Gene Symbol: gro
Description: groucho
Alias: BEST:GM01575, BEST:LD15161, BcDNA.LD33829, BcDNA:LD33829, CG8384, DGro, Dmel\CG8384, E(spl)-WD, E(spl)[2], E(spl)gro, E(spl)m9/m10, En-spl, GRO, Grg/TLE, Gro, Groucho, anon-WO0118547.385, dAES1, dAES2, dGro, l(3)gro, m10, m9-m10, m9/10, m9/m10, groucho, CG8384-PA, CG8384-PB, CG8384-PC, CG8384-PD, CG8384-PE, CG8384-PF, CG8384-PG, CG8384-PH, CG8384-PI, CG8384-PJ, dgroucho, gro-PA, gro-PB, gro-PC, gro-PD, gro-PE, gro-PF, gro-PG, gro-PH, gro-PI, gro-PJ
Species: fruit fly
Products:     gro

Top Publications

  1. Nibu Y, Zhang H, Bajor E, Barolo S, Small S, Levine M. dCtBP mediates transcriptional repression by Knirps, Krüppel and Snail in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1998;17:7009-20 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have shown that two of the repressors, Hairy and Dorsal, recruit a common co-repressor protein, Groucho. Here we present evidence that three different repressors, Knirps, Krüppel and Snail, recruit a different co-..
  2. Zhang H, Levine M. Groucho and dCtBP mediate separate pathways of transcriptional repression in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:535-40 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the two long-range repressors, Hairy and Dorsal, recruit a different corepressor protein, Groucho. Hairy also was shown to interact with dCtBP, thereby raising the possibility that Groucho and dCtBP are ..
  3. Walrad P, Hang S, Joseph G, Salas J, Gergen J. Distinct contributions of conserved modules to Runt transcription factor activity. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2315-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic experiments indicating that Groucho (Gro) does not participate in slp1 regulation further suggest that Runt's conserved C-terminus interacts with ..
  4. Chen G, Nguyen P, Courey A. A role for Groucho tetramerization in transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:7259-68 pubmed
    The Drosophila Groucho (Gro) protein is a corepressor required by a number of DNA-binding transcriptional repressors...
  5. Holmqvist P, Boija A, Philip P, Crona F, Stenberg P, Mannervik M. Preferential genome targeting of the CBP co-activator by Rel and Smad proteins in early Drosophila melanogaster embryos. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002769 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CBP occupancy in Drosophila embryos preferentially overlaps factors controlling dorso-ventral patterning and that CBP binds silent genes without causing histone hyperacetylation. ..
  6. Poortinga G, Watanabe M, Parkhurst S. Drosophila CtBP: a Hairy-interacting protein required for embryonic segmentation and hairy-mediated transcriptional repression. EMBO J. 1998;17:2067-78 pubmed
    ..While Hairy is probably not the only segmentation gene interacting with dCtBP, we show dose-sensitive genetic interactions between dCtBP and hairy mutations. ..
  7. de Celis J, de Celis J, Ligoxygakis P, Preiss A, Delidakis C, Bray S. Functional relationships between Notch, Su(H) and the bHLH genes of the E(spl) complex: the E(spl) genes mediate only a subset of Notch activities during imaginal development. Development. 1996;122:2719-28 pubmed
    ..Transcriptional activation mediated by Suppressor of Hairless and transcriptional repression mediated by Enhancer of split could provide greater diversity in the response of individual genes to Notch activity. ..
  8. Schlatter R, Maier D. The Enhancer of split and Achaete-Scute complexes of Drosophilids derived from simple ur-complexes preserved in mosquito and honeybee. BMC Evol Biol. 2005;5:67 pubmed
    ..The ancestral ur-complexes, however, consisted most likely of just two genes: E(spl)-C contains one bHLH member of mbeta type and one Brd family member of malpha type and AS-C contains one sc/l'sc and a highly diverged ase like gene. ..
