Gene Symbol: grp
Description: grapes
Alias: CG17161, CHK1, CHK1/Grapes, Chk1, Dchk1, DmChk1, Dmel\CG17161, Grp, Grp/DChk1, Pk36A, Pk?1, chk1, dChk1, grp(chk), grps, l(2)k15102, lemp, grapes, CG17161-PA, CG17161-PB, CG17161-PC, CG17161-PD, CG17161-PF, Chk1/Grapes, checkpoint kinase 1, grp-PA, grp-PB, grp-PC, grp-PD, grp-PF, last empress, lethal (2) k15102, protein kinase-like 36A
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Takada S, Kelkar A, Theurkauf W. Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 couples centrosome function and spindle assembly to genomic integrity. Cell. 2003;113:87-99 pubmed
    ..DmChk2 is therefore essential for a "mitotic catastrophe" signal that disrupts centrosome function in response to genotoxic stress and ensures that mutant and aneuploid nuclei are eliminated from the embryonic precursor pool. ..
  2. de Vries H, Uyetake L, Lemstra W, Brunsting J, Su T, Kampinga H, et al. Grp/DChk1 is required for G2-M checkpoint activation in Drosophila S2 cells, whereas Dmnk/DChk2 is dispensable. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1833-42 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the function of these checkpoint kinases, referred to as Grp/DChk1 and Dmnk/DChk2 in Drosophila Schneider's cells, and identify an upstream regulator as well as downstream targets ..
  3. Ji J, Squirrell J, Schubiger G. Both cyclin B levels and DNA-replication checkpoint control the early embryonic mitoses in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:401-11 pubmed
    ..Because interphase also extends in checkpoint mutant (grapes) embryo after cycle 10, although less dramatic than wild-type embryos, interphase extension after cycle 10 is ..
  4. Xu J, Du W. Drosophila chk2 plays an important role in a mitotic checkpoint in syncytial embryos. FEBS Lett. 2003;545:209-12 pubmed
    ..J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 8468-8475] in mammals, these observations suggest that polo might be a key target of Dmchk2 in regulating mitotic entry in response to DNA damage or replication block. ..
  5. Masrouha N, Yang L, Hijal S, Larochelle S, Suter B. The Drosophila chk2 gene loki is essential for embryonic DNA double-strand-break checkpoints induced in S phase or G2. Genetics. 2003;163:973-82 pubmed
    ..As mutations in human chk2 were linked to several cancers, these similarities point to the usefulness of the Drosophila model system. ..
  6. Xu J, Xin S, Du W. Drosophila Chk2 is required for DNA damage-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. FEBS Lett. 2001;508:394-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Chk2 protein plays a crucial role in the DNA damage response pathway mediating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and that the ATM-Chk2 pathway is likely conserved in Drosophila. ..
  7. Fogarty P, Kalpin R, Sullivan W. The Drosophila maternal-effect mutation grapes causes a metaphase arrest at nuclear cycle 13. Development. 1994;120:2131-42 pubmed
    b>grapes (grp) is a second chromosome (36A-B) maternal-effect lethal mutation in Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrate that the syncytial nuclear divisions of grp-derived embryos are normal through metaphase of nuclear cycle 12...
  8. Purdy A, Uyetake L, Cordeiro M, Su T. Regulation of mitosis in response to damaged or incompletely replicated DNA require different levels of Grapes (Drosophila Chk1). J Cell Sci. 2005;118:3305-15 pubmed
    ..We further document that mutants in Drosophila Chk1 (Grapes) that are capable of delaying the progress through mitosis in response to IR are incapable of delaying progress ..
  9. Jaklevic B, Su T. Relative contribution of DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and cell death to survival after DNA damage in Drosophila larvae. Curr Biol. 2004;14:23-32 pubmed
    ..After exposure to ionizing radiation, wild-type Drosophila larvae regulate the cell cycle and repair DNA; grp (DmChk1) mutants cannot regulate the cell cycle but repair DNA; okra (DmRAD54) mutants regulate the cell cycle but are ..

More Information


  1. Yu K, Saint R, Sullivan W. The Grapes checkpoint coordinates nuclear envelope breakdown and chromosome condensation. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:609-15 pubmed
    Mutations in the embryonic Drosophila Grapes/Chk1 checkpoint result in an abbreviated interphase, chromosome condensation defects and metaphase delays...
  2. McCleland M, Shermoen A, O Farrell P. DNA replication times the cell cycle and contributes to the mid-blastula transition in Drosophila embryos. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that normal S phase and replication checkpoint activities are important timers of the undisturbed cell cycle before, but not after, the MBT...
