Gene Symbol: Hsf
Description: Heat shock factor
Alias: CG5748, D-HSF, Dm-Hsf, DmHSF, DmHSFa, Dmel\CG5748, HSF, HSF1, HSFa, Hsf1, dHSF, dHSFa, hsf, l(2)03091, heat shock factor, CG5748-PA, CG5748-PB, CG5748-PC, CG5748-PD, Heat-Shock factor, Hsf-PA, Hsf-PB, Hsf-PC, Hsf-PD, heat shock transcription factor, heat shock transcription factor 1, heat-shock transcription factor
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Hsf

Top Publications

  1. Ni Z, Saunders A, Fuda N, Yao J, Suarez J, Webb W, et al. P-TEFb is critical for the maturation of RNA polymerase II into productive elongation in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1161-70 pubmed
    ..In the continued presence of P-TEFb inhibitor, Pol II levels across the gene eventually recovered. ..
  2. Zimarino V, Tsai C, Wu C. Complex modes of heat shock factor activation. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:752-9 pubmed
    ..This factor is presumably the transcriptional activator of heat shock genes, heat shock factor (HSF)...
  3. Park J, Werner J, Kim J, Lis J, Kim Y. Mediator, not holoenzyme, is directly recruited to the heat shock promoter by HSF upon heat shock. Mol Cell. 2001;8:9-19 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that upon heat shock the Pol II-free form of Mediator is rapidly recruited to HSF binding sites...
  4. Piacentini L, Fanti L, Berloco M, Perrini B, Pimpinelli S. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is associated with induced gene expression in Drosophila euchromatin. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:707-14 pubmed
    ..These data significantly broaden the current views of the roles of HP1 in vivo by demonstrating that this protein has multifunctional roles. ..
  5. Gonsalves S, Moses A, Razak Z, Robert F, Westwood J. Whole-genome analysis reveals that active heat shock factor binding sites are mostly associated with non-heat shock genes in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15934 pubmed publisher
    ..HS) and other stresses, HS gene transcription in eukaryotes is up-regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor (HSF)...
  6. Petesch S, Lis J. Rapid, transcription-independent loss of nucleosomes over a large chromatin domain at Hsp70 loci. Cell. 2008;134:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..An RNAi screen of 28 transcription and chromatin-related factors reveals that depletion of heat shock factor, GAGA Factor, or Poly(ADP)-Ribose Polymerase or its activity abolishes the loss of nucleosomes upon Hsp70 ..
  7. Mason P, Lis J. Cooperative and competitive protein interactions at the hsp70 promoter. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:33227-33 pubmed
    Drosophila heat shock factor (HSF) binds to specific sequence elements of heat shock genes and can activate their transcription 200-fold...
  8. Saunders A, Werner J, Andrulis E, Nakayama T, Hirose S, Reinberg D, et al. Tracking FACT and the RNA polymerase II elongation complex through chromatin in vivo. Science. 2003;301:1094-6 pubmed
    ..Our observations are consistent with FACT being restricted to transcription that involves nucleosome disassembly mechanisms. ..
  9. Shopland L, Lis J. HSF recruitment and loss at most Drosophila heat shock loci is coordinated and depends on proximal promoter sequences. Chromosoma. 1996;105:158-71 pubmed
    The heat shock response in Drosophila is primarily dependent on the binding of the heat shock transcription factor, HSF, to conserved sequences in heat shock gene promoters, the heat shock elements (HSEs)...

More Information


  1. Orosz A, Wisniewski J, Wu C. Regulation of Drosophila heat shock factor trimerization: global sequence requirements and independence of nuclear localization. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:7018-30 pubmed
    b>Heat shock transcription factor (HSF) is a multidomain protein that exists as a monomer under normal conditions and is reversibly induced upon heat shock to a trimeric state that binds to DNA with high affinity...
  2. Zhong M, Wu C. Proteolytic mapping of heat shock transcription factor domains. Protein Sci. 1996;5:2592-9 pubmed
    ..In this work, limited proteolysis was used as a biochemical probe of the domain organization of Drosophila HSF. Both unshocked monomeric and heat-shocked trimeric HSF possess an internal protease-sensitive region located ..
