Gene Symbol: hkb
Description: huckebein
Alias: 5953, CG9768, Dmel\CG9768, HKB, Hkb, anon-82B3, gurt, huckebein, CG9768-PA, gurtelchen, hkb-PA, huckbein, hucklebein
Species: fruit fly
Products:     hkb

Top Publications

  1. McDonald J, Doe C. Establishing neuroblast-specific gene expression in the Drosophila CNS: huckebein is activated by Wingless and Hedgehog and repressed by Engrailed and Gooseberry. Development. 1997;124:1079-87 pubmed
    ..Here we address the first question: how is neuroblast-specific gene expression established? We focus on the huckebein gene, because it is expressed in a subset of neuroblasts and is required for aspects of neuronal and glial ..
  2. Paroush Z, Wainwright S, Ish Horowicz D. Torso signalling regulates terminal patterning in Drosophila by antagonising Groucho-mediated repression. Development. 1997;124:3827-34 pubmed
    ..of Torso at the poles of the embryo triggers restricted expression of the zygotic gap genes tailless (tll) and huckebein (hkb)...
  3. Rivera Pomar R, Jackle H. From gradients to stripes in Drosophila embryogenesis: filling in the gaps. Trends Genet. 1996;12:478-83 pubmed
    ..Recent progress has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which coherent positional information of maternal origin becomes transferred into serially repeated zygotic gene expression domains reflecting the metameric body plan of the larva. ..
  4. Rusch J, Levine M. Regulation of the dorsal morphogen by the Toll and torso signaling pathways: a receptor tyrosine kinase selectively masks transcriptional repression. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1247-57 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that RTK signaling pathways can control gene expression by antirepression, and that multiple pathways can fine-tune the activities of a single transcription factor. ..
  5. Ghiglione C, Perrimon N, Perkins L. Quantitative variations in the level of MAPK activity control patterning of the embryonic termini in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1999;205:181-93 pubmed
    ..Activation of Tor at the embryonic termini leads to differential expression of the genes tailless and huckebein. We demonstrate, using a series of mutations in the signal transducers Corkscrew/SHP-2 and D-Raf, that ..
  6. Jennings B, Pickles L, Wainwright S, Roe S, Pearl L, Ish Horowicz D. Molecular recognition of transcriptional repressor motifs by the WD domain of the Groucho/TLE corepressor. Mol Cell. 2006;22:645-55 pubmed
    ..Our structural and functional analysis explains the rigid conservation of the WRPW motif, the sequence flexibility of eh1 motifs, and other aspects of repressor recognition by Gro in vivo. ..
  7. Reuter R, Leptin M. Interacting functions of snail, twist and huckebein during the early development of germ layers in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:1137-50 pubmed
    ..We show that huckebein (hkb) sets the anterior and the posterior borders of the ventral furrow, but acts by different modes of ..
  8. Margolis J, Borowsky M, Steingrimsson E, Shim C, Lengyel J, Posakony J. Posterior stripe expression of hunchback is driven from two promoters by a common enhancer element. Development. 1995;121:3067-77 pubmed
    ..Sequences within this fragment mediate regulation by the terminal gap genes tailless (tll) and a huckebein, which direct the formation of the posterior hb stripe...
  9. Riddihough G, Ish Horowicz D. Individual stripe regulatory elements in the Drosophila hairy promoter respond to maternal, gap, and pair-rule genes. Genes Dev. 1991;5:840-54 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that different but overlapping subsets of gap genes regulate each stripe and that activation and repression are both important in generating the stripe pattern. ..

More Information


  1. Ronchi E, Treisman J, Dostatni N, Struhl G, Desplan C. Down-regulation of the Drosophila morphogen bicoid by the torso receptor-mediated signal transduction cascade. Cell. 1993;74:347-55 pubmed
    ..Repression does not require either tailless or huckebein, which were previously thought to constitute the sole zygotic output of the tor signaling system...
  2. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical fat-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Comput Biol Med. 2012;42:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These two fatness coefficients may serve as valuable filtering indexes to predict CRMs experimentally. ..
