Gene Symbol: Hsp68
Description: Heat shock protein 68
Alias: CG5436, DmHsp68, Dmel\CG5436, HSP68, HSP68_DROME, Hsp-68, hsp68, heat shock protein 68, CG5436-PA, Hsp 68, Hsp68-PA
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Hsp68

Top Publications

  1. Biteau B, Karpac J, Supoyo S, Degennaro M, Lehmann R, Jasper H. Lifespan extension by preserving proliferative homeostasis in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001159 pubmed publisher
  2. Pelham H. A regulatory upstream promoter element in the Drosophila hsp 70 heat-shock gene. Cell. 1982;30:517-28 pubmed
    ..It seems that the upstream element of the hsp 70 promoter is analogous to that of other promoters, but is only functional in heat-shocked cells. ..
  3. McColl G, Hoffmann A, McKechnie S. Response of two heat shock genes to selection for knockdown heat resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1996;143:1615-27 pubmed
    ..To survey allelic variation and correlated selection responses in two candidate stress genes, hsr-omega and hsp68, we applied denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to amplified DNA sequences from small regions of these genes...
  4. Xiao H, Lis J. Germline transformation used to define key features of heat-shock response elements. Science. 1988;239:1139-42 pubmed
    ..These and additional analyses indicate that the heat-shock regulatory element includes sequences beyond the 14-base pair HSE and may be better described as a dimer of a 10-base pair sequence, NTTCNNGAAN. ..
  5. Bilen J, Bonini N. Genome-wide screen for modifiers of ataxin-3 neurodegeneration in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:1950-64 pubmed
    ..These findings provide new insight into molecular pathways of polyQ toxicity, defining novel targets for promoting neuronal survival in human neurodegenerative disease. ..
  6. Kellett M, McKechnie S. A cluster of diagnostic Hsp68 amino acid sites that are identified in Drosophila from the melanogaster species group are concentrated around beta-sheet residues involved with substrate binding. Genome. 2005;48:226-33 pubmed publisher
    The coding region of the hsp68 gene has been amplified, cloned, and sequenced from 10 Drosophila species, 5 from the melanogaster subgroup and 5 from the montium subgroup...
  7. Shopland L, Lis J. HSF recruitment and loss at most Drosophila heat shock loci is coordinated and depends on proximal promoter sequences. Chromosoma. 1996;105:158-71 pubmed
    ..Finally, the distribution of the heat shock protein HSP70 is examined for its role in regulating the attenuated response of HSF to heat shock. ..
  8. Azad P, Zhou D, Russo E, Haddad G. Distinct mechanisms underlying tolerance to intermittent and constant hypoxia in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5371 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide further clues about the mechanisms by which IH or CH lead to cell injury and morbidity or adaptation and survival. ..
  9. Wang M, Bohmann D, Jasper H. JNK signaling confers tolerance to oxidative stress and extends lifespan in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;5:811-6 pubmed
    ..Our work thus identifies the evolutionarily conserved JNK signaling pathway as a major genetic factor in the control of longevity. ..

More Information


  1. Baird N, Turnbull D, Johnson E. Induction of the heat shock pathway during hypoxia requires regulation of heat shock factor by hypoxia-inducible factor-1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38675-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This cross-regulation represents a mechanism by which the low oxygen response pathway has assimilated complex new functions by regulating the key transcriptional activator of the heat shock pathway...
  2. Kuo Y, Ren S, Lao U, Edgar B, Wang T. Suppression of polyglutamine protein toxicity by co-expression of a heat-shock protein 40 and a heat-shock protein 110. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e833 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide a functional link between HSP40 and HSP110 in suppressing the cytotoxicity of aggregation-prone proteins, and suggest that HSP40 and HSP110 function together in protein homeostasis control. ..
  3. Colinet H, Siaussat D, Bozzolan F, Bowler K. Rapid decline of cold tolerance at young age is associated with expression of stress genes in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:253-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also assessed whether expression (basal and induced) of eight stress genes (hsp22, hsp23, hsp40, hsp68, hsp70Aa, hsp83, Starvin and Frost) varied post-eclosion in correspondence with changes found in cold tolerance...
  4. Jensen H, Scott I, Sims S, Trudeau V, Arnason J. The effect of a synergistic concentration of a Piper nigrum extract used in conjunction with pyrethrum upon gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2006;15:329-39 pubmed
    ..melanogaster treated with at least two of the following treatments: P. nigrum, pyrethrum or P. nigrum plus pyrethrum. These are likely implicated in Drosophila defence responses to toxins...
  5. Konstantopoulou I, Nikolaidis N, Scouras Z. The hsp70 locus of Drosophila auraria (montium subgroup) is single and contains copies in a conserved arrangement. Chromosoma. 1998;107:577-86 pubmed
    ..melanogaster and its sibling species), in which, however, the hsp70 locus is duplicated, and with the more distantly related Dipteran Anopheles albimanus. ..
