Gene Symbol: gt
Description: giant
Alias: CG7952, DM17, Dmel\CG7952, EG:BACH7M4.5, GIAN_DROME, Giant, l(1)3Aa, l(1)giant, giant, CG7952-PB, gt-PB
Species: fruit fly
Products:     gt

Top Publications

  1. Shimell M, Peterson A, Burr J, Simon J, O Connor M. Functional analysis of repressor binding sites in the iab-2 regulatory region of the abdominal-A homeotic gene. Dev Biol. 2000;218:38-52 pubmed
    ..We also show that the gap repressor Giant (GT) initially establishes a posterior expression limit at PS9, which shifts posteriorly after the blastoderm ..
  2. Tautz D. Segmentation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:301-12 pubmed
    ..An old concept of comparative anatomy, the enterocoele theory, is compatible with a single origin of segmentation mechanisms and could therefore provide a conceptual framework for assessing these molecular similarities. ..
  3. Janssens H, Crombach A, Wotton K, Cicin Sain D, Surkova S, Lim C, et al. Lack of tailless leads to an increase in expression variability in Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 2013;377:305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis provides evidence that loss of canalisation in mutants could be more widespread than previously thought. ..
  4. Azevedo R, Lohaus R, Srinivasan S, Dang K, Burch C. Sexual reproduction selects for robustness and negative epistasis in artificial gene networks. Nature. 2006;440:87-90 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that sexual reproduction selects for conditions that favour its own maintenance, a case of evolution forging its own path. ..
  5. Ochoa Espinosa A, Yu D, Tsirigos A, Struffi P, Small S. Anterior-posterior positional information in the absence of a strong Bicoid gradient. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3823-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Pisarev A, Poustelnikova E, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. FlyEx, the quantitative atlas on segmentation gene expression at cellular resolution. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:D560-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5 h of development. FlyEx supports the data downloads and construction of personal reference datasets, that makes it possible to more effectively use and analyze data. ..
  7. Schulz C, Tautz D. Zygotic caudal regulation by hunchback and its role in abdominal segment formation of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1995;121:1023-8 pubmed
    ..system, we show that the cad domain functions by activating the expression of the abdominal gap genes knirps (kni) and giant (gt). We conclude that cad is the so far missing region-specific activator of abdominal segmentation genes.
  8. Reinitz J, Levine M. Control of the initiation of homeotic gene expression by the gap genes giant and tailless in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1990;140:57-72 pubmed
    ..We have analyzed the pattern of expression of a variety of homeotic, pair-rule, and gap genes in tailless and giant gap mutants. tailless acts in two domains, one anterodorsal and one posterior...
  9. Bradley R, Li X, Trapnell C, Davidson S, Pachter L, Chu H, et al. Binding site turnover produces pervasive quantitative changes in transcription factor binding between closely related Drosophila species. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000343 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Gutjahr T, Frei E, Noll M. Complex regulation of early paired expression: initial activation by gap genes and pattern modulation by pair-rule genes. Development. 1993;117:609-23 pubmed
    ..runt and hairy, and in all gap mutants suggests that the products of the gap genes hunchback, Krüppel, knirps and giant activate paired expression in stripes...
  2. Samee A, Sinha S. Evaluating thermodynamic models of enhancer activity on cellular resolution gene expression data. Methods. 2013;62:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show how fitting quantitative models on data sets comprising a handful of enhancers, as reported in earlier work, may lead to unreliable models. ..
  3. Hengenius J, Gribskov M, Rundell A, Fowlkes C, Umulis D. Analysis of gap gene regulation in a 3D organism-scale model of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26797 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we find that incorporation of 3D data in simulation and optimization does not constrain the search space or improve optimization results. ..
  4. Liu F, Morrison A, Gregor T. Dynamic interpretation of maternal inputs by the Drosophila segmentation gene network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6724-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Little S, Tikhonov M, Gregor T. Precise developmental gene expression arises from globally stochastic transcriptional activity. Cell. 2013;154:789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings shed light on how the apparent paradox between stochastic transcription and developmental precision is resolved. ..
