Gene Symbol: hook
Description: hook
Alias: CG10653, Dmel\CG10653, Hook, dHk, hook, CG10653-PA, hook-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Akbar M, Ray S, KRAMER H. The SM protein Car/Vps33A regulates SNARE-mediated trafficking to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1705-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with a role in Car-mediated fusion, dSyntaxin16 is not restricted to Golgi membranes but also present on lysosomes. ..
  2. Narayanan R, Kramer H, Ramaswami M. Drosophila endosomal proteins hook and deep orange regulate synapse size but not synaptic vesicle recycling. J Neurobiol. 2000;45:105-19 pubmed
    ..function of endosomes at synapses we analyzed the localization and function of two Drosophila endosomal proteins, Hook and Deep orange (Dor), at the larval neuromuscular junction...
  3. Kramer H, Phistry M. Mutations in the Drosophila hook gene inhibit endocytosis of the boss transmembrane ligand into multivesicular bodies. J Cell Biol. 1996;133:1205-15 pubmed
    ..a search for genes that affect this cell-type-specific pattern of boss endocytosis, we found that mutations in the hook gene inhibit the accumulation of boss in multivesicular bodies of R7 cells...
  4. Chang H, Newmyer S, Hull M, Ebersold M, Schmid S, Mellman I. Hsc70 is required for endocytosis and clathrin function in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2002;159:477-87 pubmed
    ..Together, these data provide genetic support for the long-suspected role of Hsc70 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, at least in part by inhibiting the uncoating of CCVs. ..
  5. Sevrioukov E, He J, Moghrabi N, Sunio A, Kramer H. A role for the deep orange and carnation eye color genes in lysosomal delivery in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 1999;4:479-86 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a defect in endocytic trafficking was visualized in developing photoreceptor cells. These results provide direct evidence that eye color mutations of the granule group also disrupt vesicular trafficking to lysosomes. ..
  6. Sunio A, Metcalf A, Kramer H. Genetic dissection of endocytic trafficking in Drosophila using a horseradish peroxidase-bride of sevenless chimera: hook is required for normal maturation of multivesicular endosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:847-59 pubmed
    Mutations in the hook gene alter intracellular trafficking of internalized ligands in Drosophila...
  7. Chang H, Hull M, Mellman I. The J-domain protein Rme-8 interacts with Hsc70 to control clathrin-dependent endocytosis in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:1055-64 pubmed
  8. Pulipparacharuvil S, Akbar M, Ray S, Sevrioukov E, Haberman A, Rohrer J, et al. Drosophila Vps16A is required for trafficking to lysosomes and biogenesis of pigment granules. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:3663-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Ubiquitous knockdown of dVps16A was lethal. Together, these findings demonstrate that Drosophila Vps16A is essential for lysosomal trafficking. Furthermore, metazoans have two types of Vps-C complexes with non-redundant functions...
  9. Sweeney S, Davis G. Unrestricted synaptic growth in spinster-a late endosomal protein implicated in TGF-beta-mediated synaptic growth regulation. Neuron. 2002;36:403-16 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mutations in Dad, an inhibitory Smad, cause synapse overgrowth. We present a model for synaptic growth control with implications for the etiology of lysosomal storage and neurodegenerative disease. ..

More Information


  1. Kr mer H, Phistry M. Genetic analysis of hook, a gene required for endocytic trafficking in drosophila. Genetics. 1999;151:675-84 pubmed
    The Drosophila hook gene encodes a novel component of the endocytic compartment...
  2. Pentz E, Black B, Wright T. Mutations affecting phenol oxidase activity in Drosophila: quicksilver and tyrosinase-1. Biochem Genet. 1990;28:151-71 pubmed
    ..The activity of all three A components is reduced. The diphenol oxidase activity in double mutant combinations shows that these mutations and Dox-A2 (Pentz et al., 1986) affect this enzyme in different ways. ..
  3. Contamine D, Petitjean A, Ashburner M. Genetic resistance to viral infection: the molecular cloning of a Drosophila gene that restricts infection by the rhabdovirus sigma. Genetics. 1989;123:525-33 pubmed
    ..The dominance relationships of these two alleles, and the fact that ref(2)Pnull alleles are permissive to sigma infection, suggest that the ref(2)Po product is antimorphic to that of the ref(2)Pp allele. ..
  4. Williamson W, Wang D, Haberman A, Hiesinger P. A dual function of V0-ATPase a1 provides an endolysosomal degradation mechanism in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:885-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that V100 exerts a temporally integrated dual function that increases neuronal degradative capacity. ..