  3. Fowlkes C, Eckenrode K, Bragdon M, Meyer M, Wunderlich Z, Simirenko L, et al. A conserved developmental patterning network produces quantitatively different output in multiple species of Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002346 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize that transcriptional networks can diverge over short evolutionary timescales and that even small changes can lead to distinct output in terms of the placement and number of equivalent cells. ..
  4. Greenwood S, Struhl G. Different levels of Ras activity can specify distinct transcriptional and morphological consequences in early Drosophila embryos. Development. 1997;124:4879-86 pubmed
    ..Tor activity elicits the transcription of two 'gap' genes, tailless (tll) and huckebein (hkb), in overlapping but distinct domains by stimulating the Ras signal transduction pathway...
  5. Casanova J. Pattern formation under the control of the terminal system in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1990;110:621-8 pubmed the terminal signal in the posterior end of the embryo is likely to be the activation of the gap genes huckebein and tailless...
  6. Jimenez G, Guichet A, Ephrussi A, Casanova J. Relief of gene repression by torso RTK signaling: role of capicua in Drosophila terminal and dorsoventral patterning. Genes Dev. 2000;14:224-31 pubmed
    ..cic has been evolutionarily conserved, suggesting that Cic-like proteins may act as repressors regulated by RTK signaling in other organisms. ..
  7. Zhang H, Levine M. Groucho and dCtBP mediate separate pathways of transcriptional repression in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:535-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that dCtBP and Groucho mediate separate pathways of transcriptional repression and that the two proteins can inhibit one another when both bind the same repressor. ..
  8. Jennings B, Wainwright S, Ish Horowicz D. Differential in vivo requirements for oligomerization during Groucho-mediated repression. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:76-83 pubmed
    ..Our results show that homo-oligomerization of Gro is not obligatory for its action in vivo, and that Gro represses transcription through more than one molecular mechanism. ..
  9. Crombach A, Wotton K, Cicin Sain D, Ashyraliyev M, Jaeger J. Efficient reverse-engineering of a developmental gene regulatory network. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002589 pubmed publisher
    ..Only the quantitative investigation of a large number of developmental gene regulatory networks will allow us to discover whether there are rules or regularities governing development and evolution of complex multi-cellular organisms. ..
  10. Löhr U, Chung H, Beller M, Jackle H. Antagonistic action of Bicoid and the repressor Capicua determines the spatial limits of Drosophila head gene expression domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the spatial domains of head gene expression are determined by Bcd in concert with Tor-dependent repressors. ..
  11. Kim Y, Paroush Z, Nairz K, Hafen E, Jiménez G, Shvartsman S. Substrate-dependent control of MAPK phosphorylation in vivo. Mol Syst Biol. 2011;7:467 pubmed publisher
    ..Substrate-dependent control of MAPK phosphorylation is a manifestation of a more general retroactive effect that should be intrinsic to all networks with covalent modification cycles. ..
  12. Kobayashi M, Goldstein R, Fujioka M, Paroush Z, Jaynes J. Groucho augments the repression of multiple Even skipped target genes in establishing parasegment boundaries. Development. 2001;128:1805-15 pubmed
    ..The accumulation of multiple domains of similar function within a single protein may be a common evolutionary mechanism that fine-tunes the level of activity for different regulatory functions. ..
  13. Small S, Blair A, Levine M. Regulation of two pair-rule stripes by a single enhancer in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1996;175:314-24 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a general model for the regulation of segmentation stripes, whereby enhancers integrate positional information provided by broadly distributed activators and spatially restricted repressors. ..
  14. Ashyraliyev M, Siggens K, Janssens H, Blom J, Akam M, Jaeger J. Gene circuit analysis of the terminal gap gene huckebein. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000548 pubmed publisher
    ..we use an integrative, systems-level approach to investigate the regulatory effect of the terminal gap gene huckebein (hkb) on gap gene expression...
  15. Eldon E, Pirrotta V. Interactions of the Drosophila gap gene giant with maternal and zygotic pattern-forming genes. Development. 1991;111:367-78 pubmed
    ..Expression is never detected in the labial or thoracic segment primordia but persists in certain head structures, including the ring gland, until the end of embryonic development. ..
