Gene Symbol: Hmgcr
Description: HMG Coenzyme A reductase
Alias: BcDNA:LD15354, CG10367, Clb, DmHMG-CoAr, Dmel\CG10367, HMGCR, HMGCR_Dm, HMGCoAR, HMGCoARr, HMGCoAr, HMGR, HmG-CoAR, Hmg, bro1, bs32f05.y1, clb, hmgc, hmgcr, hmgrc, l(3)01152, l(3)04684, HMG coenzyme A reductase, 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA reductase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, CG10367-PA, HMG-CoA reductase, HMG-CoA reductase class I, HMGCo-A reductase, HMGCoA reductase, Hmg-CoA-reductase, Hmgcr-PA, columbus, lethal (3) 04684
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Hmgcr

Top Publications

  1. Sano H, Renault A, Lehmann R. Control of lateral migration and germ cell elimination by the Drosophila melanogaster lipid phosphate phosphatases Wunen and Wunen 2. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:675-83 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that expression of wun/wun-2 repellents along the migratory paths provides faithful control over the sorting of PGCs into two gonads and eliminates PGCs left in the middle of the embryo. ..
  2. Santos A, Lehmann R. Isoprenoids control germ cell migration downstream of HMGCoA reductase. Dev Cell. 2004;6:283-93 pubmed
    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAr) provides attractive cues to Drosophila germ cells, guiding them toward the embryonic gonad. However, it remains unclear how HMGCoAr mediates this attraction...
  3. Yi P, Han Z, Li X, Olson E. The mevalonate pathway controls heart formation in Drosophila by isoprenylation of Ggamma1. Science. 2006;313:1301-3 pubmed
    ..This phenotype resulted from mutations in the genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase, downstream enzymes in the mevalonate pathway, and G protein Ggamma1, which is geranylgeranylated, ..
  4. Jones G, Jones D, Li X, Tang L, Ye L, Teal P, et al. Activities of natural methyl farnesoids on pupariation and metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:1456-64 pubmed publisher
    ..If endogenous production of all three larval methyl farnesoids was suppressed by a strongly driven RNAi against HMGCR in the corpora allata cells, most larvae did not attain pupariation...
  5. Tschäpe J, Hammerschmied C, Mühlig Versen M, Athenstaedt K, Daum G, Kretzschmar D. The neurodegeneration mutant löchrig interferes with cholesterol homeostasis and Appl processing. EMBO J. 2002;21:6367-76 pubmed
    ..isoform of the gamma-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a negative regulator of hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase and cholesterol synthesis in vertebrates...
  6. Deshpande G, Godishala A, Schedl P. Ggamma1, a downstream target for the hmgcr-isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, is required for releasing the Hedgehog ligand and directing germ cell migration. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000333 pubmed publisher
    The isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway leading from the production of mevalonate by HMGCoA reductase (Hmgcr) to the geranylation of the G protein subunit, Ggamma1, plays an important role in cardiac development in the fly...
  7. Van Doren M, Broihier H, Moore L, Lehmann R. HMG-CoA reductase guides migrating primordial germ cells. Nature. 1998;396:466-9 pubmed
    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is best known for catalysing a rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, but it also participates in the production of a wide variety of other compounds...
  8. Ricardo S, Lehmann R. An ABC transporter controls export of a Drosophila germ cell attractant. Science. 2009;323:943-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Components of this unconventional export pathway are highly conserved, suggesting that this pathway may control the production of similarly modified chemoattractants in organisms ranging from yeast to humans...
  9. Renault A, Ricardo S, Kunwar P, Santos A, Starz Gaiano M, Stein J, et al. Hedgehog does not guide migrating Drosophila germ cells. Dev Biol. 2009;328:355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..the synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate through the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) pathway is critical for attracting germ cells to their target tissue...

More Information


  1. Deshpande G, Schedl P. HMGCoA reductase potentiates hedgehog signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Cell. 2005;9:629-38 pubmed
    Drosophila HMGCoA reductase (hmgcr) catalyzes the biosynthesis of a mevalonate precursor for isoprenoids and has been implicated in the production of a signal by the somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) that attracts migrating germ ..
  2. Van Doren M, Mathews W, Samuels M, Moore L, Broihier H, Lehmann R. fear of intimacy encodes a novel transmembrane protein required for gonad morphogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:2355-64 pubmed
    ..Our findings that FOI is a cell-surface protein required in the mesoderm for gonad morphogenesis shed light on the function of this new family of proteins and on the molecular mechanisms of organogenesis. ..
  3. Jones D, Jones G, Teal P, Hammac C, Messmer L, Osborne K, et al. Suppressed production of methyl farnesoid hormones yields developmental defects and lethality in Drosophila larvae. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;165:244-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have used RNAi techniques to inhibit 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA Reductase (HMGCR) expression selectively in the corpora allatal cells that produce the circulating farnesoid hormones...
