Gene Symbol: Hn
Description: Henna
Alias: CG7399, DTPH, DTPHu, Dmel\CG7399, PAH, Pah, TPH, TRH, Tph, Trh, pah, henna, CG7399-PA, CG7399-PB, CG7399-PC, CG7399-PD, Hn-PA, Hn-PB, Hn-PC, Hn-PD, Phenylalanine-hydroxylase, brunette, phenylalanine hydroxylase, phenylalanine-tryptophan hydroxylase, tryptophan hydrolase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Neckameyer W, White K. A single locus encodes both phenylalanine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase activities in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:4199-206 pubmed
    ..We propose that there are only two aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes in Drosophila: one encoding tyrosine hydroxylase, DTH, and DTPH, a gene encoding both tryptophan and phenylalanine hydroxylase activities.
  2. Neckameyer W, Coleman C, Eadie S, Goodwin S. Compartmentalization of neuronal and peripheral serotonin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6:756-69 pubmed
    In Drosophila, one enzyme (Drosophila tryptophan-phenylalanine hydroxylase, DTPHu) hydroxylates both tryptophan to yield 5-hydroxytryptophan, the first step in serotonin synthesis, and phenylalanine, to generate tyrosine...
  3. Lee P, Lin H, Chang Y, Fu T, Dubnau J, Hirsh J, et al. Serotonin-mushroom body circuit modulating the formation of anesthesia-resistant memory in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to the Amnesiac peptide required for anesthesia-sensitive memory formation, the two DPM neurons also release 5HT acting on MB neurons for ARM formation...
  4. Dierick H, Greenspan R. Serotonin and neuropeptide F have opposite modulatory effects on fly aggression. Nat Genet. 2007;39:678-82 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this neuropeptide F effect seems to be independent of 5-HT. The implication of these two modulatory systems in fly and mouse aggression suggest a marked degree of conservation and a deep molecular root for this behavior. ..
  5. Neckameyer W. A trophic role for serotonin in the development of a simple feeding circuit. Dev Neurosci. 2010;32:217-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that 5-HT is tightly regulated during CNS development to direct the normal architecture and mature function of this neural circuit. ..
  6. Wang Q, Zhao C, Bai L, Deng X, Wu C. Reduction of drosopterin content caused by a 45-nt insertion in Henna pre-mRNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Sci China C Life Sci. 2008;51:702-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Phenylalanine hydroxylase is assumed to be a key enzyme in drosopterin metabolism, but direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis is still absent...
  7. Beadle G, Ephrussi B. The Differentiation of Eye Pigments in Drosophila as Studied by Transplantation. Genetics. 1936;21:225-47 pubmed
  8. Colas J, Launay J, Maroteaux L. Maternal and zygotic control of serotonin biosynthesis are both necessary for Drosophila germband extension. Mech Dev. 1999;87:67-76 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings provide additional support for the notion that serotonin, acting through the 5-HT(2Dro) receptor, is necessary for proper gastrulation. ..
  9. Ruiz Vázquez P, Silva F. Aberrant splicing of the Drosophila melanogaster phenylalanine hydroxylase pre-mRNA caused by the insertion of a B104/roo transposable element in the Henna locus. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1999;29:311-8 pubmed
    We report the insertion of the transposable element B104 in the Phenylalanine hydroxylase gene of the Drosophila mutant Henna-recessive 3...

More Information


  1. Barthelmess I, Robertson F. The quantitative relations between variation in red eye pigment and related pteridine compounds in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1970;15:65-86 pubmed
  2. Morales G, Requena J, Jimenez Ruiz A, Lopez M, Ugarte M, Alonso C. Sequence and expression of the Drosophila phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA. Gene. 1990;93:213-9 pubmed
    We report the cloning, nucleotide (nt) sequence and expression of the cDNA (pah) encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) of Drosophila melanogaster. The strong hybridization signals observed in genomic blots when D...
  3. Cuenca J, Galindo M, Saura A, Sorsa V, De Frutos R. Ultrastructure of regions containing homologous loci in polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila subobscura. Chromosoma. 1998;107:113-26 pubmed
    ..the collagen-like gene, the w26 homeobox gene, the beta3 tubulin gene, the kinesin heavy chain gene, the tryptophan hydrolase gene, the Hsp82, Hsp22-26 and Hsp23-28, Hsp68, Hsp70 genes and the beta unit of the F0-F1 ATPase gene...
  4. Guillamón J, Ferre J. Identification of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;152:49-55 pubmed
    ..Compared to the wild type, the Punch2 mutant has diminished levels of both pteridines, whereas Henna-recessive3 lacks completely tetrahydropterin and has increased levels of tetrahydrobiopterin, as expected ..
  5. Chen C, Wu J, Lin H, Pai T, Fu T, Wu C, et al. Visualizing long-term memory formation in two neurons of the Drosophila brain. Science. 2012;335:678-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest an extra-MB memory circuit in Drosophila: LTM consolidation (MB to DAL), storage (DAL), and retrieval (DAL to MB)...