  9. Yao L, Phin S, Cho J, Rushlow C, Arora K, Warrior R. Multiple modular promoter elements drive graded brinker expression in response to the Dpp morphogen gradient. Development. 2008;135:2183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This unusual promoter organization may be necessary for brk to respond to the Dpp gradient in a precise and robust fashion. ..

More Information


  1. Song H, Hasson P, Paroush Z, Courey A. Groucho oligomerization is required for repression in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4341-50 pubmed
    Drosophila Groucho (Gro) is a member of a family of metazoan corepressors with widespread roles in development...
  2. de Celis J, Bray S, Garcia Bellido A. Notch signalling regulates veinlet expression and establishes boundaries between veins and interveins in the Drosophila wing. Development. 1997;124:1919-28 pubmed
  3. Helman A, Lim B, Andreu M, Kim Y, Shestkin T, Lu H, et al. RTK signaling modulates the Dorsal gradient. Development. 2012;139:3032-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, we show that, via relief of Groucho- and Capicua-mediated repression, the Torso and EGFR RTK pathways induce expression of WntD, which in turn limits ..
  4. Parkhurst S. Groucho: making its Marx as a transcriptional co-repressor. Trends Genet. 1998;14:130-2 pubmed
  5. Salzer C, Kumar J. Position dependent responses to discontinuities in the retinal determination network. Dev Biol. 2009;326:121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these results suggest that the complexities of development are best appreciated when spatial and temporal information is incorporated when describing gene regulatory networks. ..
  6. Ajuria L, Nieva C, Winkler C, Kuo D, Samper N, Andreu M, et al. Capicua DNA-binding sites are general response elements for RTK signaling in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:915-24 pubmed publisher
    ..on Capicua octameric sites, and that binding of Capicua to these sites is essential for recruitment of the Groucho co-repressor to the huckebein enhancer in vivo...
  7. Canon J, Banerjee U. In vivo analysis of a developmental circuit for direct transcriptional activation and repression in the same cell by a Runx protein. Genes Dev. 2003;17:838-43 pubmed
    ..This study provides a mechanistic basis for the dual function of Runx proteins that is likely to be conserved in mammalian systems. ..
  8. L pez R os J, Tessmar K, Loosli F, Wittbrodt J, Bovolenta P. Six3 and Six6 activity is modulated by members of the groucho family. Development. 2003;130:185-95 pubmed
    ..the results of the latter screen that led to the identification of TLE1 (a transcriptional repressor of the groucho family) and AES (a potential dominant negative form of TLE proteins) as cofactors for both SIX6 and SIX3...
  9. Zhang H, Levine M, Ashe H. Brinker is a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 2001;15:261-6 pubmed
    ..It binds the consensus sequence, TGGCGc/tc/t, and interacts with the Groucho corepressor through a conserved sequence motif, FKPY...
  10. Flores Saaib R, Jia S, Courey A. Activation and repression by the C-terminal domain of Dorsal. Development. 2001;128:1869-79 pubmed
    ..Deletion analysis indicates that this region mediates transcriptional repression and binding to Groucho, a co-repressor known to be required for Dorsal-mediated repression...
  11. Barolo S, Stone T, Bang A, Posakony J. Default repression and Notch signaling: Hairless acts as an adaptor to recruit the corepressors Groucho and dCtBP to Suppressor of Hairless. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1964-76 pubmed
    ..Here we show that, in vitro, H directly binds two corepressor proteins, Groucho (Gro) and dCtBP...
  12. Hasson P, Muller B, Basler K, Paroush Z. Brinker requires two corepressors for maximal and versatile repression in Dpp signalling. EMBO J. 2001;20:5725-36 pubmed
    ..that Brk harbours a functional and transferable repression domain, through which it recruits the corepressors Groucho and CtBP...
  13. Helman A, Cinnamon E, Mezuman S, Hayouka Z, Von Ohlen T, Orian A, et al. Phosphorylation of Groucho mediates RTK feedback inhibition and prolonged pathway target gene expression. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The Groucho corepressor is phosphorylated and downregulated in response to RTK signaling...
