Gene Symbol: hb
Description: hunchback
Alias: CG9786, Dmel\CG9786, Hunchback, R-pbx, Rg-bx, Rg-pbx, hbHLH, l(3)85Ah, hunchback, CG9786-PA, CG9786-PB, Regulator-of-postbithorax, hb-PA, hb-PB
Species: fruit fly
Products:     hb

Top Publications

  1. Small S, Blair A, Levine M. Regulation of two pair-rule stripes by a single enhancer in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1996;175:314-24 pubmed
    ..The zinc finger repressor hunchback appears to be responsible for establishing the anterior border of stripe 3 and the posterior border of stripe 7...
  2. Ashyraliyev M, Jaeger J, Blom J. Parameter estimation and determinability analysis applied to Drosophila gap gene circuits. BMC Syst Biol. 2008;2:83 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it improves previous analyses of the same model by allowing us to identify those interactions for which qualitative conclusions are reliable, and those for which they are ambiguous. ..
  3. McDermott S, Meignin C, Rappsilber J, Davis I. Drosophila Syncrip binds the gurken mRNA localisation signal and regulates localised transcripts during axis specification. Biol Open. 2012;1:488-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Syncrip/SYNCRIP is part of a conserved complex associated with localised transcripts and required for their correct translational regulation in flies and mammals. ..
  4. Dubuis J, Samanta R, Gregor T. Accurate measurements of dynamics and reproducibility in small genetic networks. Mol Syst Biol. 2013;9:639 pubmed publisher
  5. Forbes A, Lehmann R. Nanos and Pumilio have critical roles in the development and function of Drosophila germline stem cells. Development. 1998;125:679-90 pubmed
    ..protein Nanos and the RNA-binding protein Pumilio act together to repress the translation of maternal hunchback RNA in the posterior of the Drosophila embryo, thereby allowing abdomen formation...
  6. Menon K, Sanyal S, Habara Y, Sanchez R, Wharton R, Ramaswami M, et al. The translational repressor Pumilio regulates presynaptic morphology and controls postsynaptic accumulation of translation factor eIF-4E. Neuron. 2004;44:663-76 pubmed
    ..The GluRIIa glutamate receptor is upregulated in pum mutants. These results, together with genetic epistasis studies, suggest that postsynaptic Pum modulates synaptic function via direct control of eIF-4E expression. ..
  7. Papatsenko D, Levine M. Dual regulation by the Hunchback gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2901-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous tissue culture assays and transgene analyses raised the possibility that Hunchback (Hb) might function as both an activator and repressor of transcription...
  8. Wunderlich Z, Bragdon M, Eckenrode K, Lydiard Martin T, Pearl Waserman S, DePace A. Dissecting sources of quantitative gene expression pattern divergence between Drosophila species. Mol Syst Biol. 2012;8:604 pubmed publisher
    ..blastoderm embryos of three Drosophila species, focusing on the regulatory circuit controlling expression of the hunchback (hb) posterior stripe...
  9. Sauer F, Rivera Pomar R, Hoch M, Jackle H. Gene regulation in the Drosophila embryo. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1996;351:579-87 pubmed

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Howard M, Davidson E. cis-Regulatory control circuits in development. Dev Biol. 2004;271:109-18 pubmed
    ..At this higher level of organization, common bilaterian strategies for specifying progenitor fields, locking down regulatory states, and driving development forward emerge. ..
  2. Jaeger J, Blagov M, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, et al. Dynamical analysis of regulatory interactions in the gap gene system of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;167:1721-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, our models suggest a correlation between timing of gap domain boundary formation and regulatory contributions from the terminal maternal system...
  3. Perkins T, Jaeger J, Reinitz J, Glass L. Reverse engineering the gap gene network of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Comput Biol. 2006;2:e51 pubmed
    ..series of models to test several outstanding questions about gap gene regulation, including regulation of and by hunchback and the role of autoactivation...
  4. Li X, MacArthur S, Bourgon R, Nix D, Pollard D, Iyer V, et al. Transcription factors bind thousands of active and inactive regions in the Drosophila blastoderm. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e27 pubmed publisher
  5. Kim J, He X, Sinha S. Evolution of regulatory sequences in 12 Drosophila species. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000330 pubmed publisher
  6. de Lachapelle A, Bergmann S. Precision and scaling in morphogen gradient read-out. Mol Syst Biol. 2010;6:351 pubmed publisher
    ..Our measurements confirm this trend, indicating almost perfect scaling except for anterior most expression domains, which overcompensate fluctuations in embryo length. ..
  7. Kaplan T, Li X, Sabo P, Thomas S, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Biggin M, et al. Quantitative models of the mechanisms that control genome-wide patterns of transcription factor binding during early Drosophila development. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001290 pubmed publisher
  8. Biggin M, McGinnis W. Regulation of segmentation and segmental identity by Drosophila homeoproteins: the role of DNA binding in functional activity and specificity. Development. 1997;124:4425-33 pubmed
    ..In this 'widespread binding' model, cofactors act mainly by helping to distinguish the way in which homeoproteins regulate targets to which they are already bound. ..
  9. Bergmann S, Tamari Z, Schejter E, Shilo B, Barkai N. Re-examining the stability of the Bicoid morphogen gradient. Cell. 2008;132:15-7; author reply 17-8 pubmed publisher
  10. Greenwood S, Struhl G. Different levels of Ras activity can specify distinct transcriptional and morphological consequences in early Drosophila embryos. Development. 1997;124:4879-86 pubmed
  11. Novotny T, Eiselt R, Urban J. Hunchback is required for the specification of the early sublineage of neuroblast 7-3 in the Drosophila central nervous system. Development. 2002;129:1027-36 pubmed
    ..The finding that the transcription factor Hunchback (Hb) is expressed in the early sublineage of NB7-3, which consists of the early NB and the first GMC (GMC7-3a) ..
  12. Dean K, Aggarwal A, Wharton R. Translational repressors in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2002;18:572-7 pubmed
    ..These repressors do not work in isolation - each binds multiple sites in the appropriate mRNA, and the resulting RNA-protein complexes appear to recruit co-repressors by a variety of mechanisms. ..
  13. Lifanov A, Makeev V, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Homotypic regulatory clusters in Drosophila. Genome Res. 2003;13:579-88 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the potential of the clustering method in interpreting the differential response of genes to various levels of transcriptional regulators. ..
  14. Makeev V, Lifanov A, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs and hierarchical levels in organization of transcription regulatory information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6016-26 pubmed
    ..distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs for five transcription factors (Bicoid, Krüppel, Hunchback, Knirps and Caudal) in a large set of Drosophila cis-regulatory modules (CRMs)...
  15. Fowlkes C, Hendriks C, Keränen S, Weber G, Rübel O, Huang M, et al. A quantitative spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Cell. 2008;133:364-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a VirtualEmbryo containing data for 95 genes at six time cohorts. We show that known gene-regulatory interactions can be automatically recovered from this data set and predict hundreds of new interactions...
  16. Garcia H, Tikhonov M, Lin A, Gregor T. Quantitative imaging of transcription in living Drosophila embryos links polymerase activity to patterning. Curr Biol. 2013;23:2140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, developmental patterns are not just the consequence of reproducible transcriptional dynamics in individual nuclei, but are the result of averaging expression over space and time. ..
  17. Kosman D, Small S. Concentration-dependent patterning by an ectopic expression domain of the Drosophila gap gene knirps. Development. 1997;124:1343-54 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented that the level and timing of expression, as well as protein diffusion, are important for determining the specific responses of target genes. ..
  18. Kühnlein R, Bronner G, Taubert H, Schuh R. Regulation of Drosophila spalt gene expression. Mech Dev. 1997;66:107-18 pubmed
    ..In addition, we provide evidence that a zygotic gene product of the terminal system, Tailless, cooperates with the maternal gene product Caudal and thereby activates gene expression in the terminal region of the embryo. ..
  19. Schaeffer V, Janody F, Loss C, Desplan C, Wimmer E. Bicoid functions without its TATA-binding protein-associated factor interaction domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:4461-6 pubmed
    ..Bcd needs the contribution of another anterior morphogen, Hunchback (Hb), to function properly: Bcd and Hb synergize to organize anterior development...
  20. Niessing D, Dostatni N, Jackle H, Rivera Pomar R. Sequence interval within the PEST motif of Bicoid is important for translational repression of caudal mRNA in the anterior region of the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1999;18:1966-73 pubmed
    ..Maternally-derived cad protein in the anterior region of embryos interferes with head morphogenesis, showing that cad mRNA suppression by Bcd is an important control event during early Drosophila embryogenesis. ..
  21. Bieler J, Pozzorini C, Naef F. Whole-embryo modeling of early segmentation in Drosophila identifies robust and fragile expression domains. Biophys J. 2011;101:287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We model the early mRNA and protein dynamics of the gap genes hunchback, Kruppel, giant, and knirps, taking as regulatory inputs the maternal Bicoid and Caudal gradients, plus the ..
  22. Fowlkes C, Eckenrode K, Bragdon M, Meyer M, Wunderlich Z, Simirenko L, et al. A conserved developmental patterning network produces quantitatively different output in multiple species of Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002346 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize that transcriptional networks can diverge over short evolutionary timescales and that even small changes can lead to distinct output in terms of the placement and number of equivalent cells. ..
  23. Sokolowski T, Erdmann T, ten Wolde P. Mutual repression enhances the steepness and precision of gene expression boundaries. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002654 pubmed publisher
    ..large-scale stochastic simulations of a minimal model of two mutually repressing gap genes in Drosophila, hunchback (hb) and knirps (kni)...
  24. Perry M, Bothma J, Luu R, Levine M. Precision of hunchback expression in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2012;22:2247-52 pubmed publisher
    Activation of the gap gene hunchback (hb) by the maternal Bicoid gradient is one of the most intensively studied gene regulatory interactions in animal development...
  25. He F, Ma J. A spatial point pattern analysis in Drosophila blastoderm embryos evaluating the potential inheritance of transcriptional states. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60876 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigate whether the transcriptional state of hunchback (hb), a target gene directly activated by the morphogenetic protein Bicoid (Bcd), exhibits properties indicative ..
  26. Nakahata S, Katsu Y, Mita K, Inoue K, Nagahama Y, Yamashita M. Biochemical identification of Xenopus Pumilio as a sequence-specific cyclin B1 mRNA-binding protein that physically interacts with a Nanos homolog, Xcat-2, and a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:20945-53 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest the generality of the function of Pumilio as a translational regulator of dormant mRNAs in both invertebrates and vertebrates. ..
  27. Holloway D, Reinitz J, Spirov A, Vanario Alonso C. Sharp borders from fuzzy gradients. Trends Genet. 2002;18:385-7 pubmed
    ..A new quantitative study shows that the placement of one such boundary is more accurate than the gradient thought to set it. Genetic analysis of the accuracy of the process implicates a gene not previously thought to be involved. ..
  28. Bauer D, Buske F, Bailey T. Dual-functioning transcription factors in the developmental gene network of Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010;11:366 pubmed publisher
  29. He F, Ren J, Wang W, Ma J. Evaluating the Drosophila Bicoid morphogen gradient system through dissecting the noise in transcriptional bursts. Bioinformatics. 2012;28:970-5 pubmed publisher
    ..For its target gene hunchback (hb), the noise properties can be recapitulated by a simplified gene regulatory model in which Bcd acts as the ..
  30. Ghiglione C, Perrimon N, Perkins L. Quantitative variations in the level of MAPK activity control patterning of the embryonic termini in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1999;205:181-93 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our results illustrate how a gradient of MAPK activity controls differential gene expression and, thus, the establishment of various cell fates. We discuss the roles of quantitative mechanisms in defining RTK specificity. ..
  31. Burz D, Hanes S. Isolation of mutations that disrupt cooperative DNA binding by the Drosophila bicoid protein. J Mol Biol. 2001;305:219-30 pubmed
    ..This study describes the first systematic screen to identify cooperativity mutations in a eukaryotic DNA-binding protein. ..
  32. McCarty A, Kleiger G, Eisenberg D, Smale S. Selective dimerization of a C2H2 zinc finger subfamily. Mol Cell. 2003;11:459-70 pubmed
    ..Dimerization is highly selective, however, as homologous domains from the TRPS-1 and Drosophila Hunchback proteins support homodimerization, but not heterodimerization with Ikaros...
  33. Hare E, Peterson B, Iyer V, Meier R, Eisen M. Sepsid even-skipped enhancers are functionally conserved in Drosophila despite lack of sequence conservation. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000106 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these observations suggest that the local arrangement of binding sites relative to each other is more important than their overall arrangement into larger units of cis-regulatory function...
  34. Pisarev A, Poustelnikova E, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. FlyEx, the quantitative atlas on segmentation gene expression at cellular resolution. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:D560-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5 h of development. FlyEx supports the data downloads and construction of personal reference datasets, that makes it possible to more effectively use and analyze data. ..
  35. Nakajima A, Isshiki T, Kaneko K, Ishihara S. Robustness under functional constraint: the genetic network for temporal expression in Drosophila neurogenesis. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1000760 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the Drosophila network for sequential expression has evolved to generate the robust temporal expression for neuronal specification. ..
  36. He F, Saunders T, Wen Y, Cheung D, Jiao R, ten Wolde P, et al. Shaping a morphogen gradient for positional precision. Biophys J. 2010;99:697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..The domain boundary of Hunchback (Hb), a target activated by Bcd, becomes more variable in mutant embryos...
  37. Lopes F, Spirov A, Bisch P. The role of Bicoid cooperative binding in the patterning of sharp borders in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2012;370:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..development, the Bicoid (Bcd) protein establishes positional information of downstream developmental genes like hunchback (hb), which has a strong anterior expression and a sharp on-off boundary in the mid-embryo...
  38. Lopes F, Vanario Alonso C, Bisch P, Vieira F. A kinetic mechanism for Drosophila bicoid cooperative binding. J Theor Biol. 2005;235:185-98 pubmed
    ..Bcd regulates the expression of the maternal and zygotic gene hunchback (hb) that shows a step-like-function expression pattern, in the anterior half of the egg...
  39. Wu X, Vakani R, Small S. Two distinct mechanisms for differential positioning of gene expression borders involving the Drosophila gap protein giant. Development. 1998;125:3765-74 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that gt functions in the repression of three target genes, the gap genes Krüppel (Kr) and hunchback (hb), and the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve)...
  40. Sanchez L, Thieffry D. A logical analysis of the Drosophila gap-gene system. J Theor Biol. 2001;211:115-41 pubmed
    ..distinct, qualitative, functional levels associated with each of the key regulatory factors (the three maternal Bcd, Hb and Cad products, and the four gap Gt, Hb, Kr and Kni products); (2) the most crucial interactions and regulatory ..
  41. Ajuria L, Nieva C, Winkler C, Kuo D, Samper N, Andreu M, et al. Capicua DNA-binding sites are general response elements for RTK signaling in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:915-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Capicua octamers are general response elements for RTK signaling in Drosophila. ..
  42. Weigmann K, Klapper R, Strasser T, Rickert C, Technau G, Jackle H, et al. FlyMove--a new way to look at development of Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2003;19:310-1 pubmed
    ..Here, we introduce FlyMove (http://flymove.uni-muenster.de), a new database combining movies, animated schemata, interactive "modules" and pictures that will greatly facilitate the understanding of Drosophila development. ..
  43. Kanai M, Okabe M, Hiromi Y. seven-up Controls switching of transcription factors that specify temporal identities of Drosophila neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2005;8:203-13 pubmed
    ..Transcription factors Hunchback (HB), Krüppel (KR), Pdm (PDM), etc...
  44. Moran E, Jiménez G. The tailless nuclear receptor acts as a dedicated repressor in the early Drosophila embryo. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3446-54 pubmed
    ..development and establish accurate patterns of gene expression even for positive Tailless targets such as hunchback and brachyenteron...
  45. Lopes F, Vieira F, Holloway D, Bisch P, Spirov A. Spatial bistability generates hunchback expression sharpness in the Drosophila embryo. PLoS Comput Biol. 2008;4:e1000184 pubmed publisher
    ..In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, a classic example of this is the sharp on-off activation of the hunchback (hb) gene at midembryo, in response to local concentrations of the smooth anterior-posterior Bicoid (Bcd) ..
  46. Myasnikova E, Surkova S, Panok L, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. Estimation of errors introduced by confocal imaging into the data on segmentation gene expression in Drosophila. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:346-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This article deals with errors introduced by confocal microscope...
  47. Holloway D, Lopes F, da Fontoura Costa L, Travençolo B, Golyandina N, Usevich K, et al. Gene expression noise in spatial patterning: hunchback promoter structure affects noise amplitude and distribution in Drosophila segmentation. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011;7:e1001069 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the classic systems for studying this is the activation of the hunchback (hb) gene in early fruit fly (Drosophila) segmentation by the maternally-derived gradient of the Bicoid (Bcd) ..
  48. Lawrence P, Struhl G. Morphogens, compartments, and pattern: lessons from drosophila?. Cell. 1996;85:951-61 pubmed
  49. Gregor T, Tank D, Wieschaus E, Bialek W. Probing the limits to positional information. Cell. 2007;130:153-64 pubmed
    ..at their targets (which depends on absolute concentration), the noise in readout of Bicoid by the activation of Hunchback, and the reproducibility of Bicoid concentration at corresponding positions in multiple embryos...
  50. Surkova S, Myasnikova E, Janssens H, Kozlov K, Samsonova A, Reinitz J, et al. Pipeline for acquisition of quantitative data on segmentation gene expression from confocal images. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:58-66 pubmed
    ..5-minute resolution in time, as well as to construct a spatiotemporal atlas of segmentation gene expression. Each data pipeline step can be easily adapted to process a wide range of images of gene expression patterns. ..
  51. Bradley R, Li X, Trapnell C, Davidson S, Pachter L, Chu H, et al. Binding site turnover produces pervasive quantitative changes in transcription factor binding between closely related Drosophila species. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000343 pubmed publisher
  52. Houchmandzadeh B, Wieschaus E, Leibler S. Establishment of developmental precision and proportions in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature. 2002;415:798-802 pubmed
    ..but that this noise in the positional information is strongly decreased ('filtered') at the level of hunchback (hb) gene expression...
  53. Porcher A, Abu Arish A, Huart S, Roelens B, Fradin C, Dostatni N. The time to measure positional information: maternal hunchback is required for the synchrony of the Bicoid transcriptional response at the onset of zygotic transcription. Development. 2010;137:2795-804 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand how such precision was achieved, we directly analyzed nascent transcripts of the hunchback target gene at their site of synthesis...
  54. Namba R, Pazdera T, Cerrone R, Minden J. Drosophila embryonic pattern repair: how embryos respond to bicoid dosage alteration. Development. 1997;124:1393-403 pubmed
    ..We also show that compression of the fate map does not appear to be repaired by the induction of new cell divisions. In addition, some tissues are more sensitive to fate map compression than others. ..
  55. Janody F, Sturny R, Schaeffer V, Azou Y, Dostatni N. Two distinct domains of Bicoid mediate its transcriptional downregulation by the Torso pathway. Development. 2001;128:2281-90 pubmed
    ..The alanine-rich domain contributes to this process indirectly by reducing the global activity of the protein and in particular the activity of the glutamine-rich domain that might otherwise prevent downregulation by Torso. ..
  56. Zhang S, Xu L, Lee J, Xu T. Drosophila atrophin homolog functions as a transcriptional corepressor in multiple developmental processes. Cell. 2002;108:45-56 pubmed
    ..We propose that Atrophin proteins function as versatile transcriptional corepressors and discuss a model that deregulation of transcription may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. ..
  57. Ochoa Espinosa A, Yucel G, Kaplan L, Pare A, Pura N, Oberstein A, et al. The role of binding site cluster strength in Bicoid-dependent patterning in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4960-5 pubmed
    ..Rather, we find that binding sites for other activators, including Hunchback and Caudal correlate with CRM expression in middle and posterior body regions...
  58. Cho P, Gamberi C, Cho Park Y, Cho Park I, Lasko P, Sonenberg N. Cap-dependent translational inhibition establishes two opposing morphogen gradients in Drosophila embryos. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2035-41 pubmed
    ..For instance, translation of the uniformly distributed maternal hunchback (hb) mRNA is inhibited at the posterior to form an anterior-to-posterior protein concentration gradient along ..
  59. Surkova S, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, Samsonova A, et al. Characterization of the Drosophila segment determination morphome. Dev Biol. 2008;313:844-62 pubmed
    ..As the first quantitatively characterized morphogenetic field, this system and its behavior constitute an extraordinarily rich set of materials for the study of canalization and embryonic regulation at the molecular level...
  60. Clyde D, Corado M, Wu X, Pare A, Papatsenko D, Small S. A self-organizing system of repressor gradients establishes segmental complexity in Drosophila. Nature. 2003;426:849-53 pubmed
    ..Here we show that opposing gradients of two Drosophila transcriptional repressors, Hunchback (Hb) and Knirps (Kni), position several segments by differentially repressing two distinct regulatory regions (..
  61. Jaeger J, Surkova S, Blagov M, Janssens H, Kosman D, Kozlov K, et al. Dynamic control of positional information in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature. 2004;430:368-71 pubmed
  62. Mace D, Varnado N, Zhang W, Frise E, Ohler U. Extraction and comparison of gene expression patterns from 2D RNA in situ hybridization images. Bioinformatics. 2010;26:761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..genome.duke.edu/generegulation/image_analysis/insitu uwe.ohler@duke.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. ..
  63. Arnosti D, Barolo S, Levine M, Small S. The eve stripe 2 enhancer employs multiple modes of transcriptional synergy. Development. 1996;122:205-14 pubmed
    ..The bicoid (bcd) regulatory gradient triggers the expression of hunchback (hb); these work synergistically to activate the stripe in the anterior half of the embryo, bcd also coordinates ..
  64. La Rosée A, Hader T, Taubert H, Rivera Pomar R, Jackle H. Mechanism and Bicoid-dependent control of hairy stripe 7 expression in the posterior region of the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1997;16:4403-11 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the gradients of Bicoid and Caudal combine their activities to activate segmentation genes along the entire axis of the embryo. ..
  65. Fujioka M, Emi Sarker Y, Yusibova G, Goto T, Jaynes J. Analysis of an even-skipped rescue transgene reveals both composite and discrete neuronal and early blastoderm enhancers, and multi-stripe positioning by gap gene repressor gradients. Development. 1999;126:2527-38 pubmed
    ..single cis-element, both the anterior border of stripe 4 and the posterior border of stripe 6 are set by zygotic hunchback, and the region between the two stripes is 'carved out' by knirps...
  66. Cleary M, Doe C. Regulation of neuroblast competence: multiple temporal identity factors specify distinct neuronal fates within a single early competence window. Genes Dev. 2006;20:429-34 pubmed
    ..7-1 (NB7-1) has a single early window of competence to respond to four different temporal identity genes (Hunchback, Krüppel, Pdm, and Castor); that each of these factors specifies distinct motor neuron identities within this ..
  67. Cinnamon E, Helman A, Ben Haroush Schyr R, Orian A, Jiménez G, Paroush Z. Multiple RTK pathways downregulate Groucho-mediated repression in Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 2008;135:829-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that phosphorylation of Groucho provides a widespread, long-term mechanism by which RTK signals control target gene expression. ..
  68. Yu D, Small S. Precise registration of gene expression boundaries by a repressive morphogen in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:868-76 pubmed publisher
    ..measurements and ectopic-misexpression experiments to examine the transcriptional-repression activities of the Hunchback (Hb) protein gradient in Drosophila embryos...
  69. Manu -, Surkova S, Spirov A, Gursky V, Janssens H, Kim A, et al. Canalization of gene expression and domain shifts in the Drosophila blastoderm by dynamical attractors. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000303 pubmed publisher
    ..The result confirms the idea that attractors are important for developmental stability and shows a richer variety of dynamical attractors in developmental systems than has been previously recognized...
  70. He X, Ling X, Sinha S. Alignment and prediction of cis-regulatory modules based on a probabilistic model of evolution. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000299 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach is implemented as software, EMMA (Evolutionary Model-based cis-regulatory Module Analysis), ready to be applied in a broad biological context...
  71. Sonoda J, Wharton R. Recruitment of Nanos to hunchback mRNA by Pumilio. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2704-12 pubmed
    Translational regulation of hunchback (hb) mRNA is essential for posterior patterning of the Drosophila embryo...
  72. Shimell M, Peterson A, Burr J, Simon J, O Connor M. Functional analysis of repressor binding sites in the iab-2 regulatory region of the abdominal-A homeotic gene. Dev Biol. 2000;218:38-52 pubmed
    ..Previously, the Hunchback (HB) protein has been implicated in setting the anterior expression limit of the UBX homeotic protein in ..
  73. Erkner A, Roure A, Charroux B, Delaage M, Holway N, Coré N, et al. Grunge, related to human Atrophin-like proteins, has multiple functions in Drosophila development. Development. 2002;129:1119-29 pubmed
    ..Grunge has other regulatory functions in the leg, including the patterning of ventral parts along the entire proximodistal axis and the proper spacing of bristles in all regions. ..
  74. Zhou Q, Wong W. CisModule: de novo discovery of cis-regulatory modules by hierarchical mixture modeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:12114-9 pubmed
    ..By using both simulated and real data sets, we demonstrate that CisModule is not only accurate in predicting modules but also more sensitive in detecting motif patterns and binding sites than standard motif discovery methods are. ..
  75. Azevedo R, Lohaus R, Srinivasan S, Dang K, Burch C. Sexual reproduction selects for robustness and negative epistasis in artificial gene networks. Nature. 2006;440:87-90 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that sexual reproduction selects for conditions that favour its own maintenance, a case of evolution forging its own path. ..
  76. Keränen S, Fowlkes C, Luengo Hendriks C, Sudar D, Knowles D, Malik J, et al. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution II: dynamics. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R124 pubmed
    ..It also provides a coordinate framework for the blastoderm embryo that will allow increasingly accurate spatio-temporal modeling of both the transcriptional control network and morphogenesis. ..
  77. Fu D, Zhao C, Ma J. Enhancer sequences influence the role of the amino-terminal domain of bicoid in transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4439-48 pubmed
    ..how different enhancers respond to Bcd distinctively, focusing on two natural Bcd-responsive enhancer elements, hunchback (hb) and knirps (kni)...
  78. Schroeder M, Pearce M, Fak J, Fan H, Unnerstall U, Emberly E, et al. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E271 pubmed
    ..factors consistently act as activators and that gap factors act as repressors, except for the bimodal factor Hunchback. Our data suggest a simple context-dependent rule for its switch from repressive to activating function...
  79. Peel A, Chipman A, Akam M. Arthropod segmentation: beyond the Drosophila paradigm. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6:905-16 pubmed
    ..A model is emerging, although slowly, for the way that arthropod segmentation mechanisms have evolved. ..
  80. Grosskortenhaus R, Robinson K, Doe C. Pdm and Castor specify late-born motor neuron identity in the NB7-1 lineage. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2618-27 pubmed
    ..Embryonic neuroblasts sequentially express Hunchback, Krüppel, Pdm1/Pdm2 (Pdm), and Castor (Cas) transcription factors...
  81. de Renzis S, Elemento O, Tavazoie S, Wieschaus E. Unmasking activation of the zygotic genome using chromosomal deletions in the Drosophila embryo. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e117 pubmed
    ..We propose that this regulatory mode links morphogen gradients with temporal regulation during the maternal-to-zygotic transition. ..
  82. Chen G, Li W, Zhang Q, Regulski M, Sinha N, Barditch J, et al. Identification of synaptic targets of Drosophila pumilio. PLoS Comput Biol. 2008;4:e1000026 pubmed publisher
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