Gene Symbol: Hsp26
Description: Heat shock protein 26
Alias: 26K, CG4183, DmHsp26, Dmel23.0, Dmel\CG4183, HSP26, hsp 26, hsp26, small hsp locus 67B, heat shock protein 26, CG4183-PA, CG4183-PB, Hsp 26, Hsp26-PA, Hsp26-PB, heat shock protein hsp26, protein 26
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Ashburner M. Patterns of puffing activity in the salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila. V. Responses to environmental treatments. Chromosoma. 1970;31:356-76 pubmed
  2. Xiao H, Lis J. Germline transformation used to define key features of heat-shock response elements. Science. 1988;239:1139-42 pubmed
    ..These and additional analyses indicate that the heat-shock regulatory element includes sequences beyond the 14-base pair HSE and may be better described as a dimer of a 10-base pair sequence, NTTCNNGAAN. ..
  3. Giardina C, Lis J. Polymerase processivity and termination on Drosophila heat shock genes. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:23806-11 pubmed
    ..DRB treatment did, however, lead to the reduction of KMnO4 hyper-reactivity on hsp70 and hsp26 in a region correlating with open polymerase and/or early elongation complexes, suggesting a site for the DRB-..
  4. Sandaltzopoulos R, Mitchelmore C, Bonte E, Wall G, Becker P. Dual regulation of the Drosophila hsp26 promoter in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:2479-87 pubmed
    Efficient heat shock induction of Drosophila hsp26 gene transcription in vivo requires binding sites for heat shock factor (HSF) and GAGA factor (GAF) close to the TATA box (proximal elements) as well as 350 bp upstream of the start site ..
  5. Pauli D, Tonka C, Ayme Southgate A. An unusual split Drosophila heat shock gene expressed during embryogenesis, pupation and in testis. J Mol Biol. 1988;200:47-53 pubmed
    ..One long open reading frame common to the three transcripts encodes a putative polypeptide of 111 amino acid residues. No homology was found with the other small heat shock genes of locus 67B. ..
  6. Thummel C. Puffs and gene regulation--molecular insights into the Drosophila ecdysone regulatory hierarchy. Bioessays. 1990;12:561-8 pubmed
    ..Proteins encoded by two of the early genes bind to both early and late ecdysone-induced puffs, implying that they are key regulators in the hierarchy. ..
  7. Goto S, Kimura M. Heat-shock-responsive genes are not involved in the adult diapause of Drosophila triauraria. Gene. 2004;326:117-22 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of other heat-shock-responsive genes (Hsp23, Hsp26, Hsp83 and Hsrw) in D. triauraria with relation to diapause...
  8. Morrow G, Heikkila J, Tanguay R. Differences in the chaperone-like activities of the four main small heat shock proteins of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2006;11:51-60 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila melanogaster family of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) is composed of 4 main members (Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp26, and Hsp27) that display distinct intracellular localization and specific developmental patterns of expression in ..
  9. Pelham H. A regulatory upstream promoter element in the Drosophila hsp 70 heat-shock gene. Cell. 1982;30:517-28 pubmed
    ..It seems that the upstream element of the hsp 70 promoter is analogous to that of other promoters, but is only functional in heat-shocked cells. ..

More Information


  1. Glaser R, Wolfner M, Lis J. Spatial and temporal pattern of hsp26 expression during normal development. EMBO J. 1986;5:747-54 pubmed
    The tissue-specific patterns of developmental expression of hsp26-lacZ fusion genes inserted into Drosophila melanogaster by germline transformation were analyzed in several transformant lines utilizing a histochemical assay for beta-..
  2. Ashburner M, Bonner J. The induction of gene activity in drosophilia by heat shock. Cell. 1979;17:241-54 pubmed
  3. Tian S, Haney R, Feder M. Phylogeny disambiguates the evolution of heat-shock cis-regulatory elements in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10669 pubmed publisher
    ..The broad dimensions of variation uncovered are particularly important as they suggest a substantial challenge for functional studies. ..
  4. Petesch S, Lis J. Rapid, transcription-independent loss of nucleosomes over a large chromatin domain at Hsp70 loci. Cell. 2008;134:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..An RNAi screen of 28 transcription and chromatin-related factors reveals that depletion of heat shock factor, GAGA Factor, or Poly(ADP)-Ribose Polymerase or its activity abolishes the loss of nucleosomes upon Hsp70 activation. ..