  14. Artavanis Tsakonas S, Rand M, Lake R. Notch signaling: cell fate control and signal integration in development. Science. 1999;284:770-6 pubmed
    ..Notch activity affects the implementation of differentiation, proliferation, and apoptotic programs, providing a general developmental tool to influence organ formation and morphogenesis. ..
  15. Cavallo R, Cox R, Moline M, Roose J, Polevoy G, Clevers H, et al. Drosophila Tcf and Groucho interact to repress Wingless signalling activity. Nature. 1998;395:604-8 pubmed
    ..the absence of Armadillo, dTcf acts as a transcriptional repressor of Wingless-responsive genes, and we show that Groucho acts as a corepressor in this process...
  16. Orian A, Delrow J, Rosales Nieves A, Abed M, Metzger D, Paroush Z, et al. A Myc-Groucho complex integrates EGF and Notch signaling to regulate neural development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15771-6 pubmed
    ..chromatin profiling, we identified a protein-protein interaction between the Drosophila Myc oncogene and the Groucho corepressor that regulates a subset of direct dMyc targets...
  17. Chanut F, Luk A, Heberlein U. A screen for dominant modifiers of ro(Dom), a mutation that disrupts morphogenetic furrow progression in Drosophila, identifies groucho and hairless as regulators of atonal expression. Genetics. 2000;156:1203-17 pubmed
    ..In addition to mutations in several unknown loci, we recovered multiple alleles of groucho (gro) and Hairless (H)...
  18. Courey A, Jia S. Transcriptional repression: the long and the short of it. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2786-96 pubmed
  19. Bajoghli B. Evolution of the Groucho/Tle gene family: gene organization and duplication events. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:613-8 pubmed
    The Groucho/Tle family of corepressor proteins has important roles in development and in adult tissue in both Protostomes and Deuterostomes. In Drosophila, a single member of this family has been identified...
  20. Kobayashi M, Goldstein R, Fujioka M, Paroush Z, Jaynes J. Groucho augments the repression of multiple Even skipped target genes in establishing parasegment boundaries. Development. 2001;128:1805-15 pubmed
    b>Groucho acts as a co-repressor for several Drosophila DNA binding transcriptional repressors...
  21. Kenyon K, Li D, Clouser C, Tran S, Pignoni F. Fly SIX-type homeodomain proteins Sine oculis and Optix partner with different cofactors during eye development. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:497-504 pubmed publisher
  22. Knust E, Tietze K, Campos Ortega J. Molecular analysis of the neurogenic locus Enhancer of split of Drosophila melanogaster. EMBO J. 1987;6:4113-23 pubmed
    ..The spatial distribution of four of these RNAs, which exhibit almost identical patterns of expression, strongly suggests that the encoded proteins are required for the process of segregation of neural and epidermal lineages. ..
  23. Fisher A, Caudy M. Groucho proteins: transcriptional corepressors for specific subsets of DNA-binding transcription factors in vertebrates and invertebrates. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1931-40 pubmed
  24. Dubnicoff T, Valentine S, Chen G, Shi T, Lengyel J, Paroush Z, et al. Conversion of dorsal from an activator to a repressor by the global corepressor Groucho. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2952-7 pubmed
    ..We show here, via the analysis of embryos lacking the maternally encoded Groucho corepressor and via protein-binding assays, that recruitment of Groucho to the template by protein:protein ..
  25. Matsuno K, Go M, Sun X, Eastman D, Artavanis Tsakonas S. Suppressor of Hairless-independent events in Notch signaling imply novel pathway elements. Development. 1997;124:4265-73 pubmed
    ..These signaling activities are independent of the known effector Su(H) and suggest the existence of yet unidentified Notch pathway components. ..
  26. Anderson A, Weasner B, Weasner B, Kumar J. Dual transcriptional activities of SIX proteins define their roles in normal and ectopic eye development. Development. 2012;139:991-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..activities are thought to occur through physical interactions with the Eyes absent (Eya) co-activator and the Groucho (Gro) co-repressor, but the relative contribution that each complex makes to overall eye development is not well ..
