the 87C1 chromosome sites...
  51. Zhang Z, Gilmour D. Pcf11 is a termination factor in Drosophila that dismantles the elongation complex by bridging the CTD of RNA polymerase II to the nascent transcript. Mol Cell. 2006;21:65-74 pubmed
    ..We show that Pcf11 is directly involved in termination in Drosophila. dPcf11 is concentrated at the 3' end of the hsp70 gene in cells, and depletion of dPcf11 with RNAi causes Pol II to readthrough the normal region of termination...
  52. Haney R, Feder M. Contrasting patterns of transposable element insertions in Drosophila heat-shock promoters. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8486 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster natural populations. Hsp70 promoters exhibit more TE insertions per promoter than all other genesets in the 12 species, similarly to in ..
  53. Wheeler J, Bieschke E, Tower J. Muscle-specific expression of Drosophila hsp70 in response to aging and oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:10408-12 pubmed
    Induction of Drosophila hsp70 protein was detected during aging in flight muscle and leg muscle in the absence of heat shock, using an hsp70-specific monoclonal antibody, and in transgenic flies containing hsp70-beta-galactosidase fusion ..
  54. Saunders A, Werner J, Andrulis E, Nakayama T, Hirose S, Reinberg D, et al. Tracking FACT and the RNA polymerase II elongation complex through chromatin in vivo. Science. 2003;301:1094-6 pubmed
    ..Our observations are consistent with FACT being restricted to transcription that involves nucleosome disassembly mechanisms. ..
  55. Kellett M, McKechnie S. A cluster of diagnostic Hsp68 amino acid sites that are identified in Drosophila from the melanogaster species group are concentrated around beta-sheet residues involved with substrate binding. Genome. 2005;48:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..When the predicted amino acid sequences are compared with available Hsp70 sequences, patterns of conservation suggest that the C-terminal region should be subdivided according to ..
  56. Tulin A, Spradling A. Chromatin loosening by poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) at Drosophila puff loci. Science. 2003;299:560-2 pubmed
    Steroid response and stress-activated genes such as hsp70 undergo puffing in Drosophila larval salivary glands, a local loosening of polytene chromatin structure associated with gene induction...
  57. Bettencourt B, Hogan C, Nimali M, Drohan B. Inducible and constitutive heat shock gene expression responds to modification of Hsp70 copy number in Drosophila melanogaster but does not compensate for loss of thermotolerance in Hsp70 null flies. BMC Biol. 2008;6:5 pubmed publisher
    The heat shock protein Hsp70 promotes inducible thermotolerance in nearly every organism examined to date...
  58. Gong W, Golic K. Genomic deletions of the Drosophila melanogaster Hsp70 genes. Genetics. 2004;168:1467-76 pubmed
    ..melanogaster we set out to delete the Hsp70 genes...
  59. Muse G, Gilchrist D, Nechaev S, Shah R, Parker J, Grissom S, et al. RNA polymerase is poised for activation across the genome. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1507-11 pubmed
    ..This finding indicates a role for regulation of polymerase elongation in the transcriptional responses to dynamic environmental and developmental cues. ..