  3. Yi X, de Vries H, Siudeja K, Rana A, Lemstra W, Brunsting J, et al. Stwl modifies chromatin compaction and is required to maintain DNA integrity in the presence of perturbed DNA replication. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:983-94 pubmed publisher
  4. Bi X, Srikanta D, Fanti L, Pimpinelli S, Badugu R, Kellum R, et al. Drosophila ATM and ATR checkpoint kinases control partially redundant pathways for telomere maintenance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15167-72 pubmed
    ..but not the Chk2 kinase, whereas the ATR-regulated pathway includes its partner ATR-interacting protein but not the Chk1 kinase...
  5. Sullivan W, Fogarty P, Theurkauf W. Mutations affecting the cytoskeletal organization of syncytial Drosophila embryos. Development. 1993;118:1245-54 pubmed
    ..We describe three mutations, grapes, scrambled, and nuclear-fallout, which define three previously uncharacterized genes...
  6. Royou A, Macias H, Sullivan W. The Drosophila Grp/Chk1 DNA damage checkpoint controls entry into anaphase. Curr Biol. 2005;15:334-9 pubmed
    ..We found that both the BubR1 spindle checkpoint pathway and the Grp/Chk1 DNA damage checkpoint pathway are involved in delaying the metaphase/anaphase transition after extensive X-..
  7. Price D, Rabinovitch S, O Farrell P, Campbell S. Drosophila wee1 has an essential role in the nuclear divisions of early embryogenesis. Genetics. 2000;155:159-66 pubmed
    ..In fission yeast, genes encoding similar kinases (rad3 and chk1, respectively) are components of a cell cycle checkpoint that delays mitosis by inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1...
  8. Sakaguchi A, Steward R. Aberrant monomethylation of histone H4 lysine 20 activates the DNA damage checkpoint in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:155-62 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that monomethylated H4K20 is involved in the maintenance of proper higher order structure of DNA and is consequently essential for chromosome condensation. ..
  9. Su T, Campbell S, O Farrell P. Drosophila grapes/CHK1 mutants are defective in cyclin proteolysis and coordination of mitotic events. Curr Biol. 1999;9:919-22 pubmed
    The Drosophila grapes (grp) gene, which encodes a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Chk1 kinase, provides a cell-cycle checkpoint that delays mitosis in response to inhibition of DNA replication [1]...
  10. Lee E, Trinh T, Shim H, Park S, Nguyen T, Kim M, et al. Drosophila Claspin is required for the G2 arrest that is induced by DNA replication stress but not by DNA double-strand breaks. DNA Repair (Amst). 2012;11:741-52 pubmed publisher
    ATR and Chk1 are protein kinases that perform major roles in the DNA replication checkpoint that delays entry into mitosis in response to DNA replication stress by hydroxyurea (HU) treatment...
  11. Sakaguchi A, Karachentsev D, Seth Pasricha M, Druzhinina M, Steward R. Functional characterization of the Drosophila Hmt4-20/Suv4-20 histone methyltransferase. Genetics. 2008;179:317-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that even with this biochemical function, Suv4-20 is not required for survival and does not control position-effect variegation (PEV). ..
  12. Sibon O, Stevenson V, Theurkauf W. DNA-replication checkpoint control at the Drosophila midblastula transition. Nature. 1997;388:93-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mutations in the grapes (grp) checkpoint 1 kinase homologue in Drosophila block the morphological and biochemical changes that accompany ..
  13. Stumpff J, Kellogg D, Krohne K, Su T. Drosophila Wee1 interacts with members of the gammaTURC and is required for proper mitotic-spindle morphogenesis and positioning. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1525-34 pubmed
    ..Instead, dWee1 is also required for phosphorylation of gamma-tubulin, centrosome positioning, and mitotic-spindle integrity. We propose a model to account for these requirements. ..
  14. Radcliffe C, Silva E, Campbell S. A method for assaying the sensitivity of Drosophila replication checkpoint mutants to anti-cancer and DNA-damaging drugs. Genome. 2002;45:881-9 pubmed
    ..Dwee1, grp and mei-41 are genes that encode kinases that function in the DNA replication checkpoint...
  15. Jaklevic B, Uyetake L, Lemstra W, Chang J, Leary W, Edwards A, et al. Contribution of growth and cell cycle checkpoints to radiation survival in Drosophila. Genetics. 2006;174:1963-72 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide evidence that Grapes is needed for survival of Drosophila S2 cells after exposure to similar doses of IR, suggesting that multicellular ..