  27. Furriols M, Casanova J. In and out of Torso RTK signalling. EMBO J. 2003;22:1947-52 pubmed
  28. Jimenez G, Paroush Z, Ish Horowicz D. Groucho acts as a corepressor for a subset of negative regulators, including Hairy and Engrailed. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3072-82 pubmed
    ..Here, we use in vivo functional assays to test whether different repressor activities are mediated by the Groucho (Gro) corepressor in the Drosophila embryo...
  29. Stifani S, Blaumueller C, Redhead N, Hill R, Artavanis Tsakonas S. Human homologs of a Drosophila Enhancer of split gene product define a novel family of nuclear proteins. Nat Genet. 1992;2:119-27 pubmed
    Notch and the m9/10 gene (groucho) of the Enhancer of split (E(spI)) complex are members of the "Notch group" of genes, which is required for a variety of cell fate choices in Drosophila...
  30. Cinnamon E, Helman A, Ben Haroush Schyr R, Orian A, Jiménez G, Paroush Z. Multiple RTK pathways downregulate Groucho-mediated repression in Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 2008;135:829-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that the EGFR RTK pathway causes phosphorylation and downregulation of Groucho, a global co-repressor that is widely used by many developmentally important repressors for silencing their ..
  31. Paroush Z, Finley R, Kidd T, Wainwright S, Ingham P, Brent R, et al. Groucho is required for Drosophila neurogenesis, segmentation, and sex determination and interacts directly with hairy-related bHLH proteins. Cell. 1994;79:805-15 pubmed
    ..We find that the groucho (gro) protein binds specifically to hairy and also to hairy-related bHLH proteins encoded by deadpan and the ..
  32. Hasson P, Egoz N, Winkler C, Volohonsky G, Jia S, Dinur T, et al. EGFR signaling attenuates Groucho-dependent repression to antagonize Notch transcriptional output. Nat Genet. 2005;37:101-5 pubmed
    ..The global corepressor Groucho (Gro) and its transducin-like Enhancer-of-split (TLE) mammalian homologs mediate repression by a myriad of ..
  33. Andrioli L, Oberstein A, Corado M, Yu D, Small S. Groucho-dependent repression by sloppy-paired 1 differentially positions anterior pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2004;276:541-51 pubmed
    ..The Slp1 protein contains a protein motif (EH1) which mediates binding to the transcriptional corepressor Groucho (Gro). We show that this domain is required for Slp1-mediated repression in vivo.
  34. Maier D, Marte B, Schafer W, Yu Y, Preiss A. Drosophila evolution challenges postulated redundancy in the E(spl) gene complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:5464-8 pubmed
    ..distinct functions, vital and neurogenic, reside within the complex defined by lethal mutations in the l(3) gro gene and by the typical neurogenic phenotype of deletions, respectively...
  35. Protzer C, Wech I, Nagel A. Hairless induces cell death by downregulation of EGFR signalling activity. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with the co-repressors Groucho (Gro) and C-terminal binding protein (CtBP), H assembles a repression complex on Notch target genes, thereby ..
  36. Jimenez G, Guichet A, Ephrussi A, Casanova J. Relief of gene repression by torso RTK signaling: role of capicua in Drosophila terminal and dorsoventral patterning. Genes Dev. 2000;14:224-31 pubmed
    ..gene expression by inactivating at the embryonic poles a uniformly distributed repressor activity that involves the Gro corepressor...
  37. Giagtzoglou N, Alifragis P, Koumbanakis K, Delidakis C. Two modes of recruitment of E(spl) repressors onto target genes. Development. 2003;130:259-70 pubmed
    ..Irrespective of whether E(spl) are recruited via direct DNA binding or interaction with proneural proteins, the co-repressor Groucho is always needed for target gene repression.
  38. Nuthall H, Joachim K, Palaparti A, Stifani S. A role for cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation in Groucho-mediated transcriptional repression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:51049-57 pubmed
    Transcriptional corepressors of the Groucho/transducin-like Enhancer of split (Gro/TLE) family are involved in a variety of cell differentiation mechanisms in both invertebrates and vertebrates...