  4. Seegmiller A, Dobrosotskaya I, Goldstein J, Ho Y, Brown M, Rawson R. The SREBP pathway in Drosophila: regulation by palmitate, not sterols. Dev Cell. 2002;2:229-38 pubmed
    ..Instead, dSREBP processing is blocked by palmitic acid. These findings suggest that the ancestral SREBP pathway functions to maintain membrane integrity rather than to control cholesterol homeostasis. ..
  5. Wawersik M, Milutinovich A, Casper A, Matunis E, Williams B, Van Doren M. Somatic control of germline sexual development is mediated by the JAK/STAT pathway. Nature. 2005;436:563-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide direct evidence that the JAK/STAT pathway mediates a key signal from the somatic gonad that regulates male germline sexual development. ..
  6. Hausdorf B. Early evolution of the bilateria. Syst Biol. 2000;49:130-42 pubmed
    ..Estimations of the divergence times show that the major bilaterian phyla did not originate in an explosive radiation during the Cambrian but rather that the Bilateria have a several hundred million years long Precambrian history. ..
  7. Erickson M, Galletta B, Abmayr S. Drosophila myoblast city encodes a conserved protein that is essential for myoblast fusion, dorsal closure, and cytoskeletal organization. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:589-603 pubmed
  8. Bochar D, Stauffacher C, Rodwell V. Sequence comparisons reveal two classes of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Mol Genet Metab. 1999;66:122-7 pubmed
    Both in eukaryotes and in archaebacteria the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (E.C. 1.1. 1.34) is known to catalyze an early reaction unique to isoprenoid biosynthesis...
  9. Law A, Hirayoshi K, O BRIEN T, Lis J. Direct cloning of DNA that interacts in vivo with a specific protein: application to RNA polymerase II and sites of pausing in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:919-24 pubmed
    ..At least some of these map to the 5'-ends of genes. These results suggest that transcriptional pausing of Pol II is a general phenomenon in vivo. ..
  10. Howard K. Developmental biology. Attractive genetics. Nature. 1998;396:406-7 pubmed
  11. Jones J, Macdonald P. Neurl4 contributes to germ cell formation and integrity in Drosophila. Biol Open. 2015;4:937-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducing CP110 activity suppresses the abnormal PGC morphology of Neurl4 mutants. These results extend prior analyses of Neurl4 in cultured cells, revealing a heightened requirement for Neurl4 in germ-line cells in Drosophila. ..
  12. Wawersik M, Van Doren M. nanos is required for formation of the spectrosome, a germ cell-specific organelle. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:22-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, nos is required to regulate the formation of this germ cell-specific organelle, further supporting a role for nos in promoting germ cell identity. ..
  13. Deshpande G, Zhou K, Wan J, Friedrich J, Jourjine N, Smith D, et al. The hedgehog pathway gene shifted functions together with the hmgcr-dependent isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway to orchestrate germ cell migration. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003720 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have established that the hmgcr-dependent isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway plays a pivotal role in generating the PGC attractant both by the SGPs ..
  14. Deshpande G, Sethi N, Schedl P. toutvelu, a regulator of heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis, controls guidance cues for germ-cell migration. Genetics. 2007;176:905-12 pubmed
    ..Finally, supporting the claim that the signaling molecule Hedgehog (Hh) may function as a chemoattractant to guide germ cells, errant germ cells are found localized near pockets containing high concentrations of Hh protein. ..
  15. Gertler F, Chiu C, Richter Mann L, Chin D. Developmental and metabolic regulation of the Drosophila melanogaster 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:2713-21 pubmed
    ..To understand the regulation and developmental role of HMG CoA reductase, we cloned the D. melanogaster HMG CoA reductase gene...
  16. Luquain C, Sciorra V, Morris A. Lysophosphatidic acid signaling: how a small lipid does big things. Trends Biochem Sci. 2003;28:377-83 pubmed
  17. Starz Gaiano M, Lehmann R. Moving towards the next generation. Mech Dev. 2001;105:5-18 pubmed
    ..Here we review findings from Drosophila, zebrafish, and mouse; each organism provides unique insight into the mechanisms that determine germ cell fate and the cues that may guide their migration. ..
  18. Kuronen M, Talvitie M, Lehesjoki A, Myllykangas L. Genetic modifiers of degeneration in the cathepsin D deficient Drosophila model for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;36:488-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results warrant further investigation of these mechanisms in the pathogenesis of cathepsin D deficiency. ..
  19. Stein J, Broihier H, Moore L, Lehmann R. Slow as molasses is required for polarized membrane growth and germ cell migration in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:3925-34 pubmed
    ..We show that slam is required at this stage in parallel to HMG Coenzyme A reductase, a previously identified germ cell migration gene...
  20. Montell D. The genetics of cell migration in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans development. Development. 1999;126:3035-46 pubmed
    ..New types of genetic screens promise to fill in some of these gaps in the near future. ..