  6. Eldon E, Pirrotta V. Interactions of the Drosophila gap gene giant with maternal and zygotic pattern-forming genes. Development. 1991;111:367-78 pubmed
    The Drosophila gene giant (gt) is a segmentation gene that affects anterior head structures and abdominal segments A5-A7...
  7. Papatsenko D, Levine M. The Drosophila gap gene network is composed of two parallel toggle switches. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21145 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified model solutions (parameter combinations) reproduced major dynamic features of the gap gradient system and explained gap expression in a variety of segmentation mutants. ..
  8. Manu -, Surkova S, Spirov A, Gursky V, Janssens H, Kim A, et al. Canalization of gene expression and domain shifts in the Drosophila blastoderm by dynamical attractors. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000303 pubmed publisher
    ..The result confirms the idea that attractors are important for developmental stability and shows a richer variety of dynamical attractors in developmental systems than has been previously recognized...
  9. Jaeger J, Sharp D, Reinitz J. Known maternal gradients are not sufficient for the establishment of gap domains in Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Dev. 2007;124:108-28 pubmed
    ..present new, quantitative data on the mRNA expression patterns for the gap genes Krüppel (Kr), knirps (kni) and giant (gt) during the early blastoderm stage of Drosophila development...
  10. Kulkarni M, Arnosti D. cis-regulatory logic of short-range transcriptional repression in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3411-20 pubmed
    ..This cis-regulatory "grammar" may aid the identification of enhancers regulated by short-range repressors and facilitate bioinformatic prediction of the functional output of transcriptional regulatory sequences. ..
  11. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical fat-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Comput Biol Med. 2012;42:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These two fatness coefficients may serve as valuable filtering indexes to predict CRMs experimentally. ..
  12. Gao Q, Wang Y, Finkelstein R. Orthodenticle regulation during embryonic head development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;56:3-15 pubmed
    ..Finally, we identify a novel pathway mediated by the gap gene huckebein through which three maternal systems cooperate to repress otd expression at the anterior terminus of the embryo. ..
  13. Russell S, Sanchez Soriano N, Wright C, Ashburner M. The Dichaete gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a SOX-domain protein required for embryonic segmentation. Development. 1996;122:3669-76 pubmed
  14. Ashyraliyev M, Siggens K, Janssens H, Blom J, Akam M, Jaeger J. Gene circuit analysis of the terminal gap gene huckebein. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000548 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an important step towards a better, quantitative understanding of the developmental and evolutionary dynamics of the gap gene network. ..
  15. MacArthur S, Li X, Li J, Brown J, Chu H, Zeng L, et al. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R80 pubmed publisher
  16. Jaeger J, Reinitz J. On the dynamic nature of positional information. Bioessays. 2006;28:1102-11 pubmed
    ..Based on this analysis, we propose a revised French Flag, which incorporates the dynamic, feedback-driven nature of pattern formation in the Drosophila blastoderm. ..
  17. Surkova S, Golubkova E, Manu -, Panok L, Mamon L, Reinitz J, et al. Quantitative dynamics and increased variability of segmentation gene expression in the Drosophila Krüppel and knirps mutants. Dev Biol. 2013;376:99-112 pubmed publisher
    ..In certain cases, such as the gt posterior domain in Kr mutants, the shifts are significantly larger than is seen in wild type embryos...
  18. Li X, Thomas S, Sabo P, Eisen M, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Biggin M. The role of chromatin accessibility in directing the widespread, overlapping patterns of Drosophila transcription factor binding. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R34 pubmed publisher
  19. Kaplan T, Li X, Sabo P, Thomas S, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Biggin M, et al. Quantitative models of the mechanisms that control genome-wide patterns of transcription factor binding during early Drosophila development. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001290 pubmed publisher
  20. Bieler J, Pozzorini C, Naef F. Whole-embryo modeling of early segmentation in Drosophila identifies robust and fragile expression domains. Biophys J. 2011;101:287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We model the early mRNA and protein dynamics of the gap genes hunchback, Kruppel, giant, and knirps, taking as regulatory inputs the maternal Bicoid and Caudal gradients, plus the zygotic Tailless and ..