  16. Bieler J, Pozzorini C, Naef F. Whole-embryo modeling of early segmentation in Drosophila identifies robust and fragile expression domains. Biophys J. 2011;101:287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..and knirps, taking as regulatory inputs the maternal Bicoid and Caudal gradients, plus the zygotic Tailless and Huckebein proteins...
  17. Kim Y, Andreu M, Lim B, Chung K, Terayama M, Jiménez G, et al. Gene regulation by MAPK substrate competition. Dev Cell. 2011;20:880-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A mathematical model of this interaction can explain gene expression patterns with both anteroposterior and dorsoventral polarities. ..
  18. Bronner G, Jackle H. Control and function of terminal gap gene activity in the posterior pole region of the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1991;35:205-11 pubmed
    We have studied the genetic requirement for the normal expression of the terminal gap genes huckebein (hkb) and tailless (tll) and their possible function in the posterior pole region of the Drosophila embryo...
  19. Doe C. Molecular markers for identified neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the Drosophila central nervous system. Development. 1992;116:855-63 pubmed
    ..These results set the stage for investigating neuroblast specification and the mechanisms controlling neuroblast cell lineages. ..
  20. Gaul U, Weigel D. Regulation of Krüppel expression in the anlage of the Malpighian tubules in the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1990;33:57-67 pubmed
    ..We have studied the interactions of Krüppel with other terminal genes. The gap genes tailless and huckebein, which repress Krüppel in the central segmentation domain, activate Krüppel expression in the posterior ..
  21. Helman A, Cinnamon E, Mezuman S, Hayouka Z, Von Ohlen T, Orian A, et al. Phosphorylation of Groucho mediates RTK feedback inhibition and prolonged pathway target gene expression. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, in this manner, phosphorylation of Groucho enables transiently active RTK pathways to fix the spatiotemporal expression profiles of downstream targets over time. ..
  22. Kaplan T, Li X, Sabo P, Thomas S, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Biggin M, et al. Quantitative models of the mechanisms that control genome-wide patterns of transcription factor binding during early Drosophila development. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001290 pubmed publisher
  23. Schaeffer V, Killian D, Desplan C, Wimmer E. High bicoid levels render the terminal system dispensable for Drosophila head development. Development. 2000;127:3993-9 pubmed
    ..This observation is consistent with a recent evolution of an anterior morphogenetic center consisting of Bcd and anterior Tor function. ..
  24. Jaeger J, Reinitz J. On the dynamic nature of positional information. Bioessays. 2006;28:1102-11 pubmed
    ..Based on this analysis, we propose a revised French Flag, which incorporates the dynamic, feedback-driven nature of pattern formation in the Drosophila blastoderm. ..
  25. Bronner G, Jackle H. Regulation and function of the terminal gap gene huckebein in the Drosophila blastoderm. Int J Dev Biol. 1996;40:157-65 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Drosophila gene huckebein (hkb), a member of the gap gene class of segmentation genes, is not only required for suppression of ..
  26. Weigel D, Jurgens G, Klingler M, Jackle H. Two gap genes mediate maternal terminal pattern information in Drosophila. Science. 1990;248:495-8 pubmed
    ..The activities of tailless (tll) and the newly identified gap gene huckebein (hkb) are specifically involved in mediating the maternal terminal information at the posterior end of the ..
  27. Bronner G, Chu LaGraff Q, Doe C, Cohen B, Weigel D, Taubert H, et al. Sp1/egr-like zinc-finger protein required for endoderm specification and germ-layer formation in Drosophila. Nature. 1994;369:664-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Drosophila gene huckebein (hkb), a member of the gap-gene class of segmentation genes, is required for germ-layer formation at blastoderm...
  28. Astigarraga S, Grossman R, Diaz Delfin J, Caelles C, Paroush Z, Jiménez G. A MAPK docking site is critical for downregulation of Capicua by Torso and EGFR RTK signaling. EMBO J. 2007;26:668-77 pubmed
    ..Finally, we describe differences in the modes of Capicua downregulation by Torso and EGFR signaling, raising the possibility that such differences contribute to the tissue specificity of both signals. ..