  21. Kuwabara P, Labouesse M. The sterol-sensing domain: multiple families, a unique role?. Trends Genet. 2002;18:193-201 pubmed
    ..This article discusses how the SSD appears to function as a regulatory domain involved in linking vesicle trafficking and protein localization with such varied processes as cholesterol homeostasis, cell signalling and cytokinesis. ..
  22. Steinhauer J, Gijón M, Riekhof W, Voelker D, Murphy R, Treisman J. Drosophila lysophospholipid acyltransferases are specifically required for germ cell development. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:5224-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity is essential for germline development and could provide a mechanistic explanation for the etiology of the human MBOAT1 mutation. ..
  23. Erion R, Sehgal A. Regulation of insect behavior via the insulin-signaling pathway. Front Physiol. 2013;4:353 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the role of insulin signaling in two specific insect behaviors: feeding and locomotion. ..
  24. Presgraves D, Balagopalan L, Abmayr S, Orr H. Adaptive evolution drives divergence of a hybrid inviability gene between two species of Drosophila. Nature. 2003;423:715-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that a lethal hybrid incompatibility has evolved as a by-product of adaptive protein evolution...
  25. Wylie C. Germ cells. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:410-3 pubmed
  26. Raz E. Guidance of primordial germ cell migration. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:169-73 pubmed
    ..The ability to visualize chemokine-guided migration at a high resolution in vivo in these model organisms provides a unique opportunity to study this process, which is relevant for many events in normal development and disease. ..
  27. Keller C, Grill M, Abmayr S. A role for nautilus in the differentiation of muscle precursors. Dev Biol. 1998;202:157-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, we suggest that nautilus functions in a subset of muscle precursors to implement their specific differentiation programs. ..
  28. Rongo C, Broihier H, Moore L, Van Doren M, Forbes A, Lehmann R. Germ plasm assembly and germ cell migration in Drosophila. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997;62:1-11 pubmed
    ..Further genetic studies will reveal the extent to which molecular aspects of germ cell migration and gonad formation are conserved. ..
  29. Brown K, Havel C, Watson J. Isoprene synthesis in isolated embryonic Drosophila cells. II. Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:8512-8 pubmed
    ..for growth, to determine if sterol and nonsterol modulators of vertebrate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity were also active in this biological system...
  30. Ribeiro C, Petit V, Affolter M. Signaling systems, guided cell migration, and organogenesis: insights from genetic studies in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2003;260:1-8 pubmed
  31. Belgacem Y, Martin J. Hmgcr in the corpus allatum controls sexual dimorphism of locomotor activity and body size via the insulin pathway in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e187 pubmed
    ..In mammals, it controls expression of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA Reductase (HMGCR), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis...
  32. Müller H. Germ cell migration: as slow as molasses. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R612-4 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila embryos, germ cells and somatic cells are formed separately. A recent analysis of the slow as molasses (slam) gene provides a potential link between somatic cell formation and germ cell migration. ..
  33. Dobrosotskaya I, Seegmiller A, Brown M, Goldstein J, Rawson R. Regulation of SREBP processing and membrane lipid production by phospholipids in Drosophila. Science. 2002;296:879-83 pubmed
  34. Forbes A, Lehmann R. Cell migration in Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:473-8 pubmed
    ..In the female germline, the migratory path of border cells is directed by the homophilic adhesion molecule E cadherin. ..
  35. Wen D, Rivera Pérez C, Abdou M, Jia Q, He Q, Liu X, et al. Methyl farnesoate plays a dual role in regulating Drosophila metamorphosis. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005038 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi-mediated reduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (hmgcr) expression in the CA decreased biosynthesis and titers of the three sesquiterpenoids, resulting in partial ..
  36. Coffman C. Cell migration and programmed cell death of Drosophila germ cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;995:117-26 pubmed
    ..Many questions remain to be answered, but advances made in recent years are providing useful insights into these critical biological phenomena. ..
  37. Clark I, Jarman A, Finnegan D. Live imaging of Drosophila gonad formation reveals roles for Six4 in regulating germline and somatic cell migration. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:52 pubmed
    ..of this in the case of PGCs as we have found that Six4 is required for expression of Hmgcr which codes for HMGCoA reductase and is necessary for attraction of PGCs by SGPs...
  38. Howard K. Organogenesis: Drosophila goes gonadal. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R415-7 pubmed
    ..Recent work in Drosophila has built a picture of the gene activities that specify the gonad and allow it to attract germ cells, and has led to the identification of a gene, columbus, that may encode the attractive factor.
  39. Russell M, Ostafichuk L, Scanga S. Lethal P-lacZ insertion lines expressed during pattern respecification in the imaginal discs of Drosophila. Genome. 1998;41:7-13 pubmed
    ..One is an allele of schnurri, a gene that encodes a component of the decapentaplegic (dpp) signal transduction pathway used for positional signalling in the embryo and in imaginal discs. ..
  40. Silberkang M, Havel C, Friend D, McCarthy B, Watson J. Isoprene synthesis in isolated embryonic Drosophila cells. I. Sterol-deficient eukaryotic cells. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:8503-11 pubmed