  21. Papatsenko D, Goltsev Y, Levine M. Organization of developmental enhancers in the Drosophila embryo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that grammar of gene control regions is pervasively used in the patterning of the Drosophila embryo. ..
  22. Stanojevic D, Small S, Levine M. Regulation of a segmentation stripe by overlapping activators and repressors in the Drosophila embryo. Science. 1991;254:1385-7 pubmed
    ..suggested that even-skipped (eve) stripe 2 is controlled by three gap genes, hunchback (hb), Kruppel (Kr), and giant (gt), and by the maternal morphogen bicoid (bcd)...
  23. Myasnikova E, Surkova S, Panok L, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. Estimation of errors introduced by confocal imaging into the data on segmentation gene expression in Drosophila. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:346-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This article deals with errors introduced by confocal microscope...
  24. Surkova S, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, Samsonova A, et al. Characterization of the Drosophila segment determination morphome. Dev Biol. 2008;313:844-62 pubmed
    ..As the first quantitatively characterized morphogenetic field, this system and its behavior constitute an extraordinarily rich set of materials for the study of canalization and embryonic regulation at the molecular level...
  25. Rivera Pomar R, Jackle H. From gradients to stripes in Drosophila embryogenesis: filling in the gaps. Trends Genet. 1996;12:478-83 pubmed
    ..Recent progress has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which coherent positional information of maternal origin becomes transferred into serially repeated zygotic gene expression domains reflecting the metameric body plan of the larva. ..
  26. Struhl G, Johnston P, Lawrence P. Control of Drosophila body pattern by the hunchback morphogen gradient. Cell. 1992;69:237-249 pubmed
    ..are specified early in embryogenesis by the overlapping activities of the hunchback (hb), Krüppel, knirps, and giant gap genes...
  27. Goltsev Y, Hsiong W, Lanzaro G, Levine M. Different combinations of gap repressors for common stripes in Anopheles and Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 2004;275:435-46 pubmed
    ..The gap genes hunchback and giant display inverted patterns of expression in posterior regions of Anopheles embryos, while tailless exhibits an ..
  28. Small S, Kraut R, Hoey T, Warrior R, Levine M. Transcriptional regulation of a pair-rule stripe in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1991;5:827-39 pubmed
    ..hunchback (hb), while the borders of the stripe are formed by selective repression, involving the gap protein giant (gt) in anterior regions and the Krüppel (Kr) protein in posterior regions...
  29. Yu D, Small S. Precise registration of gene expression boundaries by a repressive morphogen in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:868-76 pubmed publisher
  30. Lebrecht D, Foehr M, Smith E, Lopes F, Vanario Alonso C, Reinitz J, et al. Bicoid cooperative DNA binding is critical for embryonic patterning in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13176-81 pubmed
    ..The mutants did not faithfully stimulate transcription of downstream target genes such as hunchback (hb), giant, and Krüppel...
  31. Pelegri F, Lehmann R. A role of polycomb group genes in the regulation of gap gene expression in Drosophila. Genetics. 1994;136:1341-53 pubmed
    ..In the absence of nanos high levels of Hb protein repress the abdomen-specific genes knirps and giant. In suppressor-of-nanos mutants, knirps and giant are expressed in spite of high Hb levels...
  32. Papatsenko D, Levine M. Dual regulation by the Hunchback gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2901-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The subsequent refinement of the Kr pattern depends on the combination of Hb and the Giant (Gt) repressor...
  33. Fakhouri W, Ay A, Sayal R, Dresch J, Dayringer E, Arnosti D. Deciphering a transcriptional regulatory code: modeling short-range repression in the Drosophila embryo. Mol Syst Biol. 2010;6:341 pubmed publisher
    ..uncovered unexpected features of these proteins' activity that allow accurate predictions of regulation by the Giant, Knirps, Krüppel, and Snail repressors, including modeling of an endogenous enhancer...