  3. Andrulis E, Guzman E, Döring P, Werner J, Lis J. High-resolution localization of Drosophila Spt5 and Spt6 at heat shock genes in vivo: roles in promoter proximal pausing and transcription elongation. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2635-49 pubmed
    ..Spt6 is recruited within 2 minutes of a heat shock, similar to heat shock factor (HSF); moreover, this recruitment is dependent on HSF...
  4. Adelman K, Marr M, Werner J, Saunders A, Ni Z, Andrulis E, et al. Efficient release from promoter-proximal stall sites requires transcript cleavage factor TFIIS. Mol Cell. 2005;17:103-12 pubmed
  5. Boehm A, Saunders A, Werner J, Lis J. Transcription factor and polymerase recruitment, modification, and movement on dhsp70 in vivo in the minutes following heat shock. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7628-37 pubmed
    ..Here we examine the rapid changes upon heat shock in levels and location of heat shock factor (HSF), RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and its phosphorylated forms, and the Pol II kinase P-TEFb on hsp70 in ..
  6. Yao J, Munson K, Webb W, Lis J. Dynamics of heat shock factor association with native gene loci in living cells. Nature. 2006;442:1050-3 pubmed
    ..We show that heat shock factor (HSF), the transcription activator of hsp70, is localized to the nucleus before heat shock and translocates ..
  7. Jedlicka P, Mortin M, Wu C. Multiple functions of Drosophila heat shock transcription factor in vivo. EMBO J. 1997;16:2452-62 pubmed
    b>Heat shock transcription factor (HSF) is a transcriptional activator of heat shock protein (hsp) genes in eukaryotes...
  8. Enoki Y, Sakurai H. Diversity in DNA recognition by heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) from model organisms. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:1293-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Heat shock transcription factor (HSF), an evolutionarily conserved heat-responsive regulator, binds to heat shock elements (HSEs) comprising continuous inverted repeats of the pentamer nGAAn...
  9. Lis J, Mason P, Peng J, Price D, Werner J. P-TEFb kinase recruitment and function at heat shock loci. Genes Dev. 2000;14:792-803 pubmed
    ..Upon heat shock, P-TEFb, like the regulatory factor HSF, is rapidly recruited to heat shock loci, and this recruitment is blocked in an HSF mutant...
  10. Zhong M, Kim S, Wu C. Sensitivity of Drosophila heat shock transcription factor to low pH. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:3135-40 pubmed
    The heat shock transcription factor (HSF) mediates the induction of heat shock gene expression...
  11. Fernandes M, Xiao H, Lis J. Fine structure analyses of the Drosophila and Saccharomyces heat shock factor--heat shock element interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:167-73 pubmed
    Heat shock genes are activated by the binding of the heat shock transcription factor (HSF) to heat shock elements (HSEs), consisting of arrays of the 5-bp unit NGAAN arranged as inverted repeats...
  12. Westwood J, Clos J, Wu C. Stress-induced oligomerization and chromosomal relocalization of heat-shock factor. Nature. 1991;353:822-7 pubmed
    The induction of heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) binding to DNA is accomplished by a heat-induced oligomerization...
  13. Smith S, Petruk S, Sedkov Y, Cho E, Tillib S, Canaani E, et al. Modulation of heat shock gene expression by the TAC1 chromatin-modifying complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:162-7 pubmed
    Rapid induction of the Drosophila melanogaster heat shock gene hsp70 is achieved through the binding of heat shock factor (HSF) to heat shock elements (HSEs) located upstream of the transcription start site (reviewed in ref. 3)...
  14. Xiao H, Perisic O, Lis J. Cooperative binding of Drosophila heat shock factor to arrays of a conserved 5 bp unit. Cell. 1991;64:585-93 pubmed
    Drosophila heat shock factor (HSF) exists as a multimer in solution and when bound to its regulatory element (HSE)...
  15. Wisniewski J, Orosz A, Allada R, Wu C. The C-terminal region of Drosophila heat shock factor (HSF) contains a constitutively functional transactivation domain. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:367-74 pubmed
    The heat shock transcription factor (HSF) is constitutively expressed in Drosophila cells as an inactive monomer...
  16. Lee H, Kraus K, Wolfner M, Lis J. DNA sequence requirements for generating paused polymerase at the start of hsp70. Genes Dev. 1992;6:284-95 pubmed
    ..However, a connection between transcription and pausing is seen. The level of paused polymerase on the various hybrid hsp70-yp1 promoters correlates with the promoter's potential to direct heat-induced transcription. ..
  17. Neal S, Karunanithi S, Best A, So A, Tanguay R, Atwood H, et al. Thermoprotection of synaptic transmission in a Drosophila heat shock factor mutant is accompanied by increased expression of Hsp83 and DnaJ-1. Physiol Genomics. 2006;25:493-501 pubmed
    ..synaptic thermotolerance would be significantly diminished in a temperature-sensitive strain (Drosophila heat shock factor mutant hsf4), which has been reported not to be able to produce inducible Hsps in response to heat shock...
  18. Zhao X, Shi H, Sevilimedu A, Liachko N, Nelson H, Lis J. An RNA aptamer that interferes with the DNA binding of the HSF transcription activator. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:3755-61 pubmed
    b>Heat shock factor (HSF) is a conserved and highly potent transcription activator. It is involved in a wide variety of important biological processes including the stress response and specific steps in normal development...
  19. Ni Z, Schwartz B, Werner J, Suarez J, Lis J. Coordination of transcription, RNA processing, and surveillance by P-TEFb kinase on heat shock genes. Mol Cell. 2004;13:55-65 pubmed
    ..We propose that P-TEFb phosphorylation of Pol II CTD coordinates transcription elongation with 3' end processing, and failure to do so leads to rapid RNA degradation. ..
  20. Winegarden N, Wong K, Sopta M, Westwood J. Sodium salicylate decreases intracellular ATP, induces both heat shock factor binding and chromosomal puffing, but does not induce hsp 70 gene transcription in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:26971-80 pubmed
    ..Stress-induced transcription of the heat shock genes is mediated by the transcription factor known as Heat Shock Factor (HSF)...
  21. Fernandes M, Xiao H, Lis J. Binding of heat shock factor to and transcriptional activation of heat shock genes in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:4799-804 pubmed
    b>Heat shock factor (HSF) binds to heat shock elements (HSEs) and the binding can be highly cooperative. Here we report an analysis of binding of Drosophila HSF to both native and synthetic heat shock regulatory regions...
  22. Lis J. Promoter-associated pausing in promoter architecture and postinitiation transcriptional regulation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1998;63:347-56 pubmed
  23. Yao J, Zobeck K, Lis J, Webb W. Imaging transcription dynamics at endogenous genes in living Drosophila tissues. Methods. 2008;45:233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This method has provided the experimental capability to visualize the assembly and dynamics of individual transcription factors and regulators and to dissect their functions at their endogenous gene targets in living cells. ..
  24. Zimarino V, Wilson S, Wu C. Antibody-mediated activation of Drosophila heat shock factor in vitro. Science. 1990;249:546-9 pubmed
    ..Central to this activation is heat shock-inducible binding of the transcriptional activator, termed heat shock factor (HSF), to common regulatory elements, which are located upstream of all heat shock genes...
  25. Cai W, Bao X, Deng H, Jin Y, Girton J, Johansen J, et al. RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription at active loci does not require histone H3S10 phosphorylation in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:2917-25 pubmed publisher
  26. Štětina T, Koštál V, Korbelová J. The Role of Inducible Hsp70, and Other Heat Shock Proteins, in Adaptive Complex of Cold Tolerance of the Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster). PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128976 pubmed publisher
    ..cold-induced Hsps gene expression is most probably regulated by alternative splice variants C and D of the Heat Shock Factor. The cold tolerance in Hsp70- null mutants was clearly impaired only when the larvae were exposed to severe ..
  27. Becker J, Mezger V, Courgeon A, Best Belpomme M. Hydrogen peroxide activates immediate binding of a Drosophila factor to DNA heat-shock regulatory element in vivo and in vitro. Eur J Biochem. 1990;189:553-8 pubmed
    ..These results were confirmed with mouse fibroblast cells. This very rapid activation, in vivo or in vitro, suggests a direct effect of H2O2 either on the heat-shock factor itself or on its activator. ..
