Gene Symbol: GstD2
Description: Glutathione S transferase D2
Alias: CG4181, DmGST21, DmGSTD2, Dmel\CG4181, GST, GST D2, GST-D2, GSTD2, Gst, GstD21, Gstd21, gst D21, gstD2, gstD21, gstd2, gstd21, glutathione S transferase D2, CG4181-PA, GstD2-PA, glutathione S transferase D21, glutathione-S-transferase D2
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Tang A, Tu C. Biochemical characterization of Drosophila glutathione S-transferases D1 and D21. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:27876-84 pubmed
    ..Consistent with their differences in size, GST D1 and GST D21 displayed different mobilities on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
  2. Landis G, Abdueva D, Skvortsov D, Yang J, Rabin B, Carrick J, et al. Similar gene expression patterns characterize aging and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7663-8 pubmed
    ..Immune reporter expression in young flies was partially predictive of remaining life span, suggesting their potential as biomonitors of aging. ..
  3. Sawicki R, Singh S, Mondal A, Benes H, Zimniak P. Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of one Epsilon-class (GST-3) and ten Delta-class (GST-1) glutathione S-transferases from Drosophila melanogaster, and identification of additional nine members of the Epsilon class. Biochem J. 2003;370:661-9 pubmed
    ..S-transferases (GSTs; formerly denoted as Class I GSTs) and one member of the Epsilon-class cluster (formerly GST-3) have been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and their catalytic properties have been determined...
  4. Willoughby L, Chung H, Lumb C, Robin C, Batterham P, Daborn P. A comparison of Drosophila melanogaster detoxification gene induction responses for six insecticides, caffeine and phenobarbital. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;36:934-42 pubmed changes in expression levels or substrate specificities of cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and esterase genes have been linked to many cases of resistance with the responsible enzyme shown to utilize the ..
  5. Alias Z, Clark A. Studies on the glutathione S-transferase proteome of adult Drosophila melanogaster: responsiveness to chemical challenge. Proteomics. 2007;7:3618-28 pubmed
    ..The Sigma-class DmGSTS1 was prominent. DmGSTD2 was detected only after pretreatment of the flies with Phenobarbital (PhB)...
  6. Obata F, Miura M. Enhancing S-adenosyl-methionine catabolism extends Drosophila lifespan. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8332 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that regulation of SAM levels by Gnmt is a key component of lifespan extension. ..
  7. Hamby K, Kwok R, Zalom F, Chiu J. Integrating circadian activity and gene expression profiles to predict chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii response to insecticides. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68472 pubmed publisher
    ..However, field research is necessary for extrapolation to agricultural settings. ..
  8. Wongtrakul J, Sukittikul S, Saisawang C, Ketterman A. Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38b interaction with delta class glutathione transferases from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Sci. 2012;12:107 pubmed publisher
    ..e., DmGSTD2, DmGSTD5, DmGSTD8, and DmGSTD11b...
  9. Graze R, McIntyre L, Main B, Wayne M, Nuzhdin S. Regulatory divergence in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans, a genomewide analysis of allele-specific expression. Genetics. 2009;183:547-61, 1SI-21SI pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, two genes, with critical roles in sex determination and micro RNA processing, Sxl and loqs, were identified as misexpressed in hybrid female heads, potentially contributing to hybrid incompatibility. ..

More Information


  1. Kim J, Jang W, Lee H, Park E, Kim C. Neurodegeneration of Drosophila drop-dead mutants is associated with hypoxia in the brain. Genes Brain Behav. 2012;11:177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Feeding of anti-reactive oxygen species agents partially rescue the drd from sudden death. We propose that drd flies can provide a non-invasive animal model for hypoxia-induced cell death. ..
  2. Singh S, Coronella J, Benes H, Cochrane B, Zimniak P. Catalytic function of Drosophila melanogaster glutathione S-transferase DmGSTS1-1 (GST-2) in conjugation of lipid peroxidation end products. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:2912-23 pubmed
    Drosophila melanogaster glutathione S-transferase DmGSTS1-1 (earlier designated as GST-2) is related to sigma class GSTs and was previously described as an indirect flight muscle-associated protein with no known catalytic properties...
  3. Kim G, Lee Y, Lee G, Cho Y, Lee Y, Jang Y, et al. Overexpression of malic enzyme in the larval stage extends Drosophila lifespan. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;456:676-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that metabolic changes mediated by Men during development might be related to the control of ROS tolerance and the longevity of Drosophila. ..
  4. Kasuya J, Kaas G, Kitamoto T. Effects of lithium chloride on the gene expression profiles in Drosophila heads. Neurosci Res. 2009;64:413-20 pubmed publisher
  5. Wang S, Gao Y, Song X, Ma X, Zhu X, Mao Y, et al. Wnt signaling-mediated redox regulation maintains the germ line stem cell differentiation niche. elife. 2015;4:e08174 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study has revealed a novel strategy for Wnt signaling in regulating the cellular redox state and maintaining the differentiation niche. ..
  6. Akgül B, Tu C. Pentobarbital-mediated regulation of alternative polyadenylation in Drosophila glutathione S-transferase D21 mRNAs. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4027-33 pubmed
    Two nearly identical, gstD21(L) and gstD21(S) mRNAs, whose polyadenylation sites differ by 19 nucleotides, are transcribed from the intronless glutathione S-transferase D21 gene in Drosophila...
  7. Gonsalves S, Moses A, Razak Z, Robert F, Westwood J. Whole-genome analysis reveals that active heat shock factor binding sites are mostly associated with non-heat shock genes in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15934 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Drosophila HSF may be regulating many genes besides the known HS genes and that some of these genes may be regulated during non-stress conditions. ..
  8. Toung Y, Hsieh T, Tu C. The glutathione S-transferase D genes. A divergently organized, intronless gene family in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:9737-46 pubmed
    ..These genes, designated gst Ds in the glutathione S-transferase gene superfamily, are closely linked within a approximately 60-kilobase DNA ..
  9. Akgül B, Tu C. Evidence for a stabilizer element in the untranslated regions of Drosophila glutathione S-transferase D1 mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:34700-7 pubmed
    The neighboring genes gstD1 and gstD21 share 70% sequence identity. gstD1 encodes a 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(P-chlorophenyl)ethane dehydrochlorinase; gstD21, a ligandin...
  10. Tang A, Tu C. Pentobarbital-induced changes in Drosophila glutathione S-transferase D21 mRNA stability. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13819-25 pubmed
    ..The GST D1 protein level is four times as abundant as the GST D21 protein...
  11. Tohyama D, Yamaguchi A. A critical role of SNF1A/dAMPKalpha (Drosophila AMP-activated protein kinase alpha) in muscle on longevity and stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:112-8 pubmed publisher
  12. List O, Togawa T, Tsuda M, Matsuo T, Elard L, Aigaki T. Overexpression of grappa encoding a histone methyltransferase enhances stress resistance in Drosophila. Hereditas. 2009;146:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether gpp overexpression induced anti-oxidant genes, Catalase, Sod, Sod2, GstD2, dhd, TrxT and Trx-2. However, none of these genes was induced...
  13. Deng H, Kerppola T. Visualization of the Drosophila dKeap1-CncC interaction on chromatin illumines cooperative, xenobiotic-specific gene activation. Development. 2014;141:3277-88 pubmed publisher