  39. Jennings B, Ish Horowicz D. The Groucho/TLE/Grg family of transcriptional co-repressors. Genome Biol. 2008;9:205 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila Groucho (Gro) protein was the founding member of the family of transcriptional co-repressor proteins that now includes the transducin-like enhancer of split (TLE) and Grorelated gene (Grg) proteins in vertebrates...
  40. Levanon D, Goldstein R, Bernstein Y, Tang H, Goldenberg D, Stifani S, et al. Transcriptional repression by AML1 and LEF-1 is mediated by the TLE/Groucho corepressors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11590-5 pubmed
    ..most mammalian RD proteins terminate in a common pentapeptide, VWRPY, which serves to recruit the corepressor Groucho (Gro)...
  41. Nagel A, Wech I, Schwinkendorf D, Preiss A. Involvement of co-repressors Groucho and CtBP in the regulation of single-minded in Drosophila. Hereditas. 2007;144:195-205 pubmed
    ..Here, we address the involvement of the two co-repressors CtBP and Groucho (Gro) in repression of sim in the neuroectoderm...
  42. Martinez C, Arnosti D. Spreading of a corepressor linked to action of long-range repressor hairy. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2792-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Several long-range repressors interact with Groucho, a conserved corepressor that is homologous to mammalian TLE proteins...
  43. Jan Y, Jan L. Neuronal cell fate specification in Drosophila. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1994;4:8-13 pubmed
    ..Selective expression of certain neuronal-type selector genes further specifies the type of neuron(s) that a neural precursor will produce. ..
  44. TURKI JUDEH W, Courey A. The unconserved groucho central region is essential for viability and modulates target gene specificity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30610 pubmed publisher
    b>Groucho (Gro) is a Drosophila corepressor required by numerous DNA-binding repressors, many of which are distributed in gradients and provide positional information during development...
  45. Wheeler J, VanderZwan C, Xu X, Swantek D, Tracey W, Gergen J. Distinct in vivo requirements for establishment versus maintenance of transcriptional repression. Nat Genet. 2002;32:206-10 pubmed
    ..By contrast, the co-repressor proteins Groucho and dCtBP, and the histone deacetylase Rpd3, do not affect establishment but instead maintain repression after ..
  46. Jennings B, Wainwright S, Ish Horowicz D. Differential in vivo requirements for oligomerization during Groucho-mediated repression. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:76-83 pubmed
    The Groucho (Gro)/transducin-like enhancer of split family of transcriptional corepressors are implicated in many signalling pathways that are important in development and disease, including those mediated by Notch, Wnt and Hedgehog...
  47. Castro B, Barolo S, Bailey A, Posakony J. Lateral inhibition in proneural clusters: cis-regulatory logic and default repression by Suppressor of Hairless. Development. 2005;132:3333-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we define crucial roles for the adaptor protein Hairless and the co-repressors Groucho and CtBP in conferring repressive activity on Su(H) in the SOP...
  48. Merabet S, Pradel J, Graba Y. Getting a molecular grasp on Hox contextual activity. Trends Genet. 2005;21:477-80 pubmed
    ..A recent study identified novel Hox molecular partners, whose properties set a conceptual framework to understand how Hox proteins use and integrate contextual information. ..
  49. Payankaulam S, Arnosti D. Groucho corepressor functions as a cofactor for the Knirps short-range transcriptional repressor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..been suggested to stem from the differential recruitment of the CtBP corepressor to short-range repressors and Groucho to long-range repressors...
  50. Chinnadurai G. CtBP, an unconventional transcriptional corepressor in development and oncogenesis. Mol Cell. 2002;9:213-24 pubmed
    ..CtBPs play important roles during development and oncogenesis. In this review, their unusual properties, the mechanisms of transcriptional repression, regulation, and their biological functions are discussed. ..
  51. Price J, Savenye E, Lum D, Breitkreutz A. Dominant enhancers of Egfr in Drosophila melanogaster: genetic links between the Notch and Egfr signaling pathways. Genetics. 1997;147:1139-53 pubmed
    ..With this screen, we have recovered mutations in Hairless (H), vein, groucho (gro), and three apparently novel loci...