  6. Reinhardt A, Feuillette S, Cassar M, Callens C, Thomassin H, Birman S, et al. Lack of miRNA Misregulation at Early Pathological Stages in Drosophila Neurodegenerative Disease Models. Front Genet. 2012;3:226 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus our data suggest that transcriptional deregulation of miRNAs or sCAG is unlikely to play a significant role in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  7. Tohyama D, Yamaguchi A. A critical role of SNF1A/dAMPKalpha (Drosophila AMP-activated protein kinase alpha) in muscle on longevity and stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:112-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Rubin D, Mehta A, Zhu J, Shoham S, Chen X, Wells Q, et al. Genomic structure and sequence analysis of Drosophila melanogaster HSC70 genes. Gene. 1993;128:155-63 pubmed
  9. Petersen R, Lindquist S. The Drosophila hsp70 message is rapidly degraded at normal temperatures and stabilized by heat shock. Gene. 1988;72:161-8 pubmed
    ..Apparently, the hsp70 message is inherently unstable. During heat-shock, degradation of the message is suspended; during recovery degradation is restored. ..
  10. Sirotkin K, Davidson N. Developmentally regulated transcription from Drosophila melanogaster chromosomal site 67B. Dev Biol. 1982;89:196-210 pubmed
  11. Spradling A, Pardue M, Penman S. Messenger RNA in heat-shocked Drosophila cells. J Mol Biol. 1977;109:559-87 pubmed
  12. Herold A, Klymenko T, Izaurralde E. NXF1/p15 heterodimers are essential for mRNA nuclear export in Drosophila. RNA. 2001;7:1768-80 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Dm NXF1/p15 heterodimers only (but not NXF2-NXF4) mediate the export of the majority of mRNAs in Drosophila cells and that the other members of the NXF family play more specialized or different roles. ..
  13. Meisel R. Evolutionary dynamics of recently duplicated genes: Selective constraints on diverging paralogs in the Drosophila pseudoobscura genome. J Mol Evol. 2009;69:81-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the relative position of paralogs and the mechanism of duplication indirectly affect whether a duplicated gene is retained or pseudogenized. ..
  14. Wu C. Two protein-binding sites in chromatin implicated in the activation of heat-shock genes. Nature. 1984;309:229-34 pubmed
    ..The pattern of resistance before and after induction of gene expression suggests that heat-shock genes are activated by the sequential binding of at least two protein factors. ..
  15. Sun X, Seeberger J, Alberico T, Wang C, Wheeler C, Schauss A, et al. Açai palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves survival of flies on a high fat diet. Exp Gerontol. 2010;45:243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging. ..
  16. Ruiz M, Ganfornina M, Correnti C, Strong R, Sanchez D. Ligand binding-dependent functions of the lipocalin NLaz: an in vivo study in Drosophila. FASEB J. 2014;28:1555-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Control of energy metabolites on starvation appears to be, however, insensitive to the modification of the NLaz binding pocket. ..
  17. Heikkila J. Heat shock gene expression and development. I. An overview of fungal, plant, and poikilothermic animal developmental systems. Dev Genet. 1993;14:1-5 pubmed
  18. Cuenca J, Galindo M, Saura A, Sorsa V, De Frutos R. Ultrastructure of regions containing homologous loci in polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila subobscura. Chromosoma. 1998;107:113-26 pubmed
    ..beta3 tubulin gene, the kinesin heavy chain gene, the tryptophan hydrolase gene, the Hsp82, Hsp22-26 and Hsp23-28, Hsp68, Hsp70 genes and the beta unit of the F0-F1 ATPase gene. Most of these loci were previously undescribed in D...
  19. Ranz J, Caceres M, Ruiz A. Comparative mapping of cosmids and gene clones from a 1.6 Mb chromosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster in three species of the distantly related subgenus Drosophila. Chromosoma. 1999;108:32-43 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data indicate significant statistical differences in the evolution rate of Muller's element E among lineages, a result that agrees well with the previous cytogenetic data. ..
  20. Zatsepina O, Velikodvorskaia V, Molodtsov V, Garbuz D, Lerman D, Bettencourt B, et al. A Drosophila melanogaster strain from sub-equatorial Africa has exceptional thermotolerance but decreased Hsp70 expression. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:1869-81 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that the reduced Hsp70 expression in a Drosophila melanogaster strain living chronically at intermediate temperatures may represent an evolved suppression of the deleterious phenotypes of Hsp70. ..
  21. Petersen N, Mitchell H. Recovery of protein synthesis after heat shock: prior heat treatment affects the ability of cells to translate mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:1708-11 pubmed
    ..This indicates that the pretreatment affects translation directly rather than messenger concentration. We also observe selective translation of heat shock messages and some 25 degrees C messages during recovery from heat shock. ..