  5. Pauli D, Arrigo A, Vazquez J, Tonka C, Tissieres A. Expression of the small heat shock genes during Drosophila development: comparison of the accumulation of hsp23 and hsp27 mRNAs and polypeptides. Genome. 1989;31:671-6 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that complex mechanisms regulate the expression of the small heat shock genes during Drosophila development. ..
  6. Haynes K, Caudy A, Collins L, Elgin S. Element 1360 and RNAi components contribute to HP1-dependent silencing of a pericentric reporter. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2222-7 pubmed
    ..Silencing of the 1360, hsp70-white reporter is sensitive to mutations in RNAi components. Our results implicate 1360 as a target for sequence-specific heterochromatic silencing through an RNAi-dependent mechanism. ..
  7. Baird N, Turnbull D, Johnson E. Induction of the heat shock pathway during hypoxia requires regulation of heat shock factor by hypoxia-inducible factor-1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38675-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This cross-regulation represents a mechanism by which the low oxygen response pathway has assimilated complex new functions by regulating the key transcriptional activator of the heat shock pathway...
  8. Wang H, Kazemi Esfarjani P, Benzer S. Multiple-stress analysis for isolation of Drosophila longevity genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:12610-5 pubmed
    ..Two of these, hsp26 and hsp27, were chosen to test for their effects on lifespan by generating transgenic lines and by using the ..
  9. Michaud S, Marin R, Tanguay R. Regulation of heat shock gene induction and expression during Drosophila development. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1997;53:104-13 pubmed
    ..During development, each of the four members of the small heat shock protein family (Hsp27, Hsp26 Hsp23 and Hsp22), which are coordinately induced in response to a heat stress, shows a specific pattern of ..
  10. Lis J. Promoter-associated pausing in promoter architecture and postinitiation transcriptional regulation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1998;63:347-56 pubmed
  11. Shopland L, Lis J. HSF recruitment and loss at most Drosophila heat shock loci is coordinated and depends on proximal promoter sequences. Chromosoma. 1996;105:158-71 pubmed
    ..Finally, the distribution of the heat shock protein HSP70 is examined for its role in regulating the attenuated response of HSF to heat shock. ..
  12. Andrulis E, Guzman E, Döring P, Werner J, Lis J. High-resolution localization of Drosophila Spt5 and Spt6 at heat shock genes in vivo: roles in promoter proximal pausing and transcription elongation. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2635-49 pubmed
    ..These findings provide support for the roles of Spt5 in promoter-associated pausing and of Spt5 and Spt6 in transcriptional elongation in vivo. ..
  13. Gonsalves S, Moses A, Razak Z, Robert F, Westwood J. Whole-genome analysis reveals that active heat shock factor binding sites are mostly associated with non-heat shock genes in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15934 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Drosophila HSF may be regulating many genes besides the known HS genes and that some of these genes may be regulated during non-stress conditions. ..
  14. Bettencourt B, Hogan C, Nimali M, Drohan B. Inducible and constitutive heat shock gene expression responds to modification of Hsp70 copy number in Drosophila melanogaster but does not compensate for loss of thermotolerance in Hsp70 null flies. BMC Biol. 2008;6:5 pubmed publisher
  15. Jedlicka P, Mortin M, Wu C. Multiple functions of Drosophila heat shock transcription factor in vivo. EMBO J. 1997;16:2452-62 pubmed
  16. Thomas G, Elgin S. Protein/DNA architecture of the DNase I hypersensitive region of the Drosophila hsp26 promoter. EMBO J. 1988;7:2191-201 pubmed
    Genomic footprinting on the Drosophila hsp26 promoter in isolated nuclei has shown that a TATA box binding factor is present before and after induction by heat shock, while three of the seven heat shock consensus sequences 5' of the gene ..
  17. Fernandes M, Xiao H, Lis J. Binding of heat shock factor to and transcriptional activation of heat shock genes in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:4799-804 pubmed
    ..This last result suggests that close proximity of HSEs for cooperative binding of HSF is a result of protein-protein interactions near the point of DNA contact. ..