  29. Cinnamon E, Helman A, Ben Haroush Schyr R, Orian A, Jiménez G, Paroush Z. Multiple RTK pathways downregulate Groucho-mediated repression in Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 2008;135:829-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that phosphorylation of Groucho provides a widespread, long-term mechanism by which RTK signals control target gene expression. ..
  30. Furriols M, Casanova J. In and out of Torso RTK signalling. EMBO J. 2003;22:1947-52 pubmed
  31. TURKI JUDEH W, Courey A. The unconserved groucho central region is essential for viability and modulates target gene specificity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30610 pubmed publisher
    ..We suspect that disorder in the Gro central domains may provide the flexibility that allows this region to mediate multiple interactions required for repression. ..
  32. MacArthur S, Li X, Li J, Brown J, Chu H, Zeng L, et al. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R80 pubmed publisher
  33. Gonzalez Gaitan M, Jackle H. Invagination centers within the Drosophila stomatogastric nervous system anlage are positioned by Notch-mediated signaling which is spatially controlled through wingless. Development. 1995;121:2313-25 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the wingless pathway acts not as an instructive signal, but as a permissive factor which coordinates the spatial activity of morphoregulatory signals within the stomatogastric nervous system anlage. ..
  34. Janssens H, Crombach A, Wotton K, Cicin Sain D, Surkova S, Lim C, et al. Lack of tailless leads to an increase in expression variability in Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 2013;377:305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis provides evidence that loss of canalisation in mutants could be more widespread than previously thought. ..
  35. Bossing T, Udolph G, Doe C, Technau G. The embryonic central nervous system lineages of Drosophila melanogaster. I. Neuroblast lineages derived from the ventral half of the neuroectoderm. Dev Biol. 1996;179:41-64 pubmed
    ..The wild-type clones provide a foundation for the analysis of mutants, expression patterns, and experimental manipulations. ..
  36. Furriols M, Sprenger F, Casanova J. Variation in the number of activated torso receptors correlates with differential gene expression. Development. 1996;122:2313-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that variation in the number of activated receptors at the cell surface is a general mechanism that leads to differential gene expression and thus the generation of different cell responses. ..
  37. Bhat K, van Beers E, Bhat P. Sloppy paired acts as the downstream target of wingless in the Drosophila CNS and interaction between sloppy paired and gooseberry inhibits sloppy paired during neurogenesis. Development. 2000;127:655-65 pubmed
    ..This mechanism appears to be responsible for specifying NB5-3 identity to a row 5 neuroblast and preventing Wg from specifying NB4-2 identity to that cell. ..
  38. Ajuria L, Nieva C, Winkler C, Kuo D, Samper N, Andreu M, et al. Capicua DNA-binding sites are general response elements for RTK signaling in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:915-24 pubmed publisher
    ..and that binding of Capicua to these sites is essential for recruitment of the Groucho co-repressor to the huckebein enhancer in vivo...
  39. Chandrasekaran V, Beckendorf S. senseless is necessary for the survival of embryonic salivary glands in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:4719-28 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that in the salivary glands, sens acts as an anti-apoptotic protein by repressing reaper and possibly hid. ..
  40. Perkins L, Perrimon N. The molecular genetics of tail development in Drosophila melanogaster. In Vivo. 1991;5:521-31 pubmed
  41. Ismat A, Schaub C, Reim I, Kirchner K, Schultheis D, Frasch M. HLH54F is required for the specification and migration of longitudinal gut muscle founders from the caudal mesoderm of Drosophila. Development. 2010;137:3107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that HLH54F is the earliest specific regulator of CVM development and that it plays a pivotal role in all major aspects of development and differentiation of this largely twist-independent population of mesodermal cells. ..
  42. Hoffmans R, Städeli R, Basler K. Pygopus and legless provide essential transcriptional coactivator functions to armadillo/beta-catenin. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1207-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings therefore indicate that Arm/beta-catenin depends on Lgs and Pygo primarily for its transcriptional output rather than for its nuclear import. ..