  5. Dickinson W, Thatcher J. Morphogenesis of denticles and hairs in Drosophila embryos: involvement of actin-associated proteins that also affect adult structures. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1997;38:9-21 pubmed
    ..We suggest that interactions between these and other actin-associated proteins are important in generating the diverse shapes of the cuticular specializations seen in both larvae and adults. ..
  6. Wright T. The Wilhelmine E. Key 1992 Invitational lecture. Phenotypic analysis of the Dopa decarboxylase gene cluster mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. J Hered. 1996;87:175-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Ddc gene cluster represents in higher eukaryotes an unusual example of a large cluster of functionally related genes involved in a common physiological process. ..
  7. Ghezzi A, Al Hasan Y, Larios L, Bohm R, Atkinson N. slo K(+) channel gene regulation mediates rapid drug tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17276-81 pubmed
    ..It is the sedative phase that stimulates slo gene expression and induces tolerance. We demonstrate that the expression level of slo is a predictor of drug sensitivity...
  8. Thor S, Andersson S, Tomlinson A, Thomas J. A LIM-homeodomain combinatorial code for motor-neuron pathway selection. Nature. 1999;397:76-80 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that lim3 and islet constitute a combinatorial code that generates distinct motor-neuron identities. ..
  9. Wang X, Shaw W, Tsang H, Reid E, O Kane C. Drosophila spichthyin inhibits BMP signaling and regulates synaptic growth and axonal microtubules. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:177-85 pubmed
  10. Starr D, Fischer J. KASH 'n Karry: the KASH domain family of cargo-specific cytoskeletal adaptor proteins. Bioessays. 2005;27:1136-46 pubmed
  11. Akbar M, Tracy C, Kahr W, KRAMER H. The full-of-bacteria gene is required for phagosome maturation during immune defense in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:383-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that defects in phagosome maturation may contribute to symptoms of ARC patients including recurring infections. ..
  12. Luzio J, Rous B, Bright N, Pryor P, Mullock B, Piper R. Lysosome-endosome fusion and lysosome biogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 9):1515-24 pubmed
  13. Martin M, Iyadurai S, Gassman A, Gindhart J, Hays T, Saxton W. Cytoplasmic dynein, the dynactin complex, and kinesin are interdependent and essential for fast axonal transport. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3717-28 pubmed
    ..The shared bidirectional disruption phenotypes and the dominant genetic interactions demonstrate that cytoplasmic dynein, the dynactin complex, and conventional kinesin are interdependent in fast axonal transport. ..
  14. Mullins C, Bonifacino J. The molecular machinery for lysosome biogenesis. Bioessays. 2001;23:333-43 pubmed
    ..Other recently identified components, however, appear to be unique to higher eukaryotes. BioEssays 23:333-343, 2001. Published 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ..
  15. Walenta J, Didier A, Liu X, Kramer H. The Golgi-associated hook3 protein is a member of a novel family of microtubule-binding proteins. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:923-34 pubmed
    Microtubules are central to the spatial organization of diverse membrane-trafficking systems. Here, we report that Hook proteins constitute a novel family of cytosolic coiled coil proteins that bind to organelles and to microtubules...
  16. Brittnacher J, Ganetzky B. On the Components of Segregation Distortion in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. II. Deletion Mapping and Dosage Analysis of the SD Locus. Genetics. 1983;103:659-73 pubmed
    ..The Sd product appears to act preferentially at Rsp(s) (sensitive-Responder) but may also act at Rsp(i) (insensitive-Responder). ..
  17. Shao W, Wu J, Chen J, Lee D, Tishkina A, Harris T. A modifier screen for Bazooka/PAR-3 interacting genes in the Drosophila embryo epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9938 pubmed publisher
    ..For 13 of the 17 genes, this is the first report of a link to baz or the regulation of epithelial structure. ..
  18. Parks A, Klueg K, Stout J, Muskavitch M. Ligand endocytosis drives receptor dissociation and activation in the Notch pathway. Development. 2000;127:1373-85 pubmed
    ..We suggest that endocytosis into delta-expressing cells of NotchECD bound to delta plays a critical role during activation of the Notch receptor and is required to achieve processing and dissociation of the Notch protein. ..