  34. Langeland J, Attai S, Vorwerk K, Carroll S. Positioning adjacent pair-rule stripes in the posterior Drosophila embryo. Development. 1994;120:2945-55 pubmed
    ..stripe boundaries are established by gap protein repressors unique to each stripe: h stripe 5 is repressed by the giant (gt) protein on its posterior border and h stripe 6 is repressed by the hunchback (hb) protein on its posterior ..
  35. Holloway D, Reinitz J, Spirov A, Vanario Alonso C. Sharp borders from fuzzy gradients. Trends Genet. 2002;18:385-7 pubmed
    ..A new quantitative study shows that the placement of one such boundary is more accurate than the gradient thought to set it. Genetic analysis of the accuracy of the process implicates a gene not previously thought to be involved. ..
  36. Arnosti D, Barolo S, Levine M, Small S. The eve stripe 2 enhancer employs multiple modes of transcriptional synergy. Development. 1996;122:205-14 pubmed activate the stripe in the anterior half of the embryo, bcd also coordinates the expression of two repressors, giant (gt) and Kruppel (Kr), which define the anterior and posterior borders of the stripe, respectively...
  37. Ishihara S, Fujimoto K, Shibata T. Cross talking of network motifs in gene regulation that generates temporal pulses and spatial stripes. Genes Cells. 2005;10:1025-38 pubmed
    ..Our database study of gene regulatory networks indicates that most feed-forward loops actually cross talk. We discuss how the feed-forward loops and their cross talks can play important roles in morphogenesis. ..
  38. Hare E, Peterson B, Iyer V, Meier R, Eisen M. Sepsid even-skipped enhancers are functionally conserved in Drosophila despite lack of sequence conservation. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000106 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these observations suggest that the local arrangement of binding sites relative to each other is more important than their overall arrangement into larger units of cis-regulatory function...
  39. Andrioli L, Vasisht V, Theodosopoulou E, Oberstein A, Small S. Anterior repression of a Drosophila stripe enhancer requires three position-specific mechanisms. Development. 2002;129:4931-40 pubmed
    ..The gap gene giant (gt) is involved in a repression mechanism that sets the anterior stripe border, but genetic removal of gt (or ..
  40. Perry M, Boettiger A, Levine M. Multiple enhancers ensure precision of gap gene-expression patterns in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We present different models for "enhancer synergy," whereby two enhancers with overlapping activities produce authentic patterns of gene expression. ..
  41. Langeland J, Carroll S. Conservation of regulatory elements controlling hairy pair-rule stripe formation. Development. 1993;117:585-96 pubmed
    ..approach, coupled with the analysis of reporter gene expression in gap mutant embryos suggests that the Kr and gt proteins establish the anterior and posterior borders of h stripe 5, respectively, through spatial repression...
  42. Perkins T, Jaeger J, Reinitz J, Glass L. Reverse engineering the gap gene network of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Comput Biol. 2006;2:e51 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, some relationships in standard textbook models of gap gene regulation appear to be unnecessary for or even inconsistent with the details of gap gene expression during wild-type development. ..
  43. Wunderlich Z, Bragdon M, DePace A. Comparing mRNA levels using in situ hybridization of a target gene and co-stain. Methods. 2014;68:233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy can be broadly applied to detect quantitative, spatially resolved changes in mRNA levels. ..
  44. Pick L. Segmentation: painting stripes from flies to vertebrates. Dev Genet. 1998;23:1-10 pubmed
  45. Wimmer E, Simpson Brose M, Cohen S, Desplan C, Jackle H. Trans- and cis-acting requirements for blastodermal expression of the head gap gene buttonhead. Mech Dev. 1995;53:235-45 pubmed
    ..Finally, the terminal system takes part in the regulation of btd head stripe expression by enhancing activation at low levels of activity and repression at high levels of activity. ..
  46. Bronner G, Jackle H. Control and function of terminal gap gene activity in the posterior pole region of the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1991;35:205-11 pubmed
    ..This, in turn, suggests that the terminal gap gene activities prevent metamerization by repression of central gap genes, thereby distinguishing the segmented trunk from the nonsegmented tail region of the embryo. ..