  22. Wang C, Yolitz J, Alberico T, Laslo M, Sun Y, Wheeler C, et al. Cranberry interacts with dietary macronutrients to promote healthy aging in Drosophila. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69:945-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals an interaction of cranberry with dietary macronutrients and stresses the importance of considering diet composition in designing interventions for promoting healthy aging. ..
  23. Ying L, White S, Bruckbauer A, Meadows L, Korchev Y, Klenerman D. Frequency and voltage dependence of the dielectrophoretic trapping of short lengths of DNA and dCTP in a nanopipette. Biophys J. 2004;86:1018-27 pubmed
    ..Dielectrophoresis in electrodeless tapered nanostructures has potential applications for controlled mixing and manipulation of short lengths of DNA and other biomolecules, opening new possibilities in miniaturized biological analysis. ..
  24. Ahmed R, Duncan R. Translational regulation of Hsp90 mRNA. AUG-proximal 5'-untranslated region elements essential for preferential heat shock translation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49919-30 pubmed
    ..We present a model to account for Hsp90 mRNA translation, incorporating results indicating that heat shock inhibits eIF4F activity, and that Hsp90 mRNA translation is sensitive to eIF4F inactivation. ..
  25. Bonner J, Kerby R. RNA polymerase II transcribes all of the heat shock induced genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1982;85:93-108 pubmed
    ..Thus the protein-coding and non-protein-coding heat shock-induced RNAs are transcribed by this polymerase specifically. We have also identified several non-puffed chromosomal sites at which RNA synthesis is induced by heat shock. ..
  26. Pauli D, Arrigo A, Tissieres A. Heat shock response in Drosophila. Experientia. 1992;48:623-9 pubmed
    ..Several of the most important aspects of the regulation of the heat shock response and of the functions of the heat shock proteins have been unraveled in Drosophila. ..
  27. Wang L, Zhou L, Zhu Z, Ma W, Lei C. Differential temporal expression profiles of heat shock protein genes in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) under ultraviolet A radiation stress. Environ Entomol. 2014;43:1427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..So DmHsps might act in a coordinated and cooperative manner at the transcriptional level to counteract UV-A radiation-based stress. ..
  28. Molto M, Pascual L, Martinez Sebastian M, De Frutos R. Genetic analysis of heat shock response in three Drosophila species of the obscura group. Genome. 1992;35:870-80 pubmed
    ..melanogaster loci, which contain, HSP82, HSP70, HSP68, and HSPs encoding for the small heat shock proteins, respectively...
  29. Holmgren R, Livak K, Morimoto R, Freund R, Meselson M. Studies of cloned sequences from four Drosophila heat shock loci. Cell. 1979;18:1359-70 pubmed
    ..Messenger RNA molecules of 2.4, 2.55 and 3.05 kb code for the 68,000, 70,000 and 83,000 dalton heat shock proteins and hybridize to apparently uninterrupted DNA sequences of 2.1, 2.25 and 2.6 kb, respectively. ..
  30. Stergiopoulos K, Cabrero P, Davies S, Dow J. Salty dog, an SLC5 symporter, modulates Drosophila response to salt stress. Physiol Genomics. 2009;37:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, CG2196 was renamed salty dog (salt). ..
  31. Ashburner M. Patterns of puffing activity in the salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila. V. Responses to environmental treatments. Chromosoma. 1970;31:356-76 pubmed
  32. Velikodvorskaia V, Lyozin G, Feder M, Evgen ev M. Unusual arrangement of the hsp68 locus in the virilis species group of Drosophila implicates evolutionary loss of an hsp68 gene. Genome. 2005;48:234-40 pubmed
    ..all other Drosophila species studied to date, species in the virilis group of Drosophila have 2 complete copies of hsp68 arranged in inverted head-to-head orientation. Evidence for this conclusion includes Southern blots for D...
  33. Huang H, Lu Bo Y, Haddad G. A Drosophila ABC transporter regulates lifespan. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004844 pubmed publisher
  34. Goodliffe J, Wieschaus E, Cole M. Polycomb mediates Myc autorepression and its transcriptional control of many loci in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2941-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a novel relationship between Myc and Polycomb, wherein Myc enhances Polycomb repression in order to repress targets, and Myc suppresses Polycomb repression in order to activate targets. ..
  35. Yampolsky L, Glazko G, Fry J. Evolution of gene expression and expression plasticity in long-term experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster maintained under constant and variable ethanol stress. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:4287-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The results give evidence that expression plasticity evolves considerably more slowly than mean expression. ..
  36. Munks R, Turner B. Suppression of heat-shock protein synthesis by short-chain fatty acids and alcohols. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1223:23-8 pubmed
    ..Suppression was accompanied by severely reduced levels of both hsp70 mRNA and active heat-shock factor (HSF). We conclude that the inhibitors act by suppressing the initiation of transcription of heat-shock genes. ..
