Gene Symbol: gsb
Description: gooseberry
Alias: BSH-9, BSH9, BSH9c2, CG3388, Dmel\CG3388, GSB-D, Gsb, Gsb-d, gsb-2, gsb-d, gsb-distal, gsbBSH9, gsbd, l(2)01155, l(2)gsb, gooseberry, CG3388-PA, Gooseberry-distal, gooseberry distal, gsb-PA
Species: fruit fly
Products:     gsb

Top Publications

  1. Perrimon N, Mahowald A. Multiple functions of segment polarity genes in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1987;119:587-600 pubmed
    ..We have compared the phenotype of five other segment polarity loci: four embryonic lethals [l(1)armadillo, l(2)gooseberry, l(2)wingless, and l(3)hedgehog]; and the late zygotic lethal, l(1)fused...
  2. Li X, Noll M. Compatibility between enhancers and promoters determines the transcriptional specificity of gooseberry and gooseberry neuro in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1994;13:400-6 pubmed
    The two Drosophila genes gooseberry (gsb) and gooseberry neuro (gsbn) are closely apposed and divergently transcribed...
  3. Gutjahr T, Patel N, Li X, Goodman C, Noll M. Analysis of the gooseberry locus in Drosophila embryos: gooseberry determines the cuticular pattern and activates gooseberry neuro. Development. 1993;118:21-31 pubmed
    ..One of these loci, gooseberry, consists of two divergently transcribed genes, gooseberry and gooseberry neuro, which share a paired box as ..
  4. Marie B, Pym E, Bergquist S, Davis G. Synaptic homeostasis is consolidated by the cell fate gene gooseberry, a Drosophila pax3/7 homolog. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8071-82 pubmed publisher
    In a large-scale screening effort, we identified the gene gooseberry (gsb) as being necessary for synaptic homeostasis at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction...
  5. Broadus J, Skeath J, Spana E, Bossing T, Technau G, Doe C. New neuroblast markers and the origin of the aCC/pCC neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system. Mech Dev. 1995;53:393-402 pubmed
    ..These results are supported by DiI cell lineage analysis of neuroblasts identified in vivo. ..
  6. Bertuccioli C, Fasano L, Jun S, Wang S, Sheng G, Desplan C. In vivo requirement for the paired domain and homeodomain of the paired segmentation gene product. Development. 1996;122:2673-85 pubmed
    ..gene paired is required for the correct expression of the segment polarity genes wingless, engrailed and gooseberry. It encodes a protein containing three conserved motifs: a homeodomain (HD), a paired domain (PD) and a PRD (His/..
  7. Xue L, Li X, Noll M. Multiple protein functions of paired in Drosophila development and their conservation in the Gooseberry and Pax3 homologs. Development. 2001;128:395-405 pubmed
    The Drosophila segmentation gene paired, whose product is homologous to the Drosophila Gooseberry and mammalian Pax3 proteins, has three general functions: proper development of the larval cuticle, survival to adulthood and male fertility...
  8. Skeath J, Zhang Y, Holmgren R, Carroll S, Doe C. Specification of neuroblast identity in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system by gooseberry-distal. Nature. 1995;376:427-30 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Pax-type gooseberry-distal gene specifies row 5 neuroblast identity...
  9. Bhat K, Schedl P. Requirement for engrailed and invected genes reveals novel regulatory interactions between engrailed/invected, patched, gooseberry and wingless during Drosophila neurogenesis. Development. 1997;124:1675-88 pubmed
    ..Patched (Ptc) promotes a wingless (wg)-mediated specification of a neuronal precursor cell, NB4-2, by repressing gooseberry (gsb)...

More Information


  1. De Graeve F, Jagla T, Daponte J, Rickert C, Dastugue B, Urban J, et al. The ladybird homeobox genes are essential for the specification of a subpopulation of neural cells. Dev Biol. 2004;270:122-34 pubmed
  2. Xue L, Noll M. The functional conservation of proteins in evolutionary alleles and the dominant role of enhancers in evolution. EMBO J. 1996;15:3722-31 pubmed
    ..can be rescued to viable adults by the evolutionary alleles prd-Gsb and prd-Pax3, which express the Drosophila Gooseberry and mouse Pax3 proteins under the control of the paired cis-regulatory region...
