Gene Symbol: HP1c
Description: Heterochromatin Protein 1c
Alias: CG6990, Dmel\CG6990, HP1, HP1C, Hp1c, hp1c, heterochromatin protein 1c, CG6990-PA, HP1c-PA
Species: fruit fly
Products:     HP1c

Top Publications

  1. Smothers J, Henikoff S. The hinge and chromo shadow domain impart distinct targeting of HP1-like proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:2555-69 pubmed
    ..characterized the subnuclear localization patterns of two newly discovered Drosophila HP1-like proteins (HP1b and HP1c), comparing them with that of the originally described fly HP1 protein (here designated HP1a)...
  2. Lomberk G, Wallrath L, Urrutia R. The Heterochromatin Protein 1 family. Genome Biol. 2006;7:228 pubmed
    Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) was first discovered in Drosophila as a dominant suppressor of position-effect variegation and a major component of heterochromatin...
  3. Levine M, McCoy C, Vermaak D, Lee Y, Hiatt M, Matsen F, et al. Phylogenomic analysis reveals dynamic evolutionary history of the Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) gene family. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002729 pubmed publisher
    ..introduce unprecedented structural diversity, lineage-restriction, and germline-biased expression patterns into the HP1 family...
  4. Kharchenko P, Alekseyenko A, Schwartz Y, Minoda A, Riddle N, Ernst J, et al. Comprehensive analysis of the chromatin landscape in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 2011;471:480-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This systematic profiling and integrative analysis of chromatin signatures provides insights into how genomic elements are regulated, and will serve as a resource for future experimental investigations of genome structure and function. ..
  5. Li Y, Kirschmann D, Wallrath L. Does heterochromatin protein 1 always follow code?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99 Suppl 4:16462-9 pubmed
    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a conserved chromosomal protein that participates in chromatin packaging and gene silencing. A loss of HP1 leads to lethality in Drosophila and correlates with metastasis in human breast cancer cells...
  6. Vermaak D, Henikoff S, Malik H. Positive selection drives the evolution of rhino, a member of the heterochromatin protein 1 family in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2005;1:96-108 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the best markers for heterochromatin is the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), which is an essential, nonhistone chromosomal protein...
  7. Brower Toland B, Findley S, Jiang L, Liu L, Yin H, Dus M, et al. Drosophila PIWI associates with chromatin and interacts directly with HP1a. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2300-11 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate a direct interaction between the PIWI-mediated small RNA mechanism and heterochromatin-forming pathways in determining the epigenetic state of the fly genome. ..
  8. Beck E, Llopart A. Widespread Positive Selection Drives Differentiation of Centromeric Proteins in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17197 pubmed publisher
  9. Kessler R, Tisserand J, Font Burgada J, Reina O, Coch L, Attolini C, et al. dDsk2 regulates H2Bub1 and RNA polymerase II pausing at dHP1c complex target genes. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7049 pubmed publisher
    ..These results expand the catalogue of nonproteolytic functions of ubiquitin receptors to the epigenetic regulation of chromatin modifications. ..

