Gene Symbol: grn
Description: grain
Alias: CG9656, CG9656-PA, Dmel\CG9656, GATAc, GRAIN, Gata-c, Gata2, Grn, dGATA-2, dGATAc, dGatac, gra, l(3)84Fa, grain, CG9656-PA, CG9656-PB, CG9656-PC, GATA-factor-c, grn-PA, grn-PB, grn-PC, lethal(3)84Fa
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Lin W, Huang L, Yeh J, Hoheisel J, Lehrach H, Sun Y, et al. Expression of a Drosophila GATA transcription factor in multiple tissues in the developing embryos. Identification of homozygous lethal mutants with P-element insertion at the promoter region. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:25150-8 pubmed
    ..Here we report the identification of a new Drosophila melanogaster GATA factor, dGATAc, which displays a distinct expression pattern in embryos...
  2. Schuettengruber B, Ganapathi M, Leblanc B, Portoso M, Jaschek R, Tolhuis B, et al. Functional anatomy of polycomb and trithorax chromatin landscapes in Drosophila embryos. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, several DNA sequence features discriminate between PcG- and TRX-N-bound regions, indicating that underlying DNA sequence contains critical information to drive PREs and TREs towards silencing or activation. ..
  3. Senger K, Harris K, Levine M. GATA factors participate in tissue-specific immune responses in Drosophila larvae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15957-62 pubmed
    ..for antimicrobial genes Diptericin and Metchnikowin require GATA sites for activation in the midgut, where Grain (dGATAc), dGATAd, and dGATAe are expressed in overlapping domains...
  4. Gabilondo H, Stratmann J, Rubio Ferrera I, Millán Crespo I, Contero García P, Bahrampour S, et al. Neuronal Cell Fate Specification by the Convergence of Different Spatiotemporal Cues on a Common Terminal Selector Cascade. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002450 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we find that the same terminal selector cascade is triggered by Kr/pdm>grn in dAp neurons, but by Antp/hth/exd/lbe/cas in Tv1 neurons...
  5. Tsikala G, Karagogeos D, Strigini M. Btk-dependent epithelial cell rearrangements contribute to the invagination of nearby tubular structures in the posterior spiracles of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2014;396:42-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the complex physical interactions that take place among organ components during morphogenesis, which contribute to their final form and function. ..
  6. Papadopoulos D, Vukojevic V, Adachi Y, Terenius L, Rigler R, Gehring W. Function and specificity of synthetic Hox transcription factors in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4087-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate that synthetic peptides behave largely in a predictable way, by exhibiting Scr-specific phenotypes throughout development, which makes them an important tool for synthetic biology. ..
  7. Matsuda R, Hosono C, Samakovlis C, Saigo K. Multipotent versus differentiated cell fate selection in the developing Drosophila airways. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the GATA-family transcription factor (TF) Grain promotes the P-fate and the POU-homeobox TF Ventral veinless (Vvl/Drifter/U-turned) stimulates the D-fate...
  8. Zarin A, Asadzadeh J, Hokamp K, McCartney D, Yang L, Bashaw G, et al. A transcription factor network coordinates attraction, repulsion, and adhesion combinatorially to control motor axon pathway selection. Neuron. 2014;81:1297-1311 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that a network of TFs, comprised of eve, zfh1, and grain, induces the expression of the Unc5 and Beaten-path guidance receptors and the Fasciclin 2 and Neuroglian adhesion ..
  9. Herranz H, Morata G. The functions of pannier during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 2001;128:4837-46 pubmed
    ..These results, together with prior work on its function in adults, suggest that pnr is a major factor in the genetic subdivision of the body of Drosophila. ..

More Information


  1. Strecker T, Yip M, Lipshitz H. Genetic control of cell fate in the termini of the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1992;150:422-6 pubmed
    ..Genes that control dorsoventral pattern in the termini and genes that program terminal morphogenesis act in distinct branches of the genetic hierarchy that are independent of tailless. ..
  2. Lovegrove B, Simoes S, Rivas M, Sotillos S, Johnson K, Knust E, et al. Coordinated control of cell adhesion, polarity, and cytoskeleton underlies Hox-induced organogenesis in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2206-16 pubmed
    ..We propose that during animal development, Hox-controlled genetic cascades coordinate the local cell-specific behaviors that result in organogenesis of segment-specific structures. ..