  3. Matsuzaki M, Saigo K. hedgehog signaling independent of engrailed and wingless required for post-S1 neuroblast formation in Drosophila CNS. Development. 1996;122:3567-75 pubmed
    ..NBs 6-4 and 7-3, arising from the engrailed domain, were also found to be specified by the differential expression of two homeobox genes, gooseberry-distal and engrailed.
  4. Bouchard M, St Amand J, Cote S. Combinatorial activity of pair-rule proteins on the Drosophila gooseberry early enhancer. Dev Biol. 2000;222:135-46 pubmed
    The early expression of the Drosophila segment polarity gene gooseberry (gsb) is under the control of the pair-rule genes. We have identified a 514-bp enhancer which reproduces the early gsb expression pattern in transgenic flies...
  5. Bopp D, Burri M, Baumgartner S, Frigerio G, Noll M. Conservation of a large protein domain in the segmentation gene paired and in functionally related genes of Drosophila. Cell. 1986;47:1033-40 pubmed
    Extending our search for homologous domains of the Drosophila paired gene, two closely linked genes at the gooseberry locus have been isolated...
  6. Duman Scheel M, Li X, Orlov I, Noll M, Patel N. Genetic separation of the neural and cuticular patterning functions of gooseberry. Development. 1997;124:2855-65 pubmed
    ..role in the specification of the epidermal pattern in each segment, several segment polarity genes, including gooseberry (gsb), specify cell fate in the Drosophila central nervous system (CNS)...
  7. Nusslein Volhard C, Wieschaus E. Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila. Nature. 1980;287:795-801 pubmed
  8. Bopp D, Jamet E, Baumgartner S, Burri M, Noll M. Isolation of two tissue-specific Drosophila paired box genes, Pox meso and Pox neuro. EMBO J. 1989;8:3447-57 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the previously isolated paired domain genes, paired and gooseberry, which contain both a paired and a homeo-domain (PHox genes), Pox meso and Pox neuro possess no homeodomain...
  9. Deshpande N, Dittrich R, Technau G, Urban J. Successive specification of Drosophila neuroblasts NB 6-4 and NB 7-3 depends on interaction of the segment polarity genes wingless, gooseberry and naked cuticle. Development. 2001;128:3253-61 pubmed
    ..Instead, we present evidence to show that the interplay of the segmentation genes naked cuticle (nkd) and gooseberry (gsb), both of which are targets of wingless (wg) activity, leads to differential commitment to NB 6-4 and NB 7-..
  10. Zhang Y, Ungar A, Fresquez C, Holmgren R. Ectopic expression of either the Drosophila gooseberry-distal or proximal gene causes alterations of cell fate in the epidermis and central nervous system. Development. 1994;120:1151-61 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that the segment polarity locus gooseberry, which contains two closely related transcripts gooseberry-proximal and gooseberry-distal, is required for proper development in both the epidermis and the central ..
  11. Baumgardt M, Miguel Aliaga I, Karlsson D, Ekman H, Thor S. Specification of neuronal identities by feedforward combinatorial coding. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e37 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that a limited number of regulators may constitute a potent combinatorial code that dictates unique neuronal cell fate, and that such codes show a surprising disregard for many global instructive cues. ..
  12. Baumgartner S, Bopp D, Burri M, Noll M. Structure of two genes at the gooseberry locus related to the paired gene and their spatial expression during Drosophila embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1987;1:1247-67 pubmed
    The gooseberry (gsb) locus contains two closely linked genes, BSH9 and BSH4, which are structurally related to each other and to the paired (prd) gene...
  13. Xue L, Noll M. Drosophila female sexual behavior induced by sterile males showing copulation complementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3272-5 pubmed
    ..Our observations may have important implications for the role of sexual behavior in evolution and for the treatment of male sexual dysfunction in humans. ..
  14. Bhat K, van Beers E, Bhat P. Sloppy paired acts as the downstream target of wingless in the Drosophila CNS and interaction between sloppy paired and gooseberry inhibits sloppy paired during neurogenesis. Development. 2000;127:655-65 pubmed
    ..Finally, previous results show that Gooseberry (Gsb) prevents Wg from specifying NB4-2 identity to the wg-expressing NB5-3...
  15. Bhat K. Segment polarity genes in neuroblast formation and identity specification during Drosophila neurogenesis. Bioessays. 1999;21:472-85 pubmed
  16. Xue L, Noll M. Dual role of the Pax gene paired in accessory gland development of Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:339-46 pubmed
    ..Both Paired functions are absolutely required for male fertility, and both depend on an enhancer located within 0.8 kb of the downstream region of paired. ..