  6. Zhang Y, Friedman D, Wang Z, Woodruff E, Pan L, O DONNELL J, et al. Protein expression profiling of the drosophila fragile X mutant brain reveals up-regulation of monoamine synthesis. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005;4:278-90 pubmed
    ..We then focus on two misregulated enzymes, phenylalanine hydroxylase (Henna) and GTP cyclohydrolase (Punch), both of which mediate in concert the synthetic pathways of two ..
  7. Allada R, White N, So W, Hall J, Rosbash M. A mutant Drosophila homolog of mammalian Clock disrupts circadian rhythms and transcription of period and timeless. Cell. 1998;93:791-804 pubmed
    ..The remarkable sequence conservation strongly supports common clock components present in the common ancestor of Drosophila and mammals. ..
  8. Bel Y, Wiesner P, Kayser H. Candidate target mechanisms of the growth inhibitor cyromazine: studies of phenylalanine hydroxylase, puparial amino acids, and dihydrofolate reductase in dipteran insects. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2000;45:69-78 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we have analyzed the key enzyme for the production of sclerotization agents, phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), using the enzyme from Drosophila, a cyromazine-sensitive insect...
  9. Curran K, Chalasani S. Serotonin circuits and anxiety: what can invertebrates teach us?. Invert Neurosci. 2012;12:81-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These model systems possess well-defined neuroanatomies and robust serotonin-mediated behavior and should reveal insights into how serotonin can modulate human cognitive functions...
  10. Silva F, Bel Y, Botella L, Cotton R, Ferre J. Immunological detection of phenylalanine hydroxylase protein in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem J. 1992;287 ( Pt 1):85-9 pubmed
    A monoclonal antibody raised against monkey liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) has been used to detect this protein in Drosophila melanogaster...
  11. Coleman C, Neckameyer W. Substrate regulation of serotonin and dopamine synthesis in Drosophila. Invert Neurosci. 2004;5:85-96 pubmed
    ..5-HT is synthesized, at least in part, by the actions of Drosophila tryptophan-phenylalanine hydroxylase (DTPH), a dual function enzyme that hydroxylates both phenylalanine and tryptophan...
  12. Ruiz Vázquez P, Silva F, Ferre J. Characterization of sepiapterin reductase activity from Drosophila melanogaster. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1996;113:131-6 pubmed
    ..0. A study of the activity in different eye-color mutant strains revealed significantly decreased levels in clot, red Malpighian tubules and garnet. ..
  13. Ruiz Vázquez P, Moulard M, Silva F. Structure of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Drosophila melanogaster and evidence of alternative promoter usage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;225:238-42 pubmed
    The complete Drosophila melanogaster phenylalanine hydroxylase gene isolated from a genomic library was sequenced. Gene structure consisted of five exons covering a region of around 3 kb...
  14. Van Atta E. Genetic and Cytological Studies on X-Radiation Induced Dominant Eye Colors of Drosophila. Genetics. 1932;17:637-59 pubmed
  15. Beadle G. Development of Eye Colors in Drosophila: Fat Bodies and Malpighian Tubes in Relation to Diffusible Substances. Genetics. 1937;22:587-611 pubmed
  16. Neckameyer W, Woodrome S, Holt B, Mayer A. Dopamine and senescence in Drosophila melanogaster. Neurobiol Aging. 2000;21:145-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the deficits seen in dopaminergic-modulated behaviors may arise as a consequence of degenerative changes within the aging brain. ..
  17. Piedrafita A, Martínez Ramírez A, Silva F. A genetic analysis of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases involvement in DOPA synthesis during Drosophila adult development. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1994;24:581-8 pubmed
    ..An analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase protein presence during the period of the first 3 h post adult ecdysis in thorax plus abdomen extracts ..
  18. Aparisi M, Najera C. Genetic location and biochemical characterization of eye-colour mutants from natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 1990;33:203-8 pubmed
    ..The eye-colour mutants show large effects on the red and brown pigments. The high variability of the eye-colour loci is discussed in relation to the mutation and selection hypotheses. ..
  19. Silva F, Escriche B, Ordoño E, Ferre J. Genetic and biochemical characterization of little isoxanthopterin (lix), a gene controlling dihydropterin oxidase activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;230:97-103 pubmed
    ..Isoxanthopterin was quantitated in strains carrying deficiencies for the region in which lix has been mapped by recombination. This allowed us to assign the lix locus to the 7D10-7F1-2 segment of the X chromosome. ..
  20. Bel Y, Jacobson K, Ferre J. A comparative study of Drosophila phenylalanine hydroxylase with a natural and a synthetic tetrahydropterin as cofactor. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1992;103:557-62 pubmed
    1. Phenylalanine hydroxylase activity has been analyzed in Drosophila melanogaster using as cofactors the natural tetrahydropteridine 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (H4Bip) and the synthetic one 5,6-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin (H4Dmp)...
  21. Huser A, Rohwedder A, Apostolopoulou A, Widmann A, Pfitzenmaier J, Maiolo E, et al. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47518 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed. ..
  22. Coleman C, Neckameyer W. Serotonin synthesis by two distinct enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2005;59:12-31 pubmed
    ..When DTRH uses phenylalanine as a substrate, end product inhibition, increased phenylalanine hydroxylase activity after phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and a decrease in phenylalanine ..
  23. Qi Y, Huang J, Li M, Wu Y, Xia R, Ye G. Serotonin modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis via two different serotonin receptors. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher