Gene Symbol: hay
Description: haywire
Alias: CG8019, DhR25, DhXPB, DmXPB, Dmel\CG8019, ERCC3, Hay, TFIIH, XPB, Xpb, Xpb/hay, hwr, i50, ms(3)nc2, nc2, haywire, CG8019-PA, CG8019-PB, hay-PA, hay-PB
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Mounkes L, Jones R, Liang B, Gelbart W, Fuller M. A Drosophila model for xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne's syndrome: haywire encodes the fly homolog of ERCC3, a human excision repair gene. Cell. 1992;71:925-37 pubmed
    The haywire gene of Drosophila encodes a protein with 66% identity to the product of the human ERCC3 gene, associated with xeroderma pigmentosum B (XP-B) and Cockayne's syndrome (CS)...
  2. Fregoso M, Laine J, Aguilar Fuentes J, Mocquet V, Reynaud E, Coin F, et al. DNA repair and transcriptional deficiencies caused by mutations in the Drosophila p52 subunit of TFIIH generate developmental defects and chromosome fragility. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:3640-50 pubmed
    The transcription and DNA repair factor TFIIH is composed of 10 subunits. Mutations in the XPB, XPD, and p8 subunits are genetically linked to human diseases, including cancer...
  3. Chen J, Larochelle S, Li X, Suter B. Xpd/Ercc2 regulates CAK activity and mitotic progression. Nature. 2003;424:228-32 pubmed
    General transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) consists of nine subunits: cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (Cdk7), cyclin H and MAT1 (forming the Cdk-activating-kinase or CAK complex), the two helicases Xpb/Hay and Xpd, and p34, p44, p52 and p62 (..
  4. Merino C, Reynaud E, Vázquez M, Zurita M. DNA repair and transcriptional effects of mutations in TFIIH in Drosophila development. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:3246-56 pubmed
    ..We used haywire (hay), the Drosophila XPB homolog, to dissect this problem...
  5. Mounkes L, Fuller M. Molecular characterization of mutant alleles of the DNA repair/basal transcription factor haywire/ERCC3 in Drosophila. Genetics. 1999;152:291-7 pubmed
    The haywire gene of Drosophila encodes a putative helicase essential for transcription and nucleotide excision repair...
  6. Regan C, Fuller M. Interacting genes that affect microtubule function in Drosophila melanogaster: two classes of mutation revert the failure to complement between haync2 and mutations in tubulin genes. Genetics. 1990;125:77-90 pubmed
    ..melanogaster fails to complement certain beta 2-tubulin and alpha-tubulin mutations, suggesting that the haywire product plays a role in microtubule function, perhaps as a structural component of microtubules...
  7. Aguilar Fuentes J, Fregoso M, Herrera M, Reynaud E, Braun C, Egly J, et al. p8/TTDA overexpression enhances UV-irradiation resistance and suppresses TFIIH mutations in a Drosophila trichothiodystrophy model. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000253 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in certain subunits of the DNA repair/transcription factor complex TFIIH are linked to the human syndromes xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne's syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD)...
  8. Fuller M, Regan C, Green L, Robertson B, Deuring R, Hays T. Interacting genes identify interacting proteins involved in microtubule function in Drosophila. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1989;14:128-35 pubmed
  9. Tanaka K, Wood R. Xeroderma pigmentosum and nucleotide excision repair of DNA. Trends Biochem Sci. 1994;19:83-6 pubmed

More Information


  1. Dusenbery R, Smith P. Cellular responses to DNA damage in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1996;364:133-45 pubmed
  2. Ashburner M, Ball C, Blake J, Botstein D, Butler H, Cherry J, et al. Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium. Nat Genet. 2000;25:25-9 pubmed
  3. Stettler K, Li X, Sandrock B, Braga Lagache S, Heller M, Dümbgen L, et al. A Drosophila XPD model links cell cycle coordination with neuro-development and suggests links to cancer. Dis Model Mech. 2015;8:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..showed how different xpd mutations affected the formation or stability of different transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) subcomplexes...
  4. Regan C, Fuller M. Interacting genes that affect microtubule function: the nc2 allele of the haywire locus fails to complement mutations in the testis-specific beta-tubulin gene of Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1988;2:82-92 pubmed
    ..alleles of the testis-specific beta 2-tubulin gene (B2t) of Drosophila melanogaster maps to a separate locus, haywire, located at 3-34.4 map units in polytene region 67E3-F3...
  5. Sauer F, Hansen S, Tjian R. DNA template and activator-coactivator requirements for transcriptional synergism by Drosophila bicoid. Science. 1995;270:1825-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, contact between multiple activation domains of BCD and different targets within the TFIID complex can mediate transcriptional synergism. ..
  6. Jones R, Gelbart W. The Drosophila Polycomb-group gene Enhancer of zeste contains a region with sequence similarity to trithorax. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:6357-66 pubmed
    ..Opposite effects on transcription might then be determined by other portions of the two proteins. ..
  7. Matsuno M, Kose H, Okabe M, Hiromi Y. TFIIH controls developmentally-regulated cell cycle progression as a holocomplex. Genes Cells. 2007;12:1289-300 pubmed
    Basal transcription factor, TFIIH, is a multifunctional complex that carries out not only transcription but also DNA repair and cell cycle control. TFIIH is composed of two sub-complexes: core TFIIH and Cdk-activating kinase (CAK)...
  8. de Buendía P. Search for DNA repair pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1998;407:67-84 pubmed
    ..A possible explanation could be a weaker control of post-replication repair mechanisms in Drosophila than in yeast. It is expected that this research could help for a better understanding of repair mechanisms in complex organisms. ..
  9. Aguilar Fuentes J, Valadez Graham V, Reynaud E, Zurita M. TFIIH trafficking and its nuclear assembly during early Drosophila embryo development. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:3866-75 pubmed
    We present the first analysis of the dynamics of the transcription DNA-repair factor TFIIH at the onset of transcription in early Drosophila development...
  10. Doumanis J, Wada K, Kino Y, Moore A, Nukina N. RNAi screening in Drosophila cells identifies new modifiers of mutant huntingtin aggregation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7275 pubmed publisher
    ..Newly identified modifiers including genes related to nuclear transport, nucleotide processes, and signaling, may be involved in polyglutamine aggregate formation and Huntington disease cascades. ..
  11. Sauer F, Hansen S, Tjian R. Multiple TAFIIs directing synergistic activation of transcription. Science. 1995;270:1783-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the concerted action of multiple regulators with different coactivators helps to establish the pattern and level of segmentation gene transcription during Drosophila development. ..
  12. Herrera Cruz M, Cruz G, Valadez Graham V, Fregoso Lomas M, Villicaña C, Vázquez M, et al. Physical and functional interactions between Drosophila homologue of Swc6/p18Hamlet subunit of the SWR1/SRCAP chromatin-remodeling complex with the DNA repair/transcription factor TFIIH. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:33567-80 pubmed
    The multisubunit DNA repair and transcription factor TFIIH maintains an intricate cross-talk with different factors to achieve its functions...
  13. Fackenthal J, Hutchens J, Turner F, Raff E. Structural analysis of mutations in the Drosophila beta 2-tubulin isoform reveals regions in the beta-tubulin molecular required for general and for tissue-specific microtubule functions. Genetics. 1995;139:267-86 pubmed
    ..On the basis of our observations we present a model for regulation of axoneme microtubule morphology as a function of tubulin assembly kinetics. ..
  14. Green L, Wolf N, McDonald K, Fuller M. Two types of genetic interaction implicate the whirligig gene of Drosophila melanogaster in microtubule organization in the flagellar axoneme. Genetics. 1990;126:961-73 pubmed
    ..mutations in an alpha-tubulin locus, alpha 1t, mutations in a beta-tubulin locus, B2t, or a mutation in the haywire locus. However, wrl fails to map to any of the known alpha- or beta-tubulin genes...
  15. Gutierrez L, Merino C, Vázquez M, Reynaud E, Zurita M. RNA polymerase II 140wimp mutant and mutations in the TFIIH subunit XPB differentially affect homeotic gene expression in Drosophila. Genesis. 2004;40:58-66 pubmed
    ..In order to investigate this question we tested whether mutations in the Drosophila XPB homolog, haywire (hay), would modify homeotic derepression phenotypes...
  16. Austin R, Biggin M. Purification of the Drosophila RNA polymerase II general transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5788-92 pubmed
    ..Drosophila TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIH, and RNA polymerase II have been purified to greater than 50% homogeneity from Drosophila embryo nuclear extracts...
  17. Rawlings C, Searls D. Computational gene discovery and human disease. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997;7:416-23 pubmed
  18. Cranna N, Mitchell N, Hannan R, Quinn L. Hfp, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian c-myc transcriptional-repressor and tumor suppressor FIR, inhibits dmyc transcription and cell growth. Fly (Austin). 2011;5:129-33 pubmed
    ..which requires interaction between Hfp and the DNA helicase subunit of Transcription Factor IIH (TFIIH), Haywire (Hay)...
  19. Villicaña C, Cruz G, Zurita M. The genetic depletion or the triptolide inhibition of TFIIH in p53-deficient cells induces a JNK-dependent cell death in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:2502-15 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) participates in transcription, nucleotide excision repair and the control of the cell cycle...
  20. Lee J, Mitchell N, Zaytseva O, Chahal A, Mendis P, Cartier Michaud A, et al. Defective Hfp-dependent transcriptional repression of dMYC is fundamental to tissue overgrowth in Drosophila XPB models. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7404 pubmed publisher
    ..but not others, with similar C-terminal mutations in the XPB helicase subunit of transcription and NER factor TFIIH. Mechanisms driving overproliferation and, therefore, cancer associated with XPB mutations are currently unknown...
  21. Arking R, Force A, Dudas S, Buck S, Baker G. Factors contributing to the plasticity of the extended longevity phenotypes of Drosophila. Exp Gerontol. 1996;31:623-43 pubmed
    ..It also illustrates that the species has the potential to employ any one of a number of different proximal mechanisms, each of which give rise to a similar longevity phenotype. ..
  22. Petesch S, Lis J. Rapid, transcription-independent loss of nucleosomes over a large chromatin domain at Hsp70 loci. Cell. 2008;134:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..An RNAi screen of 28 transcription and chromatin-related factors reveals that depletion of heat shock factor, GAGA Factor, or Poly(ADP)-Ribose Polymerase or its activity abolishes the loss of nucleosomes upon Hsp70 activation. ..
  23. Hansen S, Tjian R. TAFs and TFIIA mediate differential utilization of the tandem Adh promoters. Cell. 1995;82:565-75 pubmed
    ..We propose a mechanism for regulating differential promoter utilization during Drosophila development that involves the recognition of specific initiator elements by TAFs in the TFIID complex. ..
  24. Santoso B, Kadonaga J. Reconstitution of chromatin transcription with purified components reveals a chromatin-specific repressive activity of p300. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:131-9 pubmed
    ..Hence, the mechanism of transcriptional repression by p300 is distinct from that of histone H1, PARP-1 or Sir2. These findings reveal a novel chromatin-specific repressive function of p300. ..
  25. Mitchell N, Johanson T, Cranna N, Er A, Richardson H, Hannan R, et al. Hfp inhibits Drosophila myc transcription and cell growth in a TFIIH/Hay-dependent manner. Development. 2010;137:2875-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of dmyc requires interaction between the transcriptional repressor Hfp and the DNA helicase subunit of TFIIH, Haywire (Hay)...
  26. Koken M, Vreeken C, Bol S, Cheng N, Jaspers Dekker I, Hoeijmakers J, et al. Cloning and characterization of the Drosophila homolog of the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation-group B correcting gene, ERCC3. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:5541-8 pubmed
    Previously the human nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC3 was shown to be responsible for a rare combination of the autosomal recessive DNA repair disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (complementation group B) and Cockayne's syndrome (..
  27. Lebedeva L, Nabirochkina E, Kurshakova M, Robert F, Krasnov A, Evgen ev M, et al. Occupancy of the Drosophila hsp70 promoter by a subset of basal transcription factors diminishes upon transcriptional activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18087-92 pubmed
    ..is already occupied by TATA-binding protein (TBP) and several TBP-associated factors (TAFs), TFIIB, TFIIF (RAP30), TFIIH (XPB), TBP-free/TAF-containg complex (GCN5 and TRRAP), and the Mediator complex subunit 13 before heat shock...
  28. Dudas S, Arking R. A coordinate upregulation of antioxidant gene activities is associated with the delayed onset of senescence in a long-lived strain of Drosophila. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995;50:B117-27 pubmed
  29. Hackstein J, Hochstenbach R, Pearson P. Towards an understanding of the genetics of human male infertility: lessons from flies. Trends Genet. 2000;16:565-72 pubmed
    ..A critical selection of well-defined infertility phenotypes in model organisms, combined with identification of the genes involved and their orthologues in man, might reveal the genes that contribute to human male infertility. ..