  52. Schrons H, Knust E, Campos Ortega J. The Enhancer of split complex and adjacent genes in the 96F region of Drosophila melanogaster are required for segregation of neural and epidermal progenitor cells. Genetics. 1992;132:481-503 pubmed
    ..Another gene in the 96F region, namely groucho, is also required for this process...
  53. Hartley D, Preiss A, Artavanis Tsakonas S. A deduced gene product from the Drosophila neurogenic locus, enhancer of split, shows homology to mammalian G-protein beta subunit. Cell. 1988;55:785-95 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that expression of the transcripts relates to the developing central nervous system. These data suggest a mechanism of interaction between the gene products of Notch and Enhancer of split. ..
  54. Dawson S, Turner D, Weintraub H, Parkhurst S. Specificity for the hairy/enhancer of split basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins maps outside the bHLH domain and suggests two separable modes of transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:6923-31 pubmed
    ..repression of specific transcriptional activators, such as Scute, through the bHLH and Orange domains and repression of other activators via interaction of the C-terminal WRPW motif with corepressors, such as the Groucho protein.
  55. Aronson B, Fisher A, Blechman K, Caudy M, Gergen J. Groucho-dependent and -independent repression activities of Runt domain proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:5581-7 pubmed evolutionarily conserved protein-protein interaction between Runt domain proteins and the corepressor Groucho. The interaction, however, is independent of the Runt domain and can be mapped to a 5-amino-acid sequence, VWRPY, ..
  56. Paroush Z, Wainwright S, Ish Horowicz D. Torso signalling regulates terminal patterning in Drosophila by antagonising Groucho-mediated repression. Development. 1997;124:3827-34 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we show that the Groucho (Gro) corepressor acts in this process to confine terminal gap gene expression to the embryonic termini...
  57. Lai E, Bodner R, Posakony J. The enhancer of split complex of Drosophila includes four Notch-regulated members of the bearded gene family. Development. 2000;127:3441-55 pubmed
    ..Finally, we present our initial studies of the structure, expression and regulation of the newest member of the Brd gene family, Ocho, which is located in the recently identified Bearded Complex. ..
  58. Preiss A, Hartley D, Artavanis Tsakonas S. The molecular genetics of Enhancer of split, a gene required for embryonic neural development in Drosophila. EMBO J. 1988;7:3917-27 pubmed
    ..indicates that this transcription unit includes functions associated with both the dominant E(spl)D mutation and the recessive visible allele groucho, and is necessary for the correct differentiation of the embryonic nervous system.
  59. Palaparti A, Baratz A, Stifani S. The Groucho/transducin-like enhancer of split transcriptional repressors interact with the genetically defined amino-terminal silencing domain of histone H3. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:26604-10 pubmed
    b>Groucho is a transcriptional repressor implicated in Notch signaling and involved in neural development and segmentation in Drosophila...
  60. Fang M, Li J, Blauwkamp T, Bhambhani C, Campbell N, Cadigan K. C-terminal-binding protein directly activates and represses Wnt transcriptional targets in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2006;25:2735-45 pubmed
    ..CtBP binds to Wnt-regulated enhancers in a TCF-independent manner and represses target genes in parallel with TCF. Our data indicate dual roles for CtBP as a gene-specific activator and repressor of Wnt target gene transcription. ..
  61. Mannervik M, Nibu Y, Zhang H, Levine M. Transcriptional coregulators in development. Science. 1999;284:606-9 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that a growing set of coactivators and corepressors mediate communication between diverse upstream regulatory proteins and the core RNA polymerase II transcription complex. ..
  62. Lee W, Andrews B, Faust M, Walldorf U, Verheyen E. Hipk is an essential protein that promotes Notch signal transduction in the Drosophila eye by inhibition of the global co-repressor Groucho. Dev Biol. 2009;325:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..been shown in the Drosophila eye that Hipk interferes with the repressive activity of the global co-repressor, Groucho (Gro)...