  47. Nibu Y, Zhang H, Bajor E, Barolo S, Small S, Levine M. dCtBP mediates transcriptional repression by Knirps, Krüppel and Snail in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1998;17:7009-20 pubmed
    ..We propose that dCtBP represents a major form of transcriptional repression in development, and that the Groucho and dCtBP co-repressors mediate separate pathways of repression. ..
  48. Fowlkes C, Hendriks C, Keränen S, Weber G, Rübel O, Huang M, et al. A quantitative spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Cell. 2008;133:364-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a VirtualEmbryo containing data for 95 genes at six time cohorts. We show that known gene-regulatory interactions can be automatically recovered from this data set and predict hundreds of new interactions...
  49. Berman B, Pfeiffer B, Laverty T, Salzberg S, Rubin G, Eisen M, et al. Computational identification of developmental enhancers: conservation and function of transcription factor binding-site clusters in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genome Biol. 2004;5:R61 pubmed
    ..Six clusters are enhancers of adjacent genes: giant, fushi tarazu, odd-skipped, nubbin, squeeze and pdm2; three drive expression in patterns unrelated to those of ..
  50. Goto T, MacDonald P, Maniatis T. Early and late periodic patterns of even skipped expression are controlled by distinct regulatory elements that respond to different spatial cues. Cell. 1989;57:413-22 pubmed
    ..As a consequence of this two-step regulatory program, eve functions both in the establishment of the periodic pattern of gene expression and in the subsequent specification of parasegmental boundaries. ..
  51. Zamparo L, Perkins T. Statistical lower bounds on protein copy number from fluorescence expression images. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:2670-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are all drawn from FlyEx (explained within), and is available at ..
  52. Gursky V, Panok L, Myasnikova E, Manu -, Samsonova M, Reinitz J, et al. Mechanisms of gap gene expression canalization in the Drosophila blastoderm. BMC Syst Biol. 2011;5:118 pubmed publisher
    ..The canalization of gap gene expression can be understood as arising from the actions of attractors in the gap gene dynamical system...
  53. Riddihough G, Ish Horowicz D. Individual stripe regulatory elements in the Drosophila hairy promoter respond to maternal, gap, and pair-rule genes. Genes Dev. 1991;5:840-54 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that different but overlapping subsets of gap genes regulate each stripe and that activation and repression are both important in generating the stripe pattern. ..
  54. Weigmann K, Klapper R, Strasser T, Rickert C, Technau G, Jackle H, et al. FlyMove--a new way to look at development of Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2003;19:310-1 pubmed
    ..Here, we introduce FlyMove (, a new database combining movies, animated schemata, interactive "modules" and pictures that will greatly facilitate the understanding of Drosophila development. ..
  55. Lawrence P, Struhl G. Morphogens, compartments, and pattern: lessons from drosophila?. Cell. 1996;85:951-61 pubmed
  56. Carroll S. Zebra patterns in fly embryos: activation of stripes or repression of interstripes?. Cell. 1990;60:9-16 pubmed
    ..Different gap proteins control different subsets of stripes and interstripes. Combinations of gap proteins regulate transcription by binding to far upstream elements that contain different numbers and types of binding sites. ..
  57. Fomekong Nanfack Y, Postma M, Kaandorp J. Inferring Drosophila gap gene regulatory network: a parameter sensitivity and perturbation analysis. BMC Syst Biol. 2009;3:94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that multi-objective optimization based on robustness and sensitivity analysis has to be considered. ..
  58. Niessing D, Rivera Pomar R, La Rosée A, Hader T, Schock F, Purnell B, et al. A cascade of transcriptional control leading to axis determination in Drosophila. J Cell Physiol. 1997;173:162-7 pubmed
  59. Ashyraliyev M, Jaeger J, Blom J. Parameter estimation and determinability analysis applied to Drosophila gap gene circuits. BMC Syst Biol. 2008;2:83 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it improves previous analyses of the same model by allowing us to identify those interactions for which qualitative conclusions are reliable, and those for which they are ambiguous. ..