  18. Sala A, Toto M, Pinello L, Gabriele A, Di Benedetto V, Ingrassia A, et al. Genome-wide characterization of chromatin binding and nucleosome spacing activity of the nucleosome remodelling ATPase ISWI. EMBO J. 2011;30:1766-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows how in higher eukaryotes the activity of the evolutionarily conserved nucleosome remodelling factor ISWI regulates gene expression and chromosome organization genome-wide. ..
  19. Bournias Vardiabasis N, Buzin C, Flores J. Differential expression of heat shock proteins in Drosophila embryonic cells following metal ion exposure. Exp Cell Res. 1990;189:177-82 pubmed
    ..None of the metals tested induced only the 26- and 27-K proteins. These results suggest that there exist different regulatory mechanisms responsible for the heat shock response. ..
  20. Lindberg B, Oldenvi S, Steiner H. Medium from ?-irradiated Escherichia coli bacteria stimulates a unique immune response in Drosophila cells. Dev Comp Immunol. 2014;46:392-400 pubmed publisher
    ..A shift towards a stress response was instead observed with a striking induction of several heat shock proteins. Our findings suggest that ?-irradiated bacteria release elicitors that stimulate a novel response in Drosophila. ..
  21. Wallrath L. Drosophila telomeric transgenes provide insights on mechanisms of gene silencing. Genetica. 2000;109:25-33 pubmed
    ..The results from these studies suggest that nuclear organization plays a role in gene silencing and that silencing is the result of a block early in the process of transcription initiation. ..
  22. Wu C. Two protein-binding sites in chromatin implicated in the activation of heat-shock genes. Nature. 1984;309:229-34 pubmed
    ..The pattern of resistance before and after induction of gene expression suggests that heat-shock genes are activated by the sequential binding of at least two protein factors. ..
  23. Singh P, Huskisson N. Chromatin complexes as aperiodic microcrystalline arrays that regulate genome organisation and expression. Dev Genet. 1998;22:85-99 pubmed
    ..Aperiodicity is also a feature of the hypothesis that is directly testable. ..
  24. Schwartz B, Larochelle S, Suter B, Lis J. Cdk7 is required for full activation of Drosophila heat shock genes and RNA polymerase II phosphorylation in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6876-86 pubmed
    ..The requirement for Cdk7 occurs very early in the transcription cycle. Furthermore, we provide evidence that TFIIH associates with the elongation complex much longer than previously suspected. ..
  25. Simon J, Sutton C, Lobell R, Glaser R, Lis J. Determinants of heat shock-induced chromosome puffing. Cell. 1985;40:805-17 pubmed
    ..8 kb results in a dramatic reduction in puff size. The chromosomal insertion sites of 26 variant hsp70 or hsp26 genes fail to influence puffing greatly with one marked exception...
  26. Agianian B, Leonard K, Bonte E, van Der Zandt H, Becker P, Tucker P. The glutamine-rich domain of the Drosophila GAGA factor is necessary for amyloid fibre formation in vitro, but not for chromatin remodelling. J Mol Biol. 1999;285:527-44 pubmed
    ..Consequently, neither the N-terminal domain nor the C-terminal glutamine-rich regions of the GAGA factor are necessary for chromatin remodelling in vitro. ..
  27. Leach T, Mazzeo M, Chotkowski H, Madigan J, Wotring M, Glaser R. Histone H2A.Z is widely but nonrandomly distributed in chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:23267-72 pubmed
    ..Of the sequences assayed, H2Av was least abundant on 1. 688 satellite sequences and most abundant on the hsp70 genes. Finally, transcription caused, to an equivalent extent, both H2Av and H2A to be less tightly associated with DNA. ..
  28. Takahashi K, Rako L, Takano Shimizu T, Hoffmann A, Lee S. Effects of small Hsp genes on developmental stability and microenvironmental canalization. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:284 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel finding may lead to a better understanding of non-Hsp90 molecular mechanisms controlling variability in morphological traits. ..
  29. Marin R, Valet J, Tanguay R. hsp23 and hsp26 exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns of constitutive expression in Drosophila adults. Dev Genet. 1993;14:69-77 pubmed
    ..to 20-day-old adult flies were separated on SDS-PAGE gels and blotted with monoclonal antibodies against hsp23 and hsp26. hsp23 was found in the heads and gonads of young males and females...