  37. Gehring W, Wehner R. Heat shock protein synthesis and thermotolerance in Cataglyphis, an ant from the Sahara desert. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:2994-8 pubmed
    ..These findings are interpreted as preadaption of the ants prior to exposure to high temperatures. ..
  38. Takahashi K, Rako L, Takano Shimizu T, Hoffmann A, Lee S. Effects of small Hsp genes on developmental stability and microenvironmental canalization. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:284 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel finding may lead to a better understanding of non-Hsp90 molecular mechanisms controlling variability in morphological traits. ..
  39. Ashburner M, Bonner J. The induction of gene activity in drosophilia by heat shock. Cell. 1979;17:241-54 pubmed
  40. Štětina T, Koštál V, Korbelová J. The Role of Inducible Hsp70, and Other Heat Shock Proteins, in Adaptive Complex of Cold Tolerance of the Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster). PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128976 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic elimination of Hsp70 up-regulation response has no effect on survival of chronic exposures to 0°C or mild acute cold shocks, while it negatively affects survival after severe acute cold shocks at temperatures below -8°C. ..
  41. Mathieu E, Finkernagel F, Murawska M, Scharfe M, Jarek M, Brehm A. Recruitment of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler dMi-2 to the transcribed region of active heat shock genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:4879-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, dMi-2 binding is restricted to transcribed regions. Our results suggest that dMi-2 distribution over active heat shock genes are determined by transcriptional activity. ..
  42. Tian S, Haney R, Feder M. Phylogeny disambiguates the evolution of heat-shock cis-regulatory elements in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10669 pubmed publisher
    ..The broad dimensions of variation uncovered are particularly important as they suggest a substantial challenge for functional studies. ..
  43. Chahine S, O Donnell M. Effects of acute or chronic exposure to dietary organic anions on secretion of methotrexate and salicylate by Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2010;73:128-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased fluid secretion may enhance secretion of organic anions by eliminating diffusive backflux from the tubule lumen to the hemolymph...
  44. Colinet H, Lee S, Hoffmann A. Temporal expression of heat shock genes during cold stress and recovery from chill coma in adult Drosophila melanogaster. FEBS J. 2010;277:174-85 pubmed publisher
    ..we consider that Hsp60, Hsp67Ba and Hsc70-1 are not cold-inducible, whereas Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp26, Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp68, Hsp70Aa and Hsp83 are induced by cold...
  45. Laayouni H, García Franco F, Chávez Sandoval B, Trotta V, Beltran S, Corominas M, et al. Thermal evolution of gene expression profiles in Drosophila subobscura. BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:42 pubmed
    ..22 degrees C), also including four previously reported candidate genes for thermotolerance in Drosophila (Hsp26, Hsp68, Fst, and Treh)...
  46. Smith S, Petruk S, Sedkov Y, Cho E, Tillib S, Canaani E, et al. Modulation of heat shock gene expression by the TAC1 chromatin-modifying complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:162-7 pubmed
    ..Consistently, TAC1 is required for methylation and acetylation of nucleosomal histones in the 5'-coding region of hsp70 after induction, suggesting an unexpected role for TAC1 during transcriptional elongation. ..
  47. Brand S, Bourbon H. The developmentally-regulated Drosophila gene rox8 encodes an RRM-type RNA binding protein structurally related to human TIA-1-type nucleolysins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:3699-704 pubmed
    ..Molecular characterization of rox8 represents the first step in a genetic analysis of the potential roles of a TIA-1-related protein in RNA metabolism and/or programmed cell death in Drosophila. ..
  48. Petersen R, Lindquist S. Regulation of HSP70 synthesis by messenger RNA degradation. Cell Regul. 1989;1:135-49 pubmed
    ..This degradation system may be the same as that used by other unstable mRNAs. ..
  49. Mosqueira M, Willmann G, Ruohola Baker H, Khurana T. Chronic hypoxia impairs muscle function in the Drosophila model of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD). PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13450 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that targeting/correcting the disparate molecular response(s) to hypoxia may offer a novel therapeutic strategy in DMD. ..
  50. Vazquez J, Pauli D, Tissieres A. Transcriptional regulation in Drosophila during heat shock: a nuclear run-on analysis. Chromosoma. 1993;102:233-48 pubmed
    ..An estimation of the absolute rates of transcription at different temperatures was obtained. ..
  51. Li D, Duncan R. Transient acquired thermotolerance in Drosophila, correlated with rapid degradation of Hsp70 during recovery. Eur J Biochem. 1995;231:454-65 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that acquired thermotolerance is tightly regulated in Drosophila and partly, but not wholly, determined by post-translational regulation of Hsp70 levels. ..