  28. Zobeck K, Buckley M, Zipfel W, Lis J. Recruitment timing and dynamics of transcription factors at the Hsp70 loci in living cells. Mol Cell. 2010;40:965-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Recruitment of the master regulator, HSF, is first detected within 20 s of gene activation; the timing of its recruitment resolves from RNA polymerase II ..
  29. Nielsen M, Overgaard J, Sørensen J, Holmstrup M, Justesen J, Loeschcke V. Role of HSF activation for resistance to heat, cold and high-temperature knock-down. J Insect Physiol. 2005;51:1320-9 pubmed
    Regulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) by the heat shock factor (HSF) and the importance of these proteins for resistance to heat stress is well documented...
  30. Duarte F, Fuda N, Mahat D, Core L, Guertin M, Lis J. Transcription factors GAF and HSF act at distinct regulatory steps to modulate stress-induced gene activation. Genes Dev. 2016;30:1731-46 pubmed publisher
    ..genes and the rate-limiting steps in the transcription cycle that GAGA-associated factor (GAF) and HS factor (HSF) regulate...
  31. Armstrong J, Papoulas O, Daubresse G, Sperling A, Lis J, Scott M, et al. The Drosophila BRM complex facilitates global transcription by RNA polymerase II. EMBO J. 2002;21:5245-54 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the chromatin remodeling activity of the BRM complex plays a general role in facilitating transcription by RNA polymerase II. ..
  32. Fang X, Chen T, Tran K, Parker C. Developmental regulation of the heat shock response by nuclear transport factor karyopherin-alpha3. Development. 2001;128:3349-58 pubmed
    ..Although the Drosophila heat shock transcription factor (dHSF) is abundant in the early embryo it does not enter the nucleus in response to heat shock...
  33. Wang Z, Lindquist S. Developmentally regulated nuclear transport of transcription factors in Drosophila embryos enable the heat shock response. Development. 1998;125:4841-50 pubmed
    ..In both, regulation occurred at the level of transcription. During the refractory period for Hsp70 induction, HSF (heat-shock transcription factor) exhibited specific DNA-binding activity characteristic of activation in extracts ..
  34. Sandaltzopoulos R, Becker P. Heat shock factor increases the reinitiation rate from potentiated chromatin templates. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:361-7 pubmed
    ..cell-free systems for chromatin reconstitution and transcription, we have analyzed the mechanisms by which heat shock factor (HSF) increases transcription of heat shock genes in chromatin...
  35. Martinez Balbas M, Dey A, Rabindran S, Ozato K, Wu C. Displacement of sequence-specific transcription factors from mitotic chromatin. Cell. 1995;83:29-38 pubmed
    ..transcription factors that bind to the human hsp70 promoter, the DNA-binding activities of three (C/EBP, GBP, and HSF1) were normal, while Sp1 showed reduced binding activity in mitotic cell extracts...
  36. Andrulis E, Werner J, Nazarian A, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Lis J. The RNA processing exosome is linked to elongating RNA polymerase II in Drosophila. Nature. 2002;420:837-41 pubmed
    ..These data provide a physical basis for the hypothesis that exosome-mediated pre-mRNA surveillance accompanies transcription elongation. ..
  37. Guertin M, Martins A, Siepel A, Lis J. Accurate prediction of inducible transcription factor binding intensities in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002610 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied our methods to the Drosophila Heat Shock Factor (HSF), which inducibly binds a target DNA sequence element (HSE) following heat shock stress...
  38. Lerman D, Feder M. Laboratory selection at different temperatures modifies heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) activation in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:315-23 pubmed
    The magnitude and time course of activation of the heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) differ among Drosophila melanogaster lines evolving at 18 degrees C, 25 degrees C or 28 degrees C for more than 20 years...
  39. Bauer D, Buske F, Bailey T. Dual-functioning transcription factors in the developmental gene network of Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010;11:366 pubmed publisher
  40. Wang Q, Holmgren R. The subcellular localization and activity of Drosophila cubitus interruptus are regulated at multiple levels. Development. 1999;126:5097-106 pubmed
    ..Finally, we propose that there are three levels of apparent Ci activity, corresponding to three zones along the AP axis with different sets of gene expression and different levels of Hh signaling. ..