  30. Park J, Werner J, Kim J, Lis J, Kim Y. Mediator, not holoenzyme, is directly recruited to the heat shock promoter by HSF upon heat shock. Mol Cell. 2001;8:9-19 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the activator-Mediator interaction likely underlies the initiation of signal transfer from enhancer-bound activators to the basal transcription machinery. ..
  31. Molto M, Martinez Sebastian M, De Frutos R. Phylogenetic relationships between Drosophila subobscura, D. guanche and D. madeirensis based on Southern analysis of heat shock genes. Hereditas. 1994;120:217-23 pubmed
    ..At least four sequences homologous to D. melanogaster Hsp70 were found in the obscura group species. These species have sequences which showed similarity with the four small Hsps of D. melanogaster. ..
  32. Morrow G, Battistini S, Zhang P, Tanguay R. Decreased lifespan in the absence of expression of the mitochondrial small heat shock protein Hsp22 in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:43382-5 pubmed
    ..The absence of Hsp22 also sensitizes flies to mild stress. These data support a key role of sHsps in aging and underline the importance of mitochondrial sHsps in this process. ..
  33. Hudson R, Kaplan N. Deleterious background selection with recombination. Genetics. 1995;141:1605-17 pubmed
    ..If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. ..
  34. Lu Q, Wallrath L, Allan B, Glaser R, Lis J, Elgin S. Promoter sequence containing (CT)n.(GA)n repeats is critical for the formation of the DNase I hypersensitive sites in the Drosophila hsp26 gene. J Mol Biol. 1992;225:985-98 pubmed
    We have analyzed P-element-transformed lines carrying hsp26/lacZ transgenes with various deletions and substitutions within the Drosophila melanogaster hsp26 promoter region in order to identify the sequences required for the formation ..
  35. Molto M, Pascual L, Martinez Sebastian M, De Frutos R. Genetic analysis of heat shock response in three Drosophila species of the obscura group. Genome. 1992;35:870-80 pubmed
    ..In the three species analyzed in this work, as well as in the other Drosophila species studied, the heat shock genes are distributed on D and E Muller's elements, behaving as single copy genes that do not move around the genome. ..
  36. Joanisse D, Inaguma Y, Tanguay R. Cloning and developmental expression of a nuclear ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (DmUbc9) that interacts with small heat shock proteins in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;244:102-9 pubmed
    ..Co-immunoprecipitation with antibody raised against DmUbc9 confirms the interaction with Drosophila Hsp23 and Hsp26 and preferentially with Hsp27...
  37. Peterson N, Moller G, Mitchell H. Genetic mapping of the coding regions for three heat-shock proteins in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1979;92:891-902 pubmed
    ..All three map to a region on chromosome 3L that includes only one heat-shock puff, designated as 67B. The results imply that the genes coding for at least three heat-shock proteins are included within the 67B region. ..
  38. Frydenberg J, Barker J, Loeschcke V. Characterization of the shsp genes in Drosophila buzzatii and association between the frequency of Valine mutations in hsp23 and climatic variables along a longitudinal gradient in Australia. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2010;15:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The D. buzzatii shsp cluster contains an inversion and a duplication of hsp26. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on hsp26 genes from several Drosophila species of the Sophophora and ..
  39. Yagi Y, Ip Y. Helicase89B is a Mot1p/BTAF1 homologue that mediates an antimicrobial response in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:1088-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, Helicase89B positively regulates gene expression during innate immune response and may act as a link between NF-kappaB-related transcription factors and the basal transcription machinery. ..
  40. Nightingale K, Wellinger R, Sogo J, Becker P. Histone acetylation facilitates RNA polymerase II transcription of the Drosophila hsp26 gene in chromatin. EMBO J. 1998;17:2865-76 pubmed
    ..While H1-containing control chromatin severely repressed transcription of our model hsp26 gene, highly acetylated chromatin was significantly less repressive...
  41. Spradling A, Pardue M, Penman S. Messenger RNA in heat-shocked Drosophila cells. J Mol Biol. 1977;109:559-87 pubmed
  42. Vazquez J. Response to heat shock of gene 1, a Drosophila melanogaster small heat shock gene, is developmentally regulated. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;226:393-400 pubmed
    ..Under the same conditions, hsp70 or hsp26 were induced to similar levels in all stages...