  19. Stathakis D, Pentz E, Freeman M, Kullman J, Hankins G, Pearlson N, et al. The genetic and molecular organization of the Dopa decarboxylase gene cluster of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;141:629-55 pubmed
  20. Rodriguez A, Oliver H, Zou H, Chen P, Wang X, Abrams J. Dark is a Drosophila homologue of Apaf-1/CED-4 and functions in an evolutionarily conserved death pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:272-9 pubmed
    ..These findings establish dark as an important apoptosis effector in Drosophila and raise profound evolutionary considerations concerning the relationship between mitochondrial components and the apoptosis-promoting machinery. ..
  21. Saja S, Buff H, Smith A, Williams T, Korey C. Identifying cellular pathways modulated by Drosophila palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 function. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;40:135-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This work lays the groundwork for further experimental exploration of these processes to better understand their contributions to the INCL disease process. ..
  22. Shapira S, Bakhrat A, Bitan A, Abdu U. The Drosophila javelin gene encodes a novel actin-associated protein required for actin assembly in the bristle. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4582-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we report that Jv is a novel actin-associated protein required for actin assembly during Drosophila bristle development. ..
  23. Chen P, Nordstrom W, Gish B, Abrams J. grim, a novel cell death gene in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1773-82 pubmed
    ..The grim gene product might thus function in a parallel circuit of cell death signaling that ultimately activates a common set of downstream apoptotic effectors. ..
  24. Rahman M, Haberman A, Tracy C, Ray S, KRAMER H. Drosophila mauve mutants reveal a role of LYST homologs late in the maturation of phagosomes and autophagosomes. Traffic. 2012;13:1680-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data suggest a model in which Mauve functions to restrict homotypic fusion of different pre-lysosomal organelles and LROs. ..
  25. McCrady E, Tolin D. Effects of Ddc cluster lethal alleles on ovary growth, attachment, and egg production in Drosophila. J Exp Zool. 1994;268:469-76 pubmed
    ..Heteroallelic heterozygotes of Bd7 x Bd4 also produced fully fertile ovaries, but no other heteroallelic combinations did so.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  26. Gilbert D, Hirsh J, Wright T. Molecular mapping of a gene cluster flanking the Drosophila Dopa decarboxylase gene. Genetics. 1984;106:679-94 pubmed
    ..Six of these complementation groups are within 23 kb of DNA, and all ten complementation groups, including Ddc, lie within 78-82 kb of DNA. The potential significance of this unusually high gene density is discussed. ..
  27. Cherry S, Perrimon N. Entry is a rate-limiting step for viral infection in a Drosophila melanogaster model of pathogenesis. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:81-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, this virus model provides a sensitive and efficient approach for identifying components required for pathogenesis. ..
  28. Hori K, Fostier M, Ito M, Fuwa T, Go M, Okano H, et al. Drosophila deltex mediates suppressor of Hairless-independent and late-endosomal activation of Notch signaling. Development. 2004;131:5527-37 pubmed
  29. Moore A, Jan L, Jan Y. hamlet, a binary genetic switch between single- and multiple- dendrite neuron morphology. Science. 2002;297:1355-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, hamlet expression induced in MD neurons undergoing dendrite outgrowth drastically reduces arbor branching...
  30. Wright T, Beermann W, Marsh J, Bishop C, Steward R, Black B, et al. The genetics of dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila melanogaster. IV. The genetics and cytology of the 37B10-37D1 region. Chromosoma. 1981;83:45-58 pubmed
    ..8-12 band Df(2L)130 region, 37B9-C1,2;37D1-2, 199 have been assigned to twelve lethal genes and one visible gene (hook). The 13 genes are not evenly distributed...
  31. Soukup S, Culi J, Gubb D. Uptake of the necrotic serpin in Drosophila melanogaster via the lipophorin receptor-1. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000532 pubmed publisher
    ..The scavenging of serpin/proteinase complexes may be a critical step in the regulation of proteolytic cascades. ..
  32. Rawlins E, Lovegrove B, Jarman A. Echinoid facilitates Notch pathway signalling during Drosophila neurogenesis through functional interaction with Delta. Development. 2003;130:6475-84 pubmed
    ..In vivo and cell culture studies suggest that homophilic interaction of Echinoid on adjacent cells is necessary for its function. ..
  33. Sevrioukov E, Moghrabi N, Kuhn M, KRAMER H. A mutation in dVps28 reveals a link between a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-I complex and the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2301-12 pubmed
  34. Seppa M, Johnson R, Bao S, Cagan R. Polychaetoid controls patterning by modulating adhesion in the Drosophila pupal retina. Dev Biol. 2008;318:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Pyd modulates adherens junction strength and Roughest-mediated preferential cell adhesion. ..