  41. Lonie A, D ANDREA R, Paro R, Saint R. Molecular characterisation of the Polycomblike gene of Drosophila melanogaster, a trans-acting negative regulator of homeotic gene expression. Development. 1994;120:2629-36 pubmed
    ..These data add further support for a model in which Polycomb Group proteins form multimeric protein complexes at specific chromosomal loci to repress transcription at those loci. ..
  42. Kidd P, Young M, Siggia E. Temperature compensation and temperature sensation in the circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E6284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We also review evidence for pathways that couple temperature to the circadian clock, and show previously unidentified evidence for coupling between the Drosophila clock and the heat-shock pathway. ..
  43. Nowak S, Corces V. Phosphorylation of histone H3 correlates with transcriptionally active loci. Genes Dev. 2000;14:3003-13 pubmed
    ..experiments confirm that this change in phosphorylated H3 distribution is dependent on functional heat shock transcription factor activity...
  44. Rabindran S, Wisniewski J, Li L, Li G, Wu C. Interaction between heat shock factor and hsp70 is insufficient to suppress induction of DNA-binding activity in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:6552-60 pubmed
    ..It has been proposed that the DNA-binding and oligomeric state of the heat shock transcription factor (HSF) is a principal step in the induction pathway that is responsive to the level of 70-kDa stress ..
  45. Boscheinen O, Lyck R, Queitsch C, Treuter E, Zimarino V, Scharf K. Heat stress transcription factors from tomato can functionally replace HSF1 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;255:322-31 pubmed
    The fact that yeast HSF1 is essential for survival under nonstress conditions can be used to test heterologous Hsfs for the ability to substitute for the endogenous protein...
  46. Sandaltzopoulos R, Mitchelmore C, Bonte E, Wall G, Becker P. Dual regulation of the Drosophila hsp26 promoter in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:2479-87 pubmed
    Efficient heat shock induction of Drosophila hsp26 gene transcription in vivo requires binding sites for heat shock factor (HSF) and GAGA factor (GAF) close to the TATA box (proximal elements) as well as 350 bp upstream of the start site ..
  47. Wayne M, Pienaar J, Telonis Scott M, Sylvestre L, Nuzhdin S, McIntyre L. Expression of defense genes in Drosophila evolves under a different selective regime from expression of other genes. Evolution. 2011;65:1068-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Both balancing selection driven by host-pathogen coevolution and relaxed selection for expression of uninduced defense genes are viable interpretations of these data. ..
  48. Levy Holtzman R, Clos J, Schechter I. Differences in DNA sequence recognition by the heat-shock factors of Drosophila melanogaster and the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1264:134-40 pubmed
    ..The interactions of HSF in Sm extracts (SmHSF) and HSF of Dm (DmHSF) with 32P-labeled heat shock element (HSE) probes, with and without unlabeled competitor DNA probes (HSE-related ..
  49. Baird N, Turnbull D, Johnson E. Induction of the heat shock pathway during hypoxia requires regulation of heat shock factor by hypoxia-inducible factor-1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38675-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Hsps are known to be regulated by heat shock factor (Hsf), but our results demonstrate an unexpected regulatory link between the oxygen-sensing and heat shock ..
  50. Jensen H, Scott I, Sims S, Trudeau V, Arnason J. The effect of a synergistic concentration of a Piper nigrum extract used in conjunction with pyrethrum upon gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2006;15:329-39 pubmed
    ..melanogaster treated with at least two of the following treatments: P. nigrum, pyrethrum or P. nigrum plus pyrethrum. These are likely implicated in Drosophila defence responses to toxins...
  51. Chan C, Zhang S, Rousset R, Wharton K. Drosophila Naked cuticle (Nkd) engages the nuclear import adaptor Importin-alpha3 to antagonize Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Dev Biol. 2008;318:17-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The Nkd NLS is similar to the Importin-alpha3-binding NLS in the Drosophila heat-shock transcription factor (dHSF), and each Importin-alpha3-binding NLS required intact basic residues in similar positions for nuclear import and ..
  52. Ali Y, McCormack R, Darr A, Zhai R. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase is a stress response protein regulated by the heat shock factor/hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha pathway. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19089-99 pubmed publisher
    ..is transcriptionally regulated during various stress conditions including heat shock and hypoxia through heat shock factor (HSF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1? in vivo...