  43. Glaser R, Lis J. Multiple, compensatory regulatory elements specify spermatocyte-specific expression of the Drosophila melanogaster hsp26 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:131-7 pubmed
    The hsp26 gene of Drosophila melanogaster is expressed in six tissues during development and in a tissue-general response to heat shock...
  44. Wall G, Varga Weisz P, Sandaltzopoulos R, Becker P. Chromatin remodeling by GAGA factor and heat shock factor at the hypersensitive Drosophila hsp26 promoter in vitro. EMBO J. 1995;14:1727-36 pubmed
    The chromatin structure at the Drosophila hsp26 promoter in vivo is characterized by two DNase I-hypersensitive (DH) sites harboring regulatory elements. Proximal and distal DH sites are separated by a positioned nucleosome...
  45. Svaren J, Hörz W. Regulation of gene expression by nucleosomes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:164-70 pubmed
    ..At the same time, new insights into the mechanism of heterochromatin formation have been gained, which have direct links to nucleosome structure. ..
  46. Otsuka Y, Takano T, Yamazaki T. Genetic variation in the expression of the six hsp genes in the presence of heat shock in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Genet Syst. 1997;72:19-24 pubmed
    Genetic variation in total mRNA level of the six hsp genes (hsp22, hsp23, hsp26, hsp27, hsp70 and hsp82) in the presence of heat shock was investigated by using seventy-four second- and seventy third-chromosome lines of Drosophila ..
  47. Fuda N, Buckley M, Wei W, Core L, Waters C, Reinberg D, et al. Fcp1 dephosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain is required for efficient transcription of heat shock genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3428-37 pubmed publisher
    ..cells is a result of a loss of Pol II in the coding region of highly transcribed heat shock-induced genes: Hsp70, Hsp26, and Hsp83. Moreover, Fcp1 depletion dramatically increases phosphorylation of the non-chromatin-bound Pol II...
  48. Wang L, Colodner K, Feany M. Protein misfolding and oxidative stress promote glial-mediated neurodegeneration in an Alexander disease model. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2868-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus establish a simple genetic model of Alexander disease and further identify cellular pathways critical for glial-induced neurodegeneration. ..
  49. Thomas S, Lengyel J. Ecdysteroid-regulated heat-shock gene expression during Drosophila melanogaster development. Dev Biol. 1986;115:434-8 pubmed
    Peaks in hsp 26, 28, and 83 RNA levels are correlated with peaks in ecdysteroid titers during mid-embryogenesis, pupariation, and mid-pupation, and with a peak in the level of RNA from the 74EF ecdysone puff at pupariation...
  50. Loeschcke V, Sørensen J, Kristensen T. Ecologically relevant stress resistance: from microarrays and quantitative trait loci to candidate genes - a research plan and preliminary results using Drosophila as a model organism and climatic and genetic stress as model stresses. J Biosci. 2004;29:503-11 pubmed
  51. Lu Q, Wallrath L, Granok H, Elgin S. (CT)n (GA)n repeats and heat shock elements have distinct roles in chromatin structure and transcriptional activation of the Drosophila hsp26 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:2802-14 pubmed
    Previous analysis of the hsp26 gene of Drosophila melanogaster has shown that in addition to the TATA box and the proximal and distal heat shock elements (HSEs) (centered at -59 and -340, relative to the start site of transcription), a ..
  52. Benbahouche N, Iliopoulos I, Török I, Marhold J, Henri J, Kajava A, et al. Drosophila Spag is the homolog of RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3 (RPAP3) and recruits the heat shock proteins 70 and 90 (Hsp70 and Hsp90) during the assembly of cellular machineries. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:6236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Interaction of Spag with both Hsp70 and Hsp90 suggests a model whereby R2TP would accompany clients from Hsp70 to Hsp90 to facilitate their assembly into macromolecular complexes. ..
  53. Liao P, Lin H, Yuh C, Yu L, Wang H. The effect of neuronal expression of heat shock proteins 26 and 27 on lifespan, neurodegeneration, and apoptosis in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;376:637-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous study reported that ubiquitous expression of hsp26 or hsp27 extended Drosophila lifespan...
  54. Geiger Thornsberry G, Mackay T. Quantitative trait loci affecting natural variation in Drosophila longevity. Mech Ageing Dev. 2004;125:179-89 pubmed
    ..Quantitative complementation tests are therefore useful for identifying QTL contributing to segregating genetic variation in life span in nature. ..