  3. Letizia A, Barrio R, Campuzano S. Antagonistic and cooperative actions of the EGFR and Dpp pathways on the iroquois genes regulate Drosophila mesothorax specification and patterning. Development. 2007;134:1337-46 pubmed
    ..These results help define the molecular mechanisms of the interplay between the EGFR and Dpp pathways in the specification and patterning of the notum. ..
  4. Fossett N, Schulz R. Functional conservation of hematopoietic factors in Drosophila and vertebrates. Differentiation. 2001;69:83-90 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, aspects of hematopoiesis and hemocyte function appear to be conserved. Thus, comparative studies using Drosophila and vertebrate models should enhance our understanding of blood cell development. ..
  5. Ashe H, Mannervik M, Levine M. Dpp signaling thresholds in the dorsal ectoderm of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2000;127:3305-12 pubmed
    ..We also present evidence that the activation of Dpp/Scw target genes depends on the Drosophila homolog of the CBP histone acetyltransferase. ..
  6. Go M, Artavanis Tsakonas S. A genetic screen for novel components of the notch signaling pathway during Drosophila bristle development. Genetics. 1998;150:211-20 pubmed
  7. Brown S, Castelli Gair Hombría J. Drosophila grain encodes a GATA transcription factor required for cell rearrangement during morphogenesis. Development. 2000;127:4867-76 pubmed
    The genetic mechanisms controlling organ shape are largely unknown. We show that the Drosophila grain gene is required during development for shaping the adult legs and the larval posterior spiracles...
  8. Tolhuis B, Blom M, Kerkhoven R, Pagie L, Teunissen H, Nieuwland M, et al. Interactions among Polycomb domains are guided by chromosome architecture. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001343 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that many interactions among PcG target genes exist and that these interactions are guided by overall chromosome architecture. ..
  9. Papadopoulos D, Resendez Perez D, Cárdenas Chávez D, Villanueva Segura K, Canales del Castillo R, Felix D, et al. Functional synthetic Antennapedia genes and the dual roles of YPWM motif and linker size in transcriptional activation and repression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11959-64 pubmed publisher
  10. Zhai Z, Yang X, Lohmann I. Functional dissection of the Hox protein Abdominal-B in Drosophila cell culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;414:761-6 pubmed publisher
  11. Zeng J, Kirk B, Gou Y, Wang Q, Ma J. Genome-wide polycomb target gene prediction in Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:5848-63 pubmed publisher
    ..From a computational standpoint, our strategy of modelling transcription factor interaction with a non-linear kernel is original, effective and transferable to many other applications. ..
  12. Lossky M, Wensink P. Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:6943-52 pubmed
  13. Baker B, Hoff G, Kaufman T, Wolfner M, Hazelrigg T. The doublesex locus of Drosophila melanogaster and its flanking regions: a cytogenetic analysis. Genetics. 1991;127:125-38 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the lack of essential genes in this region is due to the region (1) containing genes with nonessential functions and (2) being duplicated, possibly both internally and elsewhere in the genome. ..
  14. Garces A, Thor S. Specification of Drosophila aCC motoneuron identity by a genetic cascade involving even-skipped, grain and zfh1. Development. 2006;133:1445-55 pubmed
    ..We find that ISN motoneurons also express the GATA transcription factor Grain, and grn mutants display motor axon pathfinding defects...
  15. Gillis W, BOWERMAN B, Schneider S. The evolution of protostome GATA factors: molecular phylogenetics, synteny, and intron/exon structure reveal orthologous relationships. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:112 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows how sampling of additional genomic data, especially from less derived and interspersed protostome taxa, can be used to resolve the orthologous relationships within more divergent gene families. ..
  16. Zarin A, Daly A, Hülsmeier J, Asadzadeh J, Labrador J. A GATA/homeodomain transcriptional code regulates axon guidance through the Unc-5 receptor. Development. 2012;139:1798-805 pubmed publisher
    ..One such code defined by the homeodomain transcription factor Even-skipped (Eve) and by the GATA 2/3 homologue Grain (Grn) is specifically required for motor axon projection towards dorsal muscles in Drosophila...