  35. Bitan A, Guild G, Bar Dubin D, Abdu U. Asymmetric microtubule function is an essential requirement for polarized organization of the Drosophila bristle. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:496-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, mutation in ik2 affects polarized bristle MT function. It was previously found that the hook mutant exhibited defects in bristle polarity and that hook is involved in endocytic trafficking...
  36. Rawls A, Wolff T. Strabismus requires Flamingo and Prickle function to regulate tissue polarity in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2003;130:1877-87 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that Strabismus, Flamingo and Prickle function together to regulate the establishment of tissue polarity in the Drosophila eye. ..
  37. Wright T, Bewley G, Sherald A. The genetics of dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Isolation and characterization of dopa-decarboxylase-deficient mutants and their relationship to the alpha-methyl-dopa-hypersensitive mutants. Genetics. 1976;84:287-310 pubmed
    ..Although no biochemical phene has yet been established for the alphaMD hypersensitive amd alleles, it seems likely that the two groups of mutants are functionally related. ..
  38. Lloyd V, Ramaswami M, Kramer H. Not just pretty eyes: Drosophila eye-colour mutations and lysosomal delivery. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8:257-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, classical work describing more than 85 eye-colour mutations and their genetic interactions offers a remarkable, untapped resource for the genetic analysis of protein delivery to lysosomes. ..
  39. Thor S, Thomas J. The Drosophila islet gene governs axon pathfinding and neurotransmitter identity. Neuron. 1997;18:397-409 pubmed
    ..Ectopic expression of islet induces both specific alterations in pathfinding and changes in neurotransmitter identity. These findings indicate that islet coordinately controls two distinct aspects of neuronal identity. ..
  40. Rizki T, Rizki R, Bellotti R. Genetics of a Drosophila phenoloxidase. Mol Gen Genet. 1985;201:7-13 pubmed
    ..The presence of proenzyme in the paracrystalline inclusions was demonstrated by in situ activation with natural activator or propanol followed by incubation in buffered dopa. ..
  41. Otani T, Oshima K, Onishi S, Takeda M, Shinmyozu K, Yonemura S, et al. IKK? regulates cell elongation through recycling endosome shuttling. Dev Cell. 2011;20:219-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish an evolutionarily conserved function of IKK-related kinases in regulating recycling endosome dynamics and point to a key role of endosome dynamics in cell morphogenesis. ..
  42. Pentz E, Wright T. A diphenol oxidase gene is part of a cluster of genes involved in catecholamine metabolism and sclerotization in Drosophila. II. Molecular localization of the Dox-A2 coding region. Genetics. 1986;112:843-59 pubmed
    ..The Dox-A2 locus is within 3.4 to 4.4 kb of the Df(2L)OD15 breakpoint, placing four of the vital loci within a maximum of 15.5 kb. The location of Dox-A2 in a cluster of genes affecting cuticle formation is discussed. ..
  43. Wright T, Hodgetts R, Sherald A. The genetics of dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Isolation and characterization of deficiencies that delete the dopa-decarboxylase-dosage-sensitive region and the alpha-methyl-dopa-hypersensitive locus. Genetics. 1976;84:267-85 pubmed
    ..These deficiencies permit a localization of both the dopa-decarboxylase-dosage-sensitive region and the alpha-methyl-dopa-hypersensitive locus, l(2) amd, to the same region, 37B10-37C7. ..
  44. Szatm ri Z, Kis V, Lippai M, Hegedus K, Farag T, Lőrincz P, et al. Rab11 facilitates cross-talk between autophagy and endosomal pathway through regulation of Hook localization. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..from recycling endosomes to autophagosomes in response to autophagy induction and physically interacts with Hook, a negative regulator of endosome maturation...
  45. Carrasco Rando M, Ruiz Gomez M. Mind bomb 2, a founder myoblast-specific protein, regulates myoblast fusion and muscle stability. Development. 2008;135:849-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Mib2 acts sequentially in myoblast fusion and sarcomeric stability by two separable processes involving distinct functions of Mib2. ..
  46. Liu Z, Huang Y, Hu W, Huang S, Wang Q, Han J, et al. dAcsl, the Drosophila ortholog of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 and 4, inhibits synapse growth by attenuating bone morphogenetic protein signaling via endocytic recycling. J Neurosci. 2014;34:2785-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results reveal a novel mechanism whereby dAcsl facilitates Rab11-dependent receptor recycling and provide insights into the pathogenesis of ACSL4-related mental retardation. ..