Gene Symbol: grk
Description: gurken
Alias: CG17610, CT32746, Dmel\CG17610, GRK, Grk, s-Grk, gurken, CG17610-PA, grk-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Jaramillo A, Weil T, Goodhouse J, Gavis E, Schupbach T. The dynamics of fluorescently labeled endogenous gurken mRNA in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:887-94 pubmed publisher
    During Drosophila oogenesis, the targeted localization of gurken (grk) mRNA leads to the establishment of the axis polarity of the egg...
  2. Guichard A, Roark M, Ronshaugen M, Bier E. brother of rhomboid, a rhomboid-related gene expressed during early Drosophila oogenesis, promotes EGF-R/MAPK signaling. Dev Biol. 2000;226:255-66 pubmed
    ..We propose that endogenous brho may activate the oocyte-specific Gurken ligand and thereby participate in defining posterior cell fates in the early follicular epithelium.
  3. Besse F, López de Quinto S, Marchand V, Trucco A, Ephrussi A. Drosophila PTB promotes formation of high-order RNP particles and represses oskar translation. Genes Dev. 2009;23:195-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PTB is a key structural component of oskar RNP complexes that dually controls formation of high-order RNP particles and translational silencing. ..
  4. Snee M, Harrison D, Yan N, Macdonald P. A late phase of Oskar accumulation is crucial for posterior patterning of the Drosophila embryo, and is blocked by ectopic expression of Bruno. Differentiation. 2007;75:246-55 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results strongly argue that a late phase in accumulation of Osk protein, typically not monitored because of imperviousness of late stage oocytes to antibodies, is crucial for body patterning. ..
  5. Boylan K, Mische S, Li M, Marques G, Morin X, Chia W, et al. Motility screen identifies Drosophila IGF-II mRNA-binding protein--zipcode-binding protein acting in oogenesis and synaptogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e36 pubmed publisher
    ..In oocytes, where Imp function is not essential, we implicate a specific Imp domain in the establishment of dorsoventral polarity. ..
  6. Doerflinger H, Benton R, Torres I, Zwart M, St Johnston D. Drosophila anterior-posterior polarity requires actin-dependent PAR-1 recruitment to the oocyte posterior. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1090-5 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore identify a molecular parallel between axis formation in Drosophila and C. elegans and make Drosophila PAR-1 N1 the earliest known marker for the polarization of the oocyte. ..
  7. Bökel C, Dass S, Wilsch Bräuninger M, Roth S. Drosophila Cornichon acts as cargo receptor for ER export of the TGFalpha-like growth factor Gurken. Development. 2006;133:459-70 pubmed
    ..During Drosophila oogenesis, Cni is required for transport of the TGFalpha growth factor Gurken (Grk) to the oocyte surface...
  8. Hsu T, Schulz R. Sequence and functional properties of Ets genes in the model organism Drosophila. Oncogene. 2000;19:6409-16 pubmed
    ..The information should be of significant value to the study of related processes in higher organisms due to the growing evidence for the cross species conservation of developmental mechanisms. ..
  9. Deng W, Bownes M. Two signalling pathways specify localised expression of the Broad-Complex in Drosophila eggshell patterning and morphogenesis. Development. 1997;124:4639-47 pubmed
    ..factor receptor signalling pathway, which includes a localised transforming growth factor-alpha like molecule, Gurken, in the oocyte and the Drosophila EGF receptor homologue, Torpedo, in the surrounding somatic follicle cells...

More Information


  1. Lembong J, Yakoby N, Shvartsman S. Pattern formation by dynamically interacting network motifs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3213-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Poulton J, Deng W. Dystroglycan down-regulation links EGF receptor signaling and anterior-posterior polarity formation in the Drosophila oocyte. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12775-80 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Dystroglycan links EGFR-induced repression of the anterior follicle cell fate and anterior-posterior polarity formation in the oocyte. ..
  3. Morimoto A, Jordan K, Tietze K, Britton J, O Neill E, Ruohola Baker H. Pointed, an ETS domain transcription factor, negatively regulates the EGF receptor pathway in Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 1996;122:3745-54 pubmed
    Spatially regulated activation of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor by its ligand, Gurken, is required for establishment of the dorsal/ventral axis of the oocyte and embryo...