  17. Li X, Noll M. Evolution of distinct developmental functions of three Drosophila genes by acquisition of different cis-regulatory regions. Nature. 1994;367:83-7 pubmed
    ..The three paired-box and homeobox genes paired (prd), gooseberry (gsb) and gooseberry neuro (gsbn) have distinct developmental functions in Drosophila embryogenesis...
  18. Bhat K. The patched signaling pathway mediates repression of gooseberry allowing neuroblast specification by wingless during Drosophila neurogenesis. Development. 1996;122:2921-32 pubmed
    ..I show that two other proteins, a transcription factor Gooseberry (Gsb) and a transmembrane protein Patched (Ptc), participate in the Wg-mediated specification of NB4-2 by ..
  19. Noll M. Evolution and role of Pax genes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993;3:595-605 pubmed
    ..Their developmental roles are assessed in terms of their participation in conserved gene networks and mechanisms that establish positional information. ..
  20. Patel N, Schafer B, Goodman C, Holmgren R. The role of segment polarity genes during Drosophila neurogenesis. Genes Dev. 1989;3:890-904 pubmed
    ..b>gooseberry mutants display a complex series of alterations in neuronal identity both underlying and outside of the region ..
  21. Cai J, Lan Y, Appel L, Weir M. Dissection of the Drosophila paired protein: functional requirements for conserved motifs. Mech Dev. 1994;47:139-50 pubmed
    ..suggest that the PRD repeat is not required for the in vivo regulation of the target genes, engrailed and gooseberry. However, the PRD repeat appears to be embedded within a proline-rich transcriptional activation domain required ..
  22. Li X, Noll M. Role of the gooseberry gene in Drosophila embryos: maintenance of wingless expression by a wingless--gooseberry autoregulatory loop. EMBO J. 1993;12:4499-509 pubmed
    During Drosophila embryogenesis, segment polarity genes, such as engrailed (en), wingless (wg) and gooseberry (gsb) show complex interactions that provide positional information along the antero-posterior axis within each segment...
  23. Urbach R, Volland D, Seibert J, Technau G. Segment-specific requirements for dorsoventral patterning genes during early brain development in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4315-30 pubmed
    ..We also show that, in the anterior brain (protocerebrum), normal production of early glial cells is independent from msh and vnd, in contrast to the posterior brain (deuto- and tritocerebrum) and to the ventral nerve cord. ..
  24. Jiao R, Daube M, Duan H, Zou Y, Frei E, Noll M. Headless flies generated by developmental pathway interference. Development. 2001;128:3307-19 pubmed
  25. Fu W, Noll M. The Pax2 homolog sparkling is required for development of cone and pigment cells in the Drosophila eye. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2066-78 pubmed
    ..Spa expression is further required for activation of cut in cone cells and of the Bar locus in primary pigment cells. We suggest close functional analogies between Spa and Pax2 in the development of the insect and vertebrate eye. ..
  26. Dahl E, Koseki H, Balling R. Pax genes and organogenesis. Bioessays. 1997;19:755-65 pubmed
    ..One predominant theme is signal transduction during tissue interactions, which may lead to a position-specific regulation of cell proliferation. ..
  27. Dormand E, Brand A. Runt determines cell fates in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Development. 1998;125:1659-67 pubmed
    ..We find that Runt is expressed in neuroblast 3-3, supporting an autonomous role for runt during neuroblast specification. ..
  28. Galindo R, Allport J, Olson E. A Drosophila model of the rhabdomyosarcoma initiator PAX7-FKHR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13439-44 pubmed
  29. French V. Insect segmentation: Genes, stripes and segments in "Hoppers". Curr Biol. 2001;11:R910-3 pubmed
    ..This suggests that, despite great differences between the embryos, a hierarchy of gap/pair-rule/segment polarity gene function may be a shared and ancestral feature of insect segmentation. ..
  30. Friedrich M, Caravas J. New insights from hemichordate genomes: prebilaterian origin and parallel modifications in the paired domain of the Pax gene eyegone. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2011;316:387-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings identify Drosophila eyg as the baptizing member of an ancient Pax gene subfamily and recommend abandoning its classification as Pax6(5a)-related gene. ..
  31. Li L, Li P, Xue L. The RED domain of Paired is specifically required for Drosophila accessory gland maturation. Open Biol. 2015;5:140179 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus identified an important physiological function for the evolutionarily conserved RED domain. ..
  32. Grueneberg D, Natesan S, Alexandre C, Gilman M. Human and Drosophila homeodomain proteins that enhance the DNA-binding activity of serum response factor. Science. 1992;257:1089-95 pubmed
  33. Skeath J, Panganiban G, Selegue J, Carroll S. Gene regulation in two dimensions: the proneural achaete and scute genes are controlled by combinations of axis-patterning genes through a common intergenic control region. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2606-19 pubmed
  34. Vining M, Bradley P, Comeaux C, Andrew D. Organ positioning in Drosophila requires complex tissue-tissue interactions. Dev Biol. 2005;287:19-34 pubmed
    ..We also provide evidence that the segment-polarity gene, gooseberry (gsb), controls expression of signals from the developing fat body that direct posterior migration of the glands...
  35. Hidalgo A. Interactions between segment polarity genes and the generation of the segmental pattern in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1991;35:77-87 pubmed
    Although mutations in the segment polarity genes wingless, engrailed, hedgehog, gooseberry and cubitus-interruptusD all affect the region of naked cuticle within each segment of the Drosophila larva, subtle phenotypic differences suggest ..
  36. Treisman J, Harris E, Wilson D, Desplan C. The homeodomain: a new face for the helix-turn-helix?. Bioessays. 1992;14:145-50 pubmed
    ..We propose that this intrinsic complexity of the HD, as well as its frequent association with other DNA binding domains, explains the functional specificity achieved by genes encoding highly related HDs. ..
  37. DiNardo S, Heemskerk J, Dougan S, O Farrell P. The making of a maggot: patterning the Drosophila embryonic epidermis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1994;4:529-34 pubmed
    ..These signals mediate a mutually re-enforcing interaction between the two rows of cells to sustain organizer function. In a distinct and subsequent phase, wingless and hedgehog act to specify the fates of cells. ..
  38. Noordermeer J, Klingensmith J, Nusse R. Differential requirements for segment polarity genes in wingless signaling. Mech Dev. 1995;51:145-55 pubmed
    ..Signaling from engrailed cells to this novel wingless expression domain is dependent on hedgehog but also on porcupine. We further demonstrate a novel requirement for hedgehog in maintenance of expression of engrailed itself. ..
  39. He H, Noll M. Differential and redundant functions of gooseberry and gooseberry neuro in the central nervous system and segmentation of the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2013;382:209-23 pubmed publisher
    The gooseberry locus of Drosophila consists of two homologous Pax genes, gooseberry neuro (gsbn) and gooseberry (gsb)...
  40. Lucchetta E, Munson M, Ismagilov R. Characterization of the local temperature in space and time around a developing Drosophila embryo in a microfluidic device. Lab Chip. 2006;6:185-90 pubmed
    ..The microfluidic platform characterized here could prove useful in understanding dynamics of biochemical networks as they respond to changes in temperature. ..
  41. Freeland D, Kuhn D. Expression patterns of developmental genes reveal segment and parasegment organization of D. melanogaster genital discs. Mech Dev. 1996;56:61-72 pubmed
    ..segmentally in the anal primordium of A10, extending through the Abd-B unstained region, wingless (wg) and gooseberry (gsb) may have assumed an added role in the discs perhaps providing proximal-distal cues...
  42. WATSON J, Crews S. Formation and specification of a Drosophila dopaminergic precursor cell. Development. 2012;139:3316-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the gooseberry/gooseberry-neuro (gsb/gsb-n) transcription factor genes act to specify MP3 cell fate...
  43. Nasiadka A, Krause H. Kinetic analysis of segmentation gene interactions in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1999;126:1515-26 pubmed
    ..In total, 11 putative Ftz target genes are analyzed, and the data provide a substantially revised view of Ftz roles and activities within the segmentation hierarchy. ..
  44. Bhat K. frizzled and frizzled 2 play a partially redundant role in wingless signaling and have similar requirements to wingless in neurogenesis. Cell. 1998;95:1027-36 pubmed
    ..Since the penetrance of the CNS phenotypes is not complete in double mutants, additional components that allow some degree of Wg signaling must exist in vivo. ..
  45. Ingham P. Segment polarity genes and cell patterning within the Drosophila body segment. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1991;1:261-7 pubmed
  46. Wilson D, Sheng G, Lecuit T, Dostatni N, Desplan C. Cooperative dimerization of paired class homeo domains on DNA. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2120-34 pubmed
    ..The cooperative dimerization of homeo domains in the Prd class distinguishes them from other classes, whereas binding-site configuration and sequence specificity allow for distinctions within this class. ..