  16. Fogarty P, Campbell S, Abu Shumays R, Phalle B, Yu K, Uy G, et al. The Drosophila grapes gene is related to checkpoint gene chk1/rad27 and is required for late syncytial division fidelity. Curr Biol. 1997;7:418-26 pubmed
    ..relevance of cell cycle checkpoints in early Drosophila embryogenesis, we have characterized the maternal-effect grapes (grp) mutation, which may affect feedback control during early syncytial divisions...
  17. McNamee L, Brodsky M. p53-independent apoptosis limits DNA damage-induced aneuploidy. Genetics. 2009;182:423-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in grp, a cell cycle checkpoint gene, and puc, a negative regulator of the JNK pathway, sensitize p53 mutant cells to ..
  18. Sibon O, Laurencon A, Hawley R, Theurkauf W. The Drosophila ATM homologue Mei-41 has an essential checkpoint function at the midblastula transition. Curr Biol. 1999;9:302-12 pubmed
    ..A similar cleavage-stage arrest is produced by mutations in grapes, which encodes a homologue of the Checkpoint-1 kinase...
  19. Larocque J, Jaklevic B, Su T, Sekelsky J. Drosophila ATR in double-strand break repair. Genetics. 2007;175:1023-33 pubmed
    ..To test this, we genetically reduced mitotic cyclin levels and also examined repair in grp (DmChk1) and lok (DmChk2) mutants...
  20. Abdu U, Brodsky M, Schupbach T. Activation of a meiotic checkpoint during Drosophila oogenesis regulates the translation of Gurken through Chk2/Mnk. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1645-51 pubmed
    ..DmChk2 is a transducer of the meiotic checkpoint in flies that is activated by unrepaired double-strand DNA breaks. Activation of DmChk2 in this specific checkpoint affects a cell cycle regulator as well as mRNA translation. ..
  21. Titen S, Golic K. Telomere loss provokes multiple pathways to apoptosis and produces genomic instability in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;180:1821-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The most prominent outcome of this event is cell death through Chk2 and Chk1 controlled p53-dependent apoptotic pathways...
  22. Sibon O, Kelkar A, Lemstra W, Theurkauf W. DNA-replication/DNA-damage-dependent centrosome inactivation in Drosophila embryos. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:90-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that centrosome inactivation is part of a damage-control system that blocks chromosome segregation when replication/damage checkpoint control fails. ..
  23. Royou A, McCusker D, Kellogg D, Sullivan W. Grapes(Chk1) prevents nuclear CDK1 activation by delaying cyclin B nuclear accumulation. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon activation of the Grapes(checkpoint kinase 1) (Grp(Chk1))-dependent S-phase checkpoint, increased levels of CycB drives cytoplasmic but not nuclear ..
  24. Royou A, Gagou M, Karess R, Sullivan W. BubR1- and Polo-coated DNA tethers facilitate poleward segregation of acentric chromatids. Cell. 2010;140:235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that BubR1 and Polo facilitate the accurate segregation of acentric chromatids by maintaining the integrity of the tethers that connect acentric chromosomes to their centric partners. ..
  25. Peters M, DeLuca C, Hirao A, Stambolic V, Potter J, Zhou L, et al. Chk2 regulates irradiation-induced, p53-mediated apoptosis in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11305-10 pubmed
    ..DN DmChk2 also inhibited Dmp53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage, whereas overexpression of Grapes (Grp), the Drosophila Chk1-homolog, and its DN mutant had no effect on Dmp53-induced phenotypes...
  26. Brodsky M, Sekelsky J, Tsang G, Hawley R, Rubin G. mus304 encodes a novel DNA damage checkpoint protein required during Drosophila development. Genes Dev. 2000;14:666-78 pubmed
    ..We show that several Drosophila homologs of checkpoint genes, mei-41, grapes, and 14-3-3epsilon, regulate a DNA damage checkpoint in the developing eye...
  27. Sutcliffe J, Brehm A. Of flies and men; p53, a tumour suppressor. FEBS Lett. 2004;567:86-91 pubmed
    ..In addition, studying p53 in Drosophila provides an opportunity to learn about the evolution of tumour suppressors. Here, we will discuss what is known about Drosophila p53 in relation to human p53. ..