  53. Chen Y, Lin S, Chen Y, Chiang C, Liaw G. The Torso signaling pathway modulates a dual transcriptional switch to regulate tailless expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:1061-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, an expanded tll expression pattern was shown in embryos with reduced heat shock factor (hsf) and Trithorax-like (Trl) activities...
  54. Guertin M, Lis J. Chromatin landscape dictates HSF binding to target DNA elements. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001114 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the ChIP-seq assay to examine the genome-wide distribution of Drosophila Heat Shock Factor (HSF), a TF whose binding activity is mediated by heat shock-induced trimerization...
  55. Funikov S, Garbuz D, Zatsepina O. [Kinetics of heat shock response upon disfunction of general transcription factor (HSF)]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2014;48:306-13 pubmed
    The heat shock transcription factor (HSF) is a universal activator of hsp gene expression in eukaryotes...
  56. Vuister G, Kim S, Wu C, Bax A. NMR evidence for similarities between the DNA-binding regions of Drosophila melanogaster heat shock factor and the helix-turn-helix and HNF-3/forkhead families of transcription factors. Biochemistry. 1994;33:10-6 pubmed
    Heteronuclear multidimensional NMR experiments of residues 33-163 of the DNA-binding domain of Drosophila heat shock factor, dHSF(33-163), were recorded, using only 3 mg of uniformly 15N-labeled or 2 mg of uniformly 15N/13C-labeled ..
  57. Nicholls R, Gelbart W. Identification of chromosomal regions involved in decapentaplegic function in Drosophila. Genetics. 1998;149:203-15 pubmed
    ..As neither of these regions has been previously implicated in dpp function, we propose that each of the deficiencies removes a novel factor or factors required for dpp function. ..
  58. Sandaltzopoulos R, Ansorge W, Becker P, Voss H. Nonradioactive, solid-phase DNase I footprints analyzed on an A.L.F. DNA Sequencer. Biotechniques. 1994;17:474, 476, 478 pubmed
    ..L.F.) DNA Sequencer. The combination of solid-phase footprinting technology and fluorescence-based nonradioactive detection of fragments has unique advantages over established footprinting technologies. ..
  59. Wei Q, Marchler G, Edington K, Karsch Mizrachi I, Paterson B. RNA interference demonstrates a role for nautilus in the myogenic conversion of Schneider cells by daughterless. Dev Biol. 2000;228:239-55 pubmed
    ..Genes encoding proteins with relatively short half-lives (10 h), such as nautilus or HSF, are efficiently silenced, whereas more stable proteins, such as cytoplasmic actin or beta-galactosidase, are less ..
  60. Merkling S, Overheul G, van Mierlo J, Arends D, Gilissen C, Van Rij R. The heat shock response restricts virus infection in Drosophila. Sci Rep. 2015;5:12758 pubmed publisher
    ..The heat shock transcription factor (Hsf), as well as active viral replication, were necessary for the induction of the response...
  61. Varga Weisz P, Blank T, Becker P. Energy-dependent chromatin accessibility and nucleosome mobility in a cell-free system. EMBO J. 1995;14:2209-16 pubmed
    ..This unprecedented demonstration of energy-dependent nucleosome mobility identifies a new principle which is likely to be fundamental to the mechanism of chromatin remodelling and the binding of regulatory proteins. ..
  62. Shopland L, Hirayoshi K, Fernandes M, Lis J. HSF access to heat shock elements in vivo depends critically on promoter architecture defined by GAGA factor, TFIID, and RNA polymerase II binding sites. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2756-69 pubmed
    ..of the Drosophila hsp70 promoter for their ability to facilitate the binding of the transcription factor, heat shock factor (HSF), to chromatin...
  63. Lis J, Wu C. Protein traffic on the heat shock promoter: parking, stalling, and trucking along. Cell. 1993;74:1-4 pubmed
  64. Papaconstantinou M, Pepper A, Wu Y, Kasimer D, Westwood T, Campos A, et al. Menin links the stress response to genome stability in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14049 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, menin links the stress response to the control of genome stability in Drosophila melanogaster. ..