  43. Ganguly A, Jiang J, Ip Y. Drosophila WntD is a target and an inhibitor of the Dorsal/Twist/Snail network in the gastrulating embryo. Development. 2005;132:3419-29 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results together demonstrate that WntD is regulated by the Dorsal/Twist/Snail network, and is an inhibitor of Dorsal nuclear localization and function. ..
  44. Gayko U, Cleghon V, Copeland T, Morrison D, Perrimon N. Synergistic activities of multiple phosphotyrosine residues mediate full signaling from the Drosophila Torso receptor tyrosine kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:523-8 pubmed
  45. Kühnlein R, Chen C, Schuh R. A transcription unit at the ken and barbie gene locus encodes a novel Drosophila zinc finger protein. Mech Dev. 1998;79:161-4 pubmed
    ..The P-element of the enhancer trap line l(2)02970 is inserted in the 5'-region of the transcript and causes a ken and barbie (ken) phenotype, associated with malformation of male genital structures. ..
  46. Perrimon N, Desplan C. Signal transduction in the early Drosophila embryo: when genetics meets biochemistry. Trends Biochem Sci. 1994;19:509-13 pubmed
    ..This pathway involves a membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that is similar to other Drosophila RTKs, such as sevenless, and the mammalian RTKs, such as the epidermal growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor receptors. ..
  47. Wang L, Rajan H, Pitman J, McKeown M, Tsai C. Histone deacetylase-associating Atrophin proteins are nuclear receptor corepressors. Genes Dev. 2006;20:525-30 pubmed
  48. Navarro C, Lopez F, Cano C, Garcia Alcalde F, Blanco A. CisMiner: genome-wide in-silico cis-regulatory module prediction by fuzzy itemset mining. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108065 pubmed publisher CisMiner can be queried for the results presented in this work and can also perform a customized cis-regulatory module prediction on a query set of transcription factor binding sites provided by the user. ..
  49. Goldstein R, Jimenez G, Cook O, Gur D, Paroush Z. Huckebein repressor activity in Drosophila terminal patterning is mediated by Groucho. Development. 1999;126:3747-55 pubmed
    ..Groucho in Drosophila embryonic terminal patterning, showing that it is required to confine tailless and huckebein terminal gap gene expression to the pole regions of the embryo...
  50. Mohler J. Spatial regulation of segment polarity gene expression in the anterior terminal region of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Mech Dev. 1995;50:151-61 pubmed
    The effects of mutations in five anterior gap genes (hkb, tll, otd, ems and btd) on the spatial expression of the segment polarity genes, wg and hh, were analyzed at the late blastoderm stage and during subsequent development...
  51. Andrew D, Horner M, Petitt M, Smolik S, Scott M. Setting limits on homeotic gene function: restraint of Sex combs reduced activity by teashirt and other homeotic genes. EMBO J. 1994;13:1132-44 pubmed
    ..Therefore, spatial restrictions on homeotic gene activity differ between tissues and result both from the regulation of homeotic gene transcription and from restraints on where homeotic proteins can function. ..
  52. Hartmann H, Guthöhrlein E, Siebert M, Luehr S, Söding J. P-value-based regulatory motif discovery using positional weight matrices. Genome Res. 2013;23:181-94 pubmed publisher
    ..XXmotif's sensitivity, reliability, and usability will help to leverage the quickly accumulating wealth of functional genomics data. ..
  53. Okumura T, Matsumoto A, Tanimura T, Murakami R. An endoderm-specific GATA factor gene, dGATAe, is required for the terminal differentiation of the Drosophila endoderm. Dev Biol. 2005;278:576-86 pubmed
    ..This pathway is triggered by sequential signaling through the maternal torso gene, a terminal gap gene, huckebein (hkb), and finally, two GATA factor genes, srp and dGATAe.
  54. Cleghon V, Gayko U, Copeland T, Perkins L, Perrimon N, Morrison D. Drosophila terminal structure development is regulated by the compensatory activities of positive and negative phosphotyrosine signaling sites on the Torso RTK. Genes Dev. 1996;10:566-77 pubmed
    ..These results identify a novel mechanism whereby Tor function is regulated using compensatory signals generated from distinct autophosphorylation sites and reveal an underlying signaling pathway for terminal development. ..