  28. Zhang C, Rothwell W, Sullivan W, Hsieh T. Discontinuous actin hexagon, a protein essential for cortical furrow formation in Drosophila, is membrane associated and hyperphosphorylated. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:1011-22 pubmed
    ..Both DAH localization and phosphorylation are disrupted in another maternal-effect mutant, nuclear-fallout. It is possible that nuclear-fallout collaborates with dah and directs DAH protein localization to the cortical furrows. ..
  29. Kurzhals R, Titen S, Xie H, Golic K. Chk2 and p53 are haploinsufficient with dependent and independent functions to eliminate cells after telomere loss. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002103 pubmed publisher
    ..In spite of these mechanisms to eliminate cells that have lost a telomere, we find that such cells can make a substantial contribution to differentiated adult tissues. ..
  30. Miller K. Role of the actin cytoskeleton in early Drosophila development. Curr Top Dev Biol. 1995;31:167-96 pubmed
  31. Peng J, Karpen G. Heterochromatic genome stability requires regulators of histone H3 K9 methylation. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000435 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar effects of lower magnitude were observed in animals that lack the RNA interference pathway component Dcr2. These results suggest that the H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways ensure heterochromatin stability. ..
  32. Makhnovskii P, Kuzmin I, Nefedova L, Kima A. [Functional analysis of Grp and Iris, the gag and env domesticated errantivirus genes, in the Drosophila melanogaster genome]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2016;50:435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Two domesticated genes, Grp and Iris, which originate from errantivirus gag and env, respectively, have been found in the D...
  33. Kuz min I, Shnyriaeva A, Nefedova L, Kim A. [Translational analysis of the Grp gene, a genomic homologue of the Gag gene of the gypsy retrotransposon of Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 2011;47:1275-7 pubmed
    The only open reading frame (ORF) (CG4680) encoding the Gag related protein (Grp) gene, a homologue of gag retrotransposons with long terminal repeats (LTR retrotransposons) of the gypsy group, has been found in the Drosophila ..
  34. Derive N, Landmann C, Montembault E, Claverie M, Pierre Elies P, Goutte Gattat D, et al. Bub3-BubR1-dependent sequestration of Cdc20Fizzy at DNA breaks facilitates the correct segregation of broken chromosomes. J Cell Biol. 2015;211:517-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that the Bub3-BubR1 complex on broken DNA inhibits the APC/C locally via the sequestration of Cdc20, thus promoting proper transmission of broken chromosomes. ..
  35. Machida Y, Dutta A. Cellular checkpoint mechanisms monitoring proper initiation of DNA replication. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6253-6 pubmed
  36. Venken K, He Y, Hoskins R, Bellen H. P[acman]: a BAC transgenic platform for targeted insertion of large DNA fragments in D. melanogaster. Science. 2006;314:1747-51 pubmed
    ..This transgenesis platform should greatly facilitate structure/function analyses of most Drosophila genes...
  37. Abdu U, Klovstad M, Butin Israeli V, Bakhrat A, Schupbach T. An essential role for Drosophila hus1 in somatic and meiotic DNA damage responses. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1042-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that hus1 is essential for the activation of the meiotic checkpoint and that hus1 is also required for the organization of the oocyte DNA, a function that might be independent of the meiotic checkpoint. ..
  38. Laurencon A, Orme C, Peters H, Boulton C, Vladar E, Langley S, et al. A large-scale screen for mutagen-sensitive loci in Drosophila. Genetics. 2004;167:217-31 pubmed
    ..At least one allele of each new gene identified in this study is available at the Bloomington Stock Center. ..
  39. Nefedova L, Kim A. [Molecular evolution of mobile elements of the gypsy group: a homolog of the gag gene in Drosophila]. Genetika. 2009;45:30-7 pubmed
    ..In this work, the CG4680 gene (Gag related protein, Grp) homologous to gag of retrotransposons of the gypsy group has been identified in the genome of D...
  40. Merkle J, Rickmyre J, Garg A, Loggins E, Jodoin J, Lee E, et al. no poles encodes a predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase required for early embryonic development of Drosophila. Development. 2009;136:449-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support our model that an E2-E3 ubiquitination complex consisting of BEN-UEV1A (E2 heterodimer) and NOPO (E3 ligase) is required for the preservation of genomic integrity during early embryogenesis. ..
  41. Blower M, Daigle T, Kaufman T, Karpen G. Drosophila CENP-A mutations cause a BubR1-dependent early mitotic delay without normal localization of kinetochore components. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e110 pubmed
    ..We propose that SAC components are able to monitor spindle assembly and inhibit cell cycle progression in the absence of sustained kinetochore localization. ..