  65. Mizuguchi G, Tsukiyama T, Wisniewski J, Wu C. Role of nucleosome remodeling factor NURF in transcriptional activation of chromatin. Mol Cell. 1997;1:141-50 pubmed
    ..Our results provide direct evidence that NURF is able to assist gene activation in a chromatin context, and identify a stage of NURF dependence early in the process leading to transcriptional initiation. ..
  66. Sandaltzopoulos R, Bonte E. Elimination of background in footprinting analysis by template selection. Biotechniques. 1995;18:773, 776 pubmed
  67. Zhao Y, Chen X, Sun H, Yuan Z, Ren G, Li X, et al. Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on transcriptional regulation of the hsp70 gene in Drosophila. Cell Res. 2006;16:566-76 pubmed
    ..These experimental data implicated a causal link between histone acetylation and enhanced transcription initiation of hsp70 gene in Drosophila. ..
  68. Sorger P. Heat shock factor and the heat shock response. Cell. 1991;65:363-6 pubmed
  69. Auluck P, Meulener M, Bonini N. Mechanisms of Suppression of {alpha}-Synuclein Neurotoxicity by Geldanamycin in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2873-8 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that compounds that modulate the stress response are a promising approach to treat Parkinson's disease. ..
  70. Schlesinger M, Ryan C. An ATP- and hsc70-dependent oligomerization of nascent heat-shock factor (HSF) polypeptide suggests that HSF itself could be a "sensor" for the cellular stress response. Protein Sci. 1993;2:1356-60 pubmed
  71. Zhang H, Ramanathan Y, Soteropoulos P, Recce M, Tolias P. EZ-Retrieve: a web-server for batch retrieval of coordinate-specified human DNA sequences and underscoring putative transcription factor-binding sites. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:e121 pubmed
    ..A major application of EZ-Retrieve is the analysis of co-expressed genes that are highlighted as expression clusters in DNA microarray experiments. ..
  72. Bott L, Badders N, Chen K, Harmison G, Bautista E, Shih C, et al. A small-molecule Nrf1 and Nrf2 activator mitigates polyglutamine toxicity in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:1979-1989 pubmed
    ..ASC-JM17 acts on Nrf1, Nrf2 and Hsf1 to increase the expression of proteasome subunits, antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones...
  73. Chahine S, O Donnell M. Effects of acute or chronic exposure to dietary organic anions on secretion of methotrexate and salicylate by Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2010;73:128-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased fluid secretion may enhance secretion of organic anions by eliminating diffusive backflux from the tubule lumen to the hemolymph...
  74. Amin J, Fernandez M, Ananthan J, Lis J, Voellmy R. Cooperative binding of heat shock transcription factor to the Hsp70 promoter in vivo and in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:4804-11 pubmed
    ..In vitro, HSEII is a weak and HSEI a strong binding site for heat shock transcription factor HSF, and HSF binds to HSEII cooperatively...
  75. Wang Y, Tang H, Gilmour D. Identification in vivo of different rate-limiting steps associated with transcriptional activators in the presence and absence of a GAGA element. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3543-52 pubmed
    ..melanogaster that was activated by proteins composed of the Tet(on) DNA binding domain and either the heat shock factor (HSF) activation domain or a potent subdomain of VP16...
  76. Petesch S, Lis J. Activator-induced spread of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase promotes nucleosome loss at Hsp70. Mol Cell. 2012;45:64-74 pubmed publisher
    ..structure of Drosophila melanogaster Hsp70 gene loci are dependent on the transcriptional activator, heat shock factor (HSF), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)...
  77. Zhao Y, Lu J, Sun H, Chen X, Huang W, Tao D, et al. Histone acetylation regulates both transcription initiation and elongation of hsp22 gene in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;326:811-6 pubmed
    ..Meanwhile, the elevated acetylation level increased the accessibility of heat shock factor to target cis-acting regulatory sites...
  78. Rabindran S, Haroun R, Clos J, Wisniewski J, Wu C. Regulation of heat shock factor trimer formation: role of a conserved leucine zipper. Science. 1993;259:230-4 pubmed
    ..Two subregions at the carboxyl-terminal end of human HSF1 were identified that maintain the monomeric form of the protein under normal conditions...