  55. Lu Q, Teare J, Granok H, Swede M, Xu J, Elgin S. The capacity to form H-DNA cannot substitute for GAGA factor binding to a (CT)n*(GA)n regulatory site. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:2483-94 pubmed
    Previous studies of the Drosophila melanogaster hsp26 gene promoter have demonstrated the importance of a homopurine*homopyrimidine segment [primarily (CT)n*(GA)n] for chromatin structure formation and gene activation...
  56. Wang L, Zhou L, Zhu Z, Ma W, Lei C. Differential temporal expression profiles of heat shock protein genes in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) under ultraviolet A radiation stress. Environ Entomol. 2014;43:1427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..So DmHsps might act in a coordinated and cooperative manner at the transcriptional level to counteract UV-A radiation-based stress. ..
  57. Ingolia T, Craig E. Four small Drosophila heat shock proteins are related to each other and to mammalian alpha-crystallin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:2360-4 pubmed
    ..The possible functional significance of this structural similarity is discussed. ..
  58. Marchler G, Wu C. Modulation of Drosophila heat shock transcription factor activity by the molecular chaperone DROJ1. EMBO J. 2001;20:499-509 pubmed
    ..Our findings support a model in which synergistic interactions between DROJ1 and the HSP70/HSC70 and HSP90 chaperones modulate HSF activity by feedback repression. ..
  59. Chopra V, Srinivasan A, Kumar R, Mishra K, Basquin D, Docquier M, et al. Transcriptional activation by GAGA factor is through its direct interaction with dmTAF3. Dev Biol. 2008;317:660-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that the gene activation pathway involving GAF is through its direct interaction with dmTAF3. ..
  60. Danzer J, Wallrath L. Mechanisms of HP1-mediated gene silencing in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:3571-80 pubmed
    ..Silencing was minimally affected at 1.9 kb, but eliminated at 3.7 kb, suggesting that HP1-mediated silencing can operate in a SU(VAR)3-9-independent and -dependent manner. ..
  61. Zapata J, Maroto F, Sierra J. Inactivation of mRNA cap-binding protein complex in Drosophila melanogaster embryos under heat shock. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:16007-14 pubmed
    ..Together, the above results suggest that some modification leading to the disruption of Drosophila CBP complex may account, at least to some extent, for the mRNA discrimination established in heat-shocked Drosophila embryos. ..
  62. Lu Q, Wallrath L, Elgin S. The role of a positioned nucleosome at the Drosophila melanogaster hsp26 promoter. EMBO J. 1995;14:4738-46 pubmed
    The regulatory region of Drosophila melanogaster hsp26 includes a positioned nucleosome located between the two DNase I hypersensitive (DH) sites that encompass the critical heat shock elements (HSEs)...
  63. Li Y, Kirschmann D, Wallrath L. Does heterochromatin protein 1 always follow code?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99 Suppl 4:16462-9 pubmed
    ..Such sequences are likely to include HP1 "target genes" whose discovery will aid in our understanding of HP1 lethality in Drosophila and metastasis of breast cancer cells. ..
  64. Espinás M, Jiménez García E, Martínez Balbás A, Azorin F. Formation of triple-stranded DNA at d(GA.TC)n sequences prevents nucleosome assembly and is hindered by nucleosomes. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31807-12 pubmed
    ..6 M NaCl), when the nucleosome is partially destabilized, and results in the disruption of the nucleosomal particle. These results indicate that nucleosome assembly and triplex formation are competing processes. ..
  65. Pandey A, Vimal D, Chandra S, Saini S, Narayan G, Kar Chowdhuri D. Long-term dietary exposure to low concentration of dichloroacetic acid promoted longevity and attenuated cellular and functional declines in aged Drosophila melanogaster. Age (Dordr). 2014;36:9628 pubmed publisher
  66. Andres A, Thummel C. Hormones, puffs and flies: the molecular control of metamorphosis by ecdysone. Trends Genet. 1992;8:132-8 pubmed
    ..Molecular characterization of some of these genes has provided valuable clues to regulatory mechanisms by which the ecdysone signal is transduced and amplified. ..