  42. Musarò M, Ciapponi L, Fasulo B, Gatti M, Cenci G. Unprotected Drosophila melanogaster telomeres activate the spindle assembly checkpoint. Nat Genet. 2008;40:362-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cell cycle arrest elicited by the DDR was alleviated by mutations in mei-41 (encoding ATR), mus304 (ATRIP), grp (Chk1) and rad50 but not by mutations in tefu (ATM)...
  43. Li H, Baker B. Her, a gene required for sexual differentiation in Drosophila, encodes a zinc finger protein with characteristics of ZFY-like proteins and is expressed independently of the sex determination hierarchy. Development. 1998;125:225-35 pubmed
    ..The her zinc fingers are atypical and similar to the even-numbered zinc fingers of ZFY and ZFX proteins in humans and other vertebrates. ..
  44. Rickmyre J, Dasgupta S, Ooi D, Keel J, Lee E, Kirschner M, et al. The Drosophila homolog of MCPH1, a human microcephaly gene, is required for genomic stability in the early embryo. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3565-77 pubmed
    ..In contrast to studies of human MCPH1, the ATR/Chk1-mediated DNA checkpoint is intact in Drosophila mcph1 mutants...
  45. Pane A, Wehr K, Schupbach T. zucchini and squash encode two putative nucleases required for rasiRNA production in the Drosophila germline. Dev Cell. 2007;12:851-62 pubmed
    ..We show that these defects are due to the inability of zuc and squ mutants to produce repeat-associated small interfering RNAs. ..
  46. Mihaylov I, Kondo T, Jones L, Ryzhikov S, Tanaka J, Zheng J, et al. Control of DNA replication and chromosome ploidy by geminin and cyclin A. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1868-80 pubmed
    ..The geminin deficiency-induced phenotype is also partially suppressed by coablation of Chk1/Grapes, indicating the involvement of Chk1/Grapes in the checkpoint control in response to overreplication...
  47. Perkins L, Holderbaum L, Tao R, Hu Y, Sopko R, McCall K, et al. The Transgenic RNAi Project at Harvard Medical School: Resources and Validation. Genetics. 2015;201:843-52 pubmed publisher, and stocks are available from three stock centers, the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (United States), National Institute of Genetics (Japan), and TsingHua Fly Center (China). ..
  48. Sullivan W, Theurkauf W. The cytoskeleton and morphogenesis of the early Drosophila embryo. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1995;7:18-22 pubmed
  49. Takada S, Kwak S, Koppetsch B, Theurkauf W. grp (chk1) replication-checkpoint mutations and DNA damage trigger a Chk2-dependent block at the Drosophila midblastula transition. Development. 2007;134:1737-44 pubmed
    ..Embryos mutant for grp, which encodes Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), are DNA-replication-checkpoint defective and fail to cellularize, gastrulate or to initiate high-..
  50. Sekelsky J, Brodsky M, Burtis K. DNA repair in Drosophila: insights from the Drosophila genome sequence. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:F31-6 pubmed
  51. Farrell J, O Farrell P. From egg to gastrula: how the cell cycle is remodeled during the Drosophila mid-blastula transition. Annu Rev Genet. 2014;48:269-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we consider how the elements of this program may be conserved or changed in other organisms. ..
  52. Pushpavalli S, Sarkar A, Bag I, Hunt C, Ramaiah M, Pandita T, et al. Argonaute-1 functions as a mitotic regulator by controlling Cyclin B during Drosophila early embryogenesis. FASEB J. 2014;28:655-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Ago-1 mutation resulted in the up-regulation of cyclin B-Cdk1 activity and down-regulation of p53, grp, mei-41, and wee1...
  53. Ilves I, Tamberg N, Botchan M. Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) inhibits the activity of the Cdc45/MCM2-7/GINS (CMG) replicative helicase complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant Drosophila melanogaster CMG can be stimulated by treatment with phosphatase whereas Chk2 but not Chk1 interferes with the helicase activity in vitro...
  54. Kalderon D, Rubin G. Isolation and characterization of Drosophila cAMP-dependent protein kinase genes. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1539-56 pubmed
    ..The remaining putative gene products include amino acid sequence motifs characteristic of serine-threonine protein kinases but cannot, from the available data, be defined as homologous to specific protein kinases of other organisms. ..