  60. Kraut R, Levine M. Mutually repressive interactions between the gap genes giant and Krüppel define middle body regions of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1991;111:611-21 pubmed
    ..Here we present evidence that the segmentation gene giant is a bona fide gap gene that is likely to act in concert with hunchback, Krüppel and knirps to initiate stripes ..
  61. Fowlkes C, Eckenrode K, Bragdon M, Meyer M, Wunderlich Z, Simirenko L, et al. A conserved developmental patterning network produces quantitatively different output in multiple species of Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002346 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize that transcriptional networks can diverge over short evolutionary timescales and that even small changes can lead to distinct output in terms of the placement and number of equivalent cells. ..
  62. Hewitt G, Strunk B, Margulies C, Priputin T, Wang X, Amey R, et al. Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. Development. 1999;126:1201-10 pubmed
    ..and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Krüppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail...
  63. Janssens H, Hou S, Jaeger J, Kim A, Myasnikova E, Sharp D, et al. Quantitative and predictive model of transcriptional control of the Drosophila melanogaster even skipped gene. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1159-65 pubmed
    ..It also shows that the nonclassical expression of stripe 7 driven by this fragment is activated by the protein Caudal (Cad), and repressed by the proteins Tailless (Tll) and Giant (Gt).
  64. Manu -, Surkova S, Spirov A, Gursky V, Janssens H, Kim A, et al. Canalization of gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm by gap gene cross regulation. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000049 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, we show that the complex multigenic phenomenon of canalization can be understood at a quantitative and predictive level by the application of a precise dynamical model...
  65. Small S, Blair A, Levine M. Regulation of even-skipped stripe 2 in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1992;11:4047-57 pubmed
    ..The maternal morphogen bicoid (bcd) and the gap proteins hunchback (hb), Kruppel (Kr) and giant (gt) all bind with high affinity to closely linked sites within this small promoter element...
  66. Fujioka M, Emi Sarker Y, Yusibova G, Goto T, Jaynes J. Analysis of an even-skipped rescue transgene reveals both composite and discrete neuronal and early blastoderm enhancers, and multi-stripe positioning by gap gene repressor gradients. Development. 1999;126:2527-38 pubmed
    ..analysis in gap gene mutants showed that stripe 5 is restricted anteriorly by Krüppel and posteriorly by giant, the same repressors that regulate stripe 2...
  67. Kosman D, Small S, Reinitz J. Rapid preparation of a panel of polyclonal antibodies to Drosophila segmentation proteins. Dev Genes Evol. 1998;208:290-4 pubmed
    ..Antigenicity of the purified recombinant proteins may be increased by precipitation in double-distilled water. The results of using the serums obtained for fluorescent staining of Drosophila embryos are shown. ..
  68. Gregor T, Bialek W, de Ruyter van Steveninck R, Tank D, Wieschaus E. Diffusion and scaling during early embryonic pattern formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18403-7 pubmed
    ..Our results, together with constraints imposed by the time scales of development, suggest that the mechanism for scaling is a species-specific adaptation of the Bcd lifetime...
  69. Schroeder M, Pearce M, Fak J, Fan H, Unnerstall U, Emberly E, et al. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E271 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates that computational methods are a powerful complement to experimental approaches in the analysis of transcription networks. ..
  70. Little S, Tkacik G, Kneeland T, Wieschaus E, Gregor T. The formation of the Bicoid morphogen gradient requires protein movement from anteriorly localized mRNA. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000596 pubmed publisher
    ..We determine that >90% of all bicoid mRNA is continuously present within the anterior 20% of the embryo...
  71. Ryu J, Arnosti D. Functional similarity of Knirps CtBP-dependent and CtBP-independent transcriptional repressor activities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:4654-62 pubmed
  72. Makeev V, Lifanov A, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs and hierarchical levels in organization of transcription regulatory information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6016-26 pubmed
    ..We discuss the role of the hierarchy in understanding transcriptional regulation and in detection of transcription regulatory regions in genomes. ..