More Information


  1. Ross B, Rosin L, Thomae A, Hiatt M, Vermaak D, de la Cruz A, et al. Stepwise evolution of essential centromere function in a Drosophila neogene. Science. 2013;340:1211-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our evolutionary cell biology approach provides temporal and mechanistic detail about how young genes gain essential function. Such innovations may constantly alter the repertoire of centromeric proteins in eukaryotes...
  2. Kim S, Bugga L, Hong E, Zabinsky R, Edwards R, Deodhar P, et al. An RNAi-Based Candidate Screen for Modifiers of the CHD1 Chromatin Remodeler and Assembly Factor in Drosophila melanogaster. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;6:245-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that CHD1 may act in opposition to other remodeling factors, including INO80, and that the recruitment of CHD1 to active genes by RTF1 is conserved in flies. ..
  3. Wood J, Hillenmeyer S, Lawrence C, Chang C, Hosier S, Lightfoot W, et al. Chromatin remodeling in the aging genome of Drosophila. Aging Cell. 2010;9:971-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found dramatic reorganization of chromosomal regions with age. Mapping of H3K9me3 and HP1 signals to fly chromosomes reveals in young flies the expected high enrichment in the pericentric regions, the 4th ..
  4. Ryu H, Lee D, Florens L, Swanson S, Washburn M, Kwon S. Analysis of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) interactome in Drosophila. J Proteomics. 2014;102:137-47 pubmed publisher
    ..little is known about the overall interaction network of the three Drosophila HP1 homologs, HP1a, HP1b, and HP1c. Here, we performed the first comprehensive proteomic analysis of Drosophila HP1 homologs by coupling a double-..
  5. Badugu R, Shareef M, Kellum R. Novel Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)/origin recognition complex-associated protein (HOAP) repeat motif in HP1/HOAP interactions and chromocenter associations. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34491-8 pubmed
    ..Two additional HP1-like proteins (HP1b and HP1c) were recently identified in Drosophila, and the unique chromosomal distribution of each isoform is determined by ..
  6. Schulze S, Curio Penny B, Speese S, Dialynas G, Cryderman D, McDonough C, et al. A comparative study of Drosophila and human A-type lamins. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7564 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide new insights on the role of lamins in nuclear biology and support Drosophila as a model for studies of human laminopathies involving muscle dysfunction. ..
  7. Kwon S, Florens L, Swanson S, Washburn M, Abmayr S, Workman J. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) connects the FACT histone chaperone complex to the phosphorylated CTD of RNA polymerase II. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>HP1c interacts with the SSRP1 (structure-specific recognition protein 1) subunit and the intact FACT complex...
  8. Riddle N, Minoda A, Kharchenko P, Alekseyenko A, Schwartz Y, Tolstorukov M, et al. Plasticity in patterns of histone modifications and chromosomal proteins in Drosophila heterochromatin. Genome Res. 2011;21:147-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This comprehensive analysis provides a foundation for future studies of gene activity and chromosomal functions that are influenced by or dependent upon heterochromatin...
  9. Feller C, Prestel M, Hartmann H, Straub T, Söding J, Becker P. The MOF-containing NSL complex associates globally with housekeeping genes, but activates only a defined subset. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:1509-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the regulatory capacity of the NSL complex is highly context-dependent. Activation by the NSL complex requires a particular promoter architecture defined by combinations of chromatin regulators and core promoter motifs. ..
  10. Demakov S, Vatolina T, Babenko V, Semeshin V, Belyaeva E, Zhimulev I. Protein composition of interband regions in polytene and cell line chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:566 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest strikingly similar organization of interband chromatin in polytene chromosomes and in chromosomes from cell lines thereby reflecting the existence of a universal principle of interphase chromosome organization. ..
  11. Abel J, Eskeland R, Raffa G, Kremmer E, Imhof A. Drosophila HP1c is regulated by an auto-regulatory feedback loop through its binding partner Woc. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5089 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, we found that HP1c interacts with the DNA binding factors Woc and Row and requires Woc to become targeted to chromatin in vivo...
  12. Lin C, Li B, Swanson S, Zhang Y, Florens L, Washburn M, et al. Heterochromatin protein 1a stimulates histone H3 lysine 36 demethylation by the Drosophila KDM4A demethylase. Mol Cell. 2008;32:696-706 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the chromo shadow domain of HP1a and a HP1-interacting motif of dKDM4A are responsible for this interaction...
  13. Levine M, Malik H. A rapidly evolving genomic toolkit for Drosophila heterochromatin. Fly (Austin). 2013;7:137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..reported over 20 new members of what was traditionally believed to be a small and static Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) gene family...
  14. Raffa G, Cenci G, Ciapponi L, Gatti M. Organization and Evolution of Drosophila Terminin: Similarities and Differences between Drosophila and Human Telomeres. Front Oncol. 2013;3:112 pubmed publisher
    ..Other proteins required to prevent end-to-end fusion in flies include HP1, Eff/UbcD1, ATM, the components of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs (MRN) complex, and the Woc transcription factor...
  15. Delattre M, Spierer A, Tonka C, Spierer P. The genomic silencing of position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster: interaction between the heterochromatin-associated proteins Su(var)3-7 and HP1. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 Pt 23:4253-61 pubmed
    ..An increase in the amounts of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3-7 and HP1 proteins augments silencing...
  16. Lee D, Li Y, Shin D, Yi S, Bang S, Park E, et al. DNA microarray profiling of genes differentially regulated by three heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) homologs in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;434:820-8 pubmed publisher
    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is an epigenetic gene silencing protein that is regulated by lysine 9 methylation of histone H3...