  63. Muhr J, Andersson E, Persson M, Jessell T, Ericson J. Groucho-mediated transcriptional repression establishes progenitor cell pattern and neuronal fate in the ventral neural tube. Cell. 2001;104:861-73 pubmed
    ..We show that most of these homeodomain proteins possess a conserved eh1 motif that mediates the recruitment of Gro/TLE corepressors...
  64. Fisher A, Ohsako S, Caudy M. The WRPW motif of the hairy-related basic helix-loop-helix repressor proteins acts as a 4-amino-acid transcription repression and protein-protein interaction domain. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2670-7 pubmed
    ..This motif was previously shown to be necessary for interactions with Groucho, a genetically defined corepressor for Drosophila Hairy-related proteins...
  65. Phippen T, Sweigart A, Moniwa M, Krumm A, Davie J, Parkhurst S. Drosophila C-terminal binding protein functions as a context-dependent transcriptional co-factor and interferes with both mad and groucho transcriptional repression. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:37628-37 pubmed
    Drosophila C-terminal binding protein (dCtBP) and Groucho have been identified as Hairy-interacting proteins required for embryonic segmentation and Hairy-mediated transcriptional repression...
  66. Choi C, Kim Y, Kim Y, Park S, Kim E, Riemenschneider W, et al. Phosphorylation by the DHIPK2 protein kinase modulates the corepressor activity of Groucho. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21427-36 pubmed
    b>Groucho function is essential for Drosophila development, acting as a corepressor for specific transcription factors that are downstream targets of various signaling pathways...
  67. Jennings B, Pickles L, Wainwright S, Roe S, Pearl L, Ish Horowicz D. Molecular recognition of transcriptional repressor motifs by the WD domain of the Groucho/TLE corepressor. Mol Cell. 2006;22:645-55 pubmed
    The Groucho (Gro)/TLE/Grg family of corepressors operates in many signaling pathways (including Notch and Wnt)...
  68. Valentine S, Chen G, Shandala T, Fernandez J, Mische S, Saint R, et al. Dorsal-mediated repression requires the formation of a multiprotein repression complex at the ventral silencer. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:6584-94 pubmed
    ..Repression by Dorsal requires the corepressor Groucho (Gro) and is mediated by silencers termed ventral repression regions (VRRs)...
  69. Nagel A, Krejci A, Tenin G, Bravo Patiño A, Bray S, Maier D, et al. Hairless-mediated repression of notch target genes requires the combined activity of Groucho and CtBP corepressors. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10433-41 pubmed conjunction with a partner, Hairless, which contains binding motifs for two global corepressors, CtBP and Groucho (Gro)...
  70. Nagel A, Preiss A. Fine tuning of Notch signaling by differential co-repressor recruitment during eye development of Drosophila. Hereditas. 2011;148:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of Notch signal, H binds to Su(H) and recruits two general co-repressors, Groucho (Gro) and C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP); this repression complex downregulates Notch target genes...
  71. Delidakis C, Preiss A, Hartley D, Artavanis Tsakonas S. Two genetically and molecularly distinct functions involved in early neurogenesis reside within the Enhancer of split locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1991;129:803-23 pubmed
    ..Immunocytochemical localization of the E(spl) m9/10 protein has revealed that it is a ubiquitously distributed nuclear component in embryonic, larval and imaginal tissues. ..
  72. Tolkunova E, Fujioka M, Kobayashi M, Deka D, Jaynes J. Two distinct types of repression domain in engrailed: one interacts with the groucho corepressor and is preferentially active on integrated target genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:2804-14 pubmed
    ..eh1) is highly conserved throughout several classes of homeoproteins and interacts specifically with the Groucho corepressor...
  73. Ratnaparkhi G, Jia S, Courey A. Uncoupling dorsal-mediated activation from dorsal-mediated repression in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2006;133:4409-14 pubmed
    ..Dorsal represses transcription by recruiting the co-repressor Groucho. However, repression occurs only when Dorsal-binding sites are close to binding sites for other factors that also ..