  47. Barad M, Jack T, Chadwick R, McGinnis W. A novel, tissue-specific, Drosophila homeobox gene. EMBO J. 1988;7:2151-61 pubmed
    ..0 exhibits a tissue-specific pattern of expression. The cells that accumulate transcripts for this novel gene correspond to the visceral musculature and its anlagen. ..
  48. Matsuzaki F, Koizumi K, Hama C, Yoshioka T, Nabeshima Y. Cloning of the Drosophila prospero gene and its expression in ganglion mother cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;182:1326-32 pubmed
    ..Our results provoke that in neuronal cell differentiation ganglion mother cells might play a pivotal role associating with the pros function. ..
  49. Breitling R, Gerber J. Origin of the paired domain. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:644-50 pubmed
  50. van den Heuvel M, Klingensmith J, Perrimon N, Nusse R. Cell patterning in the Drosophila segment: engrailed and wingless antigen distributions in segment polarity mutant embryos. Dev Suppl. 1993;:105-14 pubmed
    ..In embryos mutant for hedgehog, fused, cubitus interruptus Dominant and gooseberry, expression of engrailed is affected to varying degrees...
  51. Von Ohlen T, Hooper J. The ciD mutation encodes a chimeric protein whose activity is regulated by Wingless signaling. Dev Biol. 1999;208:147-56 pubmed
    ..We suggest that wild-type Ci also recruits a protein with a transactivation domain as part of its normal mechanism of activation. ..
  52. Perrimon N. The genetic basis of patterned baldness in Drosophila. Cell. 1994;76:781-4 pubmed
  53. Patel N. Developmental evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science. 1994;266:581-90 pubmed
  54. Doe C, Skeath J. Neurogenesis in the insect central nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1996;6:18-24 pubmed
    ..And finally, new cell-lineage methods are being used to determine the entire lineage of identified neuroblasts, including axon projections and synaptic contacts. ..
  55. McDonald J, Fujioka M, Odden J, Jaynes J, Doe C. Specification of motoneuron fate in Drosophila: integration of positive and negative transcription factor inputs by a minimal eve enhancer. J Neurobiol. 2003;57:193-203 pubmed
    ..Thus, the eve enhancer integrates multiple positive and negative transcription factor inputs to restrict eve expression to a single precursor cell (GMC4-2a) and its RP2 motoneuron progeny. ..
  56. McGinnis W, Jack T, Chadwick R, Regulski M, Bergson C, McGinnis N, et al. Establishment and maintenance of position-specific expression of the Drosophila homeotic selector gene Deformed. Adv Genet. 1990;27:363-402 pubmed
  57. Li H, Kroll J, Lennox S, Ogundeyi O, Jeter J, Depasquale G, et al. A GAL4 driver resource for developmental and behavioral studies on the larval CNS of Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2014;8:897-908 pubmed publisher
    ..The optic lobes, by comparison, appear to use a different set of genetic instructions in their development. ..
  58. Urbach R, Technau G. Segment polarity and DV patterning gene expression reveals segmental organization of the Drosophila brain. Development. 2003;130:3607-20 pubmed
    ..out a comprehensive analysis of the expression of segment polarity genes (engrailed, wingless, hedgehog, gooseberry distal, mirror) and DV patterning genes (muscle segment homeobox, intermediate neuroblast defective, ventral ..
  59. Davis G, Patel N. Playing by pair-rules?. Bioessays. 2003;25:425-9 pubmed
    ..Recent data of Dearden et al.1 and Henry et al.,2 however, hint that a pair-rule mechanism might play a role in the segmentation process of basal arthropods and vertebrates. ..
  60. Nohno T, Koyama E, Myokai F, Taniguchi S, Ohuchi H, Saito T, et al. A chicken homeobox gene related to Drosophila paired is predominantly expressed in the developing limb. Dev Biol. 1993;158:254-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the Prx-1 homeodomain protein is involved in the differentiation of bone, muscle, and other tissues of mesodermal origin during limb development. ..
  61. Preiss A, Rosenberg U, Kienlin A, Seifert E, Jackle H. Molecular genetics of Krüppel, a gene required for segmentation of the Drosophila embryo. Nature. 1985;313:27-32 pubmed
    ..It has already allowed the identification of a blastoderm-specific Krüppel transcript and the phenotypic rescue of mutant embryos by injected cloned DNA. ..