  55. Beckervordersandforth R, Rickert C, Altenhein B, Technau G. Subtypes of glial cells in the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord as related to lineage and gene expression. Mech Dev. 2008;125:542-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate this by the analysis of a castor loss of function mutation, which affects the number and migration of specific glial cells. ..
  56. Hatton Ellis E, Ainsworth C, Sushama Y, Wan S, Vijayraghavan K, Skaer H. Genetic regulation of patterned tubular branching in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:169-74 pubmed
    ..We show that patterning of the tubule primordium into two distinct pairs is critical for the eversion of tubule branches, as well as for their asymmetric morphogenesis. ..
  57. Villaverde A, Henriques D, Smallbone K, Bongard S, Schmid J, Cicin Sain D, et al. BioPreDyn-bench: a suite of benchmark problems for dynamic modelling in systems biology. BMC Syst Biol. 2015;9:8 pubmed publisher
    ..The suite, including codes and documentation, can be freely downloaded from the BioPreDyn-bench website, . ..
  58. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical thin-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Theor Biol Med Model. 2013;10:11 pubmed publisher
  59. Li J, Li W. Drosophila gain-of-function mutant RTK torso triggers ectopic Dpp and STAT signaling. Genetics. 2003;164:247-58 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate an essential requirement of noncanonical signaling pathways for a persistently activated RTK to cause pathological defects in an organism. ..
  60. Dunipace L, Ozdemir A, Stathopoulos A. Complex interactions between cis-regulatory modules in native conformation are critical for Drosophila snail expression. Development. 2011;138:4075-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the two CRMs interact in cis in a non-additive fashion and these interactions may be important for fine-tuning the domains and levels of gene expression. ..
  61. Rongo C, Broihier H, Moore L, Van Doren M, Forbes A, Lehmann R. Germ plasm assembly and germ cell migration in Drosophila. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997;62:1-11 pubmed
    ..Further genetic studies will reveal the extent to which molecular aspects of germ cell migration and gonad formation are conserved. ..
  62. Casali A, Casanova J. The spatial control of Torso RTK activation: a C-terminal fragment of the Trunk protein acts as a signal for Torso receptor in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2001;128:1709-15 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that the restricted activation of the torso receptor is defined by the spatial control of the proteolytic processing of the trunk protein. ..
  63. Tipping M, Kim Y, Kyriakakis P, Tong M, Shvartsman S, Veraksa A. ?-arrestin Kurtz inhibits MAPK and Toll signalling in Drosophila development. EMBO J. 2010;29:3222-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings uncover a new in vivo function of ?-arrestins and present a new mechanism of ERK inhibition by the Drosophila ?-arrestin Krz. ..
  64. Binari R, Perrimon N. Stripe-specific regulation of pair-rule genes by hopscotch, a putative Jak family tyrosine kinase in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1994;8:300-12 pubmed
    ..Our results provide the first evidence for stripe-specific regulation of pair-rule genes by a tyrosine kinase. ..
  65. Rehorn K, Thelen H, Michelson A, Reuter R. A molecular aspect of hematopoiesis and endoderm development common to vertebrates and Drosophila. Development. 1996;122:4023-31 pubmed
    ..These findings imply that some aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying blood cell development as well as endodermal differentiation are early acquisitions of metazoan evolution and may be common to most higher animals. ..
  66. Kim Y, Iagovitina A, Ishihara K, Fitzgerald K, Deplancke B, Papatsenko D, et al. Context-dependent transcriptional interpretation of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the Drosophila embryo. Chaos. 2013;23:025105 pubmed publisher
    ..A simple mathematical model of this mechanism correctly predicts how the wild-type expression pattern of tll changes in mutants affecting the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems and some of their direct targets. ..
  67. Dilão R, Muraro D. Calibration and validation of a genetic regulatory network model describing the production of the protein Hunchback in Drosophila early development. C R Biol. 2010;333:779-88 pubmed publisher
    ..the posterior distribution of Hunchback follow the experimental data if Hunchback is negatively regulated by the Huckebein protein...