  67. Ayme A, Southgate R, Tissieres A. Nucleotide sequences responsible for the thermal inducibility of the Drosophila small heat-shock protein genes in monkey COS cells. J Mol Biol. 1985;182:469-75 pubmed
    ..The hsp22/HSV-tk and hsp26/HSV-tk fusion genes were found to be heat-inducible at 43 degrees C, giving rise to correctly initiated ..
  68. Giardina C, Pérez Riba M, Lis J. Promoter melting and TFIID complexes on Drosophila genes in vivo. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2190-200 pubmed
    ..Melted DNA helices are found associated with the pause site of the uninduced hsp70 and hsp26 heat shock genes and the constitutively expressed beta-1 tubulin gene...
  69. Petersen R, Lindquist S. The Drosophila hsp70 message is rapidly degraded at normal temperatures and stabilized by heat shock. Gene. 1988;72:161-8 pubmed
    ..Apparently, the hsp70 message is inherently unstable. During heat-shock, degradation of the message is suspended; during recovery degradation is restored. ..
  70. Ghosh S, Missra A, Gilmour D. Negative elongation factor accelerates the rate at which heat shock genes are shut off by facilitating dissociation of heat shock factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4232-43 pubmed publisher
    ..hsp70 and hsp26 in Drosophila are rapidly induced by heat shock...
  71. Akhtar A, Becker P. Activation of transcription through histone H4 acetylation by MOF, an acetyltransferase essential for dosage compensation in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2000;5:367-75 pubmed
    ..Acetylation of chromatin by MOF, therefore, appears to be causally involved in transcriptional activation during dosage compensation. ..
  72. Štětina T, Koštál V, Korbelová J. The Role of Inducible Hsp70, and Other Heat Shock Proteins, in Adaptive Complex of Cold Tolerance of the Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster). PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128976 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic elimination of Hsp70 up-regulation response has no effect on survival of chronic exposures to 0°C or mild acute cold shocks, while it negatively affects survival after severe acute cold shocks at temperatures below -8°C. ..
  73. Champlin D, Lis J. Distribution of B52 within a chromosomal locus depends on the level of transcription. Mol Biol Cell. 1994;5:71-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest that B52 tracks to chromatin fibers that are folding or unfolding, and we discuss this in light of B52's proposed roles in pre-mRNA splicing and control. ..
  74. Kingston R, Bunker C, Imbalzano A. Repression and activation by multiprotein complexes that alter chromatin structure. Genes Dev. 1996;10:905-20 pubmed
    ..This implies a regulation of the activity of these complexes in response to developmental cues and further implies that the work to fully understand these complexes will occupy a generation of scientists. ..
  75. Hines K, Cryderman D, Flannery K, Yang H, Vitalini M, Hazelrigg T, et al. Domains of heterochromatin protein 1 required for Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin spreading. Genetics. 2009;182:967-77 pubmed publisher
    ..7-kb reporter and dSETDB1 predominately acting at the 1.9 kb reporter. These data support a model whereby HP1 takes part in multiple mechanisms of silencing and spreading. ..
  76. Duncan R. Rapamycin conditionally inhibits Hsp90 but not Hsp70 mRNA translation in Drosophila: implications for the mechanisms of Hsp mRNA translation. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2008;13:143-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the proposal that preferential translation of different Hsp mRNA utilizes distinct translation mechanisms, even within a single species. ..
  77. Purnell B, Emanuel P, Gilmour D. TFIID sequence recognition of the initiator and sequences farther downstream in Drosophila class II genes. Genes Dev. 1994;8:830-42 pubmed
    Immunopurified TFIID produces a large DNase I footprint over the hsp70, hsp26, and histone H3 promoters of Drosophila...
  78. Singh M, Reddy M, Mathur N, Saxena D, Chowdhuri D. Induction of hsp70, hsp60, hsp83 and hsp26 and oxidative stress markers in benzene, toluene and xylene exposed Drosophila melanogaster: role of ROS generation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;235:226-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Third instar larvae of D. melanogaster transgenic for hsp70, hsp83 and hsp26 and Oregon R(+) strain were exposed to 1.0-100...
  79. Rougvie A, Lis J. Postinitiation transcriptional control in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:6041-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that a rate-limiting step in early elongation occurs in many Drosophila genes and may be a target for transcriptional regulation. ..
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