  62. Rockel S, Geertz M, Hens K, Deplancke B, Maerkl S. iSLIM: a comprehensive approach to mapping and characterizing gene regulatory networks. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:e52 pubmed publisher
    ..With integrated systems-level interaction mapping, it is now possible to rapidly and quantitatively map gene regulatory networks of higher eukaryotes. ..
  63. Von Ohlen T, Lessing D, Nusse R, Hooper J. Hedgehog signaling regulates transcription through cubitus interruptus, a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:2404-9 pubmed
    ..hh activates transcription of wingless (wg), gooseberry (gsb), and patched (ptc) in the cells immediately adjacent to Hh-secreting cells...
  64. Martinez Arias A. Interactions between Wingless and Notch during the assignment of cell fates in Drosophila. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:325-33 pubmed
    ..In this essay, I summarize these interactions and discuss the possibility that Wingless acts as a ligand for Notch as part of a switch that is iteratively involved in the assignation of cell fates during development. ..
  65. Biesecker L. Strike three for GLI3. Nat Genet. 1997;17:259-60 pubmed
  66. Wieschaus E, Riggleman R. Autonomous requirements for the segment polarity gene armadillo during Drosophila embryogenesis. Cell. 1987;49:177-84 pubmed
    ..Few, if any, clones were found in the posterior-most regions of the naked cuticle, and none were found in the posterior compartments of the thorax. ..
  67. Davis G, Jaramillo C, Patel N. Pax group III genes and the evolution of insect pair-rule patterning. Development. 2001;128:3445-58 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the expression of homologs of the Drosophila Pax group III genes paired, gooseberry and gooseberry-neuro in short germ flour beetles and grasshoppers...
  68. Gieseler K, Mariol M, Sagnier T, Graba Y, Pradel J. wingless and DWnt4, 2 Drosophila Wnt genes, have related expression, regulation and function during the embryonic development. C R Acad Sci III. 1995;318:1101-10 pubmed
    ..We propose that wingless and DWnt4 achieve opposite, but complementary functions in intrasegmental cell patterning of the embryonic ectoderm. ..
  69. Sampedro J, Johnston P, Lawrence P. A role for wingless in the segmental gradient of Drosophila?. Development. 1993;117:677-87 pubmed
    ..We propose an alternative hypothesis that the wild-type function of the wingless protein is to maintain and 'seal' the parasegment borders; in its absence the borders fail to isolate abutting segmental gradients. ..
  70. Oakley T, Ostman B, Wilson A. Repression and loss of gene expression outpaces activation and gain in recently duplicated fly genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11637-41 pubmed
    ..The trend is important because repression of gene expression is a hypothesized mechanism for the origin of evolutionarily novel morphologies through specialization. ..
  71. Martin Bermudo M, Martinez C, Rodriguez A, Jimenez F. Distribution and function of the lethal of scute gene product during early neurogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 1991;113:445-54 pubmed
    ..However, our study in l'sc mutants of the expression of fushi tarazu, engrailed, and even-skipped, used as markers of neuronal identity, has not provided evidence to support this hypothesis. ..
  72. Swantek D, Gergen J. Ftz modulates Runt-dependent activation and repression of segment-polarity gene transcription. Development. 2004;131:2281-90 pubmed
    ..The unique and simple rules for slp1 regulation make this an attractive target for dissecting the molecular mechanisms of Runt-dependent regulation...
  73. Gaziova I, Bhat K. Ancestry-independent fate specification and plasticity in the developmental timing of a typical Drosophila neuronal lineage. Development. 2009;136:263-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a GMC identity can be independent of parental identity and GMC formation and elaboration need not be strictly time-bound. ..
  74. Frasch M, Levine M. Complementary patterns of even-skipped and fushi tarazu expression involve their differential regulation by a common set of segmentation genes in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1987;1:981-95 pubmed
  75. Bhat K. Cell-cell signaling during neurogenesis: some answers and many questions. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:127-39 pubmed
  76. Li X, Gutjahr T, Noll M. Separable regulatory elements mediate the establishment and maintenance of cell states by the Drosophila segment-polarity gene gooseberry. EMBO J. 1993;12:1427-36 pubmed specified within each segment by the products of the segment-polarity genes which include wingless (wg) and gooseberry (gsb)...