  55. Alexander J, Barrasa M, Orr Weaver T. Replication fork progression during re-replication requires the DNA damage checkpoint and double-strand break repair. Curr Biol. 2015;25:1654-60 pubmed publisher
    ..NHEJ appears to continually repair forks during re-replication to maintain elongation. ..
  56. Sung H, Spangenberg S, Vogt N, Großhans J. Number of nuclear divisions in the Drosophila blastoderm controlled by onset of zygotic transcription. Curr Biol. 2013;23:133-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of DNA repair checkpoint, progression through S phase, and inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1, involving the genes grapes, mei41, and wee1. In addition, degradation of maternal RNAs and zygotic gene expression are involved...
  57. Bhadra M, Horikoshi N, Pushpavallipvalli S, Sarkar A, Bag I, Krishnan A, et al. The role of MOF in the ionizing radiation response is conserved in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 2012;121:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are the first to demonstrate a requirement for MOF in the whole animal IR response and suggest that the role of MOF in the response to IR is conserved between Drosophila and mammals. ..
  58. Su T, Campbell S, O Farrell P. The cell cycle program in germ cells of the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1998;196:160-70 pubmed
    ..The lag in polar nuclear divisions is independent of grapes, which is required for lengthening somatic cell cycles 10-13...
  59. Su T, Vidwans S. DNA defects target the centrosome. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:E28-9 pubmed
    ..These defects may result from the workings of a surveillance mechanism that acts to cull irreparable nuclei. ..
  60. Blythe S, Wieschaus E. Zygotic genome activation triggers the DNA replication checkpoint at the midblastula transition. Cell. 2015;160:1169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a model where the checkpoint functions as a feedback mechanism to remodel the cell cycle in response to nascent ZGA. ..
  61. Sakaguchi A, Joyce E, Aoki T, Schedl P, Steward R. The histone H4 lysine 20 monomethyl mark, set by PR-Set7 and stabilized by L(3)mbt, is necessary for proper interphase chromatin organization. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45321 pubmed
  62. Di Talia S, She R, Blythe S, Lu X, Zhang Q, Wieschaus E. Posttranslational control of Cdc25 degradation terminates Drosophila's early cell-cycle program. Curr Biol. 2013;23:127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that posttranslational control of Twine degradation ensures that the proper number of mitoses precede the MBT. ..
  63. Edgar B, Lehner C. Developmental control of cell cycle regulators: a fly's perspective. Science. 1996;274:1646-52 pubmed
  64. Nefedova L, Kuzmin I, Makhnovskii P, Kim A. Domesticated retroviral GAG gene in Drosophila: new functions for an old gene. Virology. 2014;450-451:196-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we focused on the domesticated retroviral gag gene homolog (Grp) in the Drosophila melanogaster genome...
  65. Nefedova L, Kuz min I, Burmistrova D, Rezazadekh S, Kim A. [Transcriptional analysis of the Grp gene, a genomic homolog of the retrotransposon gypsy gag gene, in Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 2011;47:1032-6 pubmed
    In the present work, we studied the Grp gene (CG4680, Gag related protein) expression at the transcriptional level. It was found that at the embryonic and larval stages of D...
  66. Smolik S, Jones K. Drosophila dCBP is involved in establishing the DNA replication checkpoint. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:135-46 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest a broader role for the p300/CBP acetyltransferases in the modulation of chromatin structure and function during DNA metabolic events as well as for transcription. ..
  67. Farrell J, O Farrell P. Mechanism and regulation of Cdc25/Twine protein destruction in embryonic cell-cycle remodeling. Curr Biol. 2013;23:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that this destruction is triggered by the nucleocytoplasmic ratio-dependent onset of zygotic transcription of tribbles and other unknown genes. ..
  68. Shim H, Lee E, Nguyen L, Shim J, Song Y. High-dose irradiation induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects during Drosophila oogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89009 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that high-dose irradiation induced S and G2 arrests in these mitotically dividing germline cells in a grp/Chk1- and mnk/Chk2-dependent manner...
  69. Oikemus S, Queiroz Machado J, Lai K, McGinnis N, Sunkel C, Brodsky M. Epigenetic telomere protection by Drosophila DNA damage response pathways. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e71 pubmed
    ..Given the conserved roles of DNA damage response proteins in telomere function, related mechanisms may act at the telomeres of other organisms. ..
  70. Hunter C, Huang W, Mackay T, Singh N. The Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation in Recombination Rate in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005951 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the magnitude of population variation in recombination rate present in D. melanogaster and implicate new genetic factors mediating natural variation in this quantitative trait. ..