  73. Li X, MacArthur S, Bourgon R, Nix D, Pollard D, Iyer V, et al. Transcription factors bind thousands of active and inactive regions in the Drosophila blastoderm. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e27 pubmed publisher
  74. Isalan M, Lemerle C, Serrano L. Engineering gene networks to emulate Drosophila embryonic pattern formation. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e64 pubmed
    ..We anticipate that the system described here will be generally applicable to the study of any biological network with a spatial component. ..
  75. Houchmandzadeh B, Wieschaus E, Leibler S. Establishment of developmental precision and proportions in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature. 2002;415:798-802 pubmed
    ..We show that genes known to interact directly with Hb are not responsible for its spatial precision, but that the maternal gene staufen may be crucial. ..
  76. Kraut R, Levine M. Spatial regulation of the gap gene giant during Drosophila development. Development. 1991;111:601-9 pubmed
    We describe the regulated expression of the segmentation gene giant (gt) during early embryogenesis. The gt protein is expressed in two broad gradients in precellular embryos, one in anterior regions and the other in posterior regions...
  77. Ochoa Espinosa A, Yucel G, Kaplan L, Pare A, Pura N, Oberstein A, et al. The role of binding site cluster strength in Bicoid-dependent patterning in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4960-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that the key design principle in AP patterning is the differential integration of positive and negative transcriptional information at the level of individual CRMs for each target gene. ..
  78. Lott S, Kreitman M, Palsson A, Alekseeva E, Ludwig M. Canalization of segmentation and its evolution in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10926-31 pubmed
    ..Specifically, we ask whether spatial localization of gap genes Kruppel (Kr) and giant (gt) and the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve) during cellularization is robust to genetic variation in embryo ..
  79. Keränen S, Fowlkes C, Luengo Hendriks C, Sudar D, Knowles D, Malik J, et al. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution II: dynamics. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R124 pubmed
    ..It also provides a coordinate framework for the blastoderm embryo that will allow increasingly accurate spatio-temporal modeling of both the transcriptional control network and morphogenesis. ..
  80. Greenwood S, Struhl G. Different levels of Ras activity can specify distinct transcriptional and morphological consequences in early Drosophila embryos. Development. 1997;124:4879-86 pubmed
  81. Cockerill K, Billin A, Poole S. Regulation of expression domains and effects of ectopic expression reveal gap gene-like properties of the linked pdm genes of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1993;41:139-53 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the pdm genes may act in segmentation near the level of the zygotic gap genes. ..
  82. Tsai C, Gergen J. Gap gene properties of the pair-rule gene runt during Drosophila segmentation. Development. 1994;120:1671-83 pubmed
    ..Finally, genetic experiments demonstrated that regulation of gap gene expression by runt is a normal component of the regulatory program that generates the segmented body pattern of the Drosophila embryo. ..
  83. Berman B, Nibu Y, Pfeiffer B, Tomancak P, Celniker S, Levine M, et al. Exploiting transcription factor binding site clustering to identify cis-regulatory modules involved in pattern formation in the Drosophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:757-62 pubmed
    ..We tested one of the newly identified clusters, mapping upstream of the gap gene giant (gt), and show that it acts as an enhancer that recapitulates the posterior expression pattern of gt.
  84. Harrison M, Li X, Kaplan T, Botchan M, Eisen M. Zelda binding in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo marks regions subsequently activated at the maternal-to-zygotic transition. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002266 pubmed publisher
    ..This strong early association of ZLD with regions not active until the MZT suggests that ZLD is not only required for the earliest wave of transcription but also plays a major role in activating the genome at the MZT. ..
  85. Mohler J, Eldon E, Pirrotta V. A novel spatial transcription pattern associated with the segmentation gene, giant, of Drosophila. EMBO J. 1989;8:1539-48 pubmed
    The segmentation gene, giant, is located in 3A1 within a cloned chromosome region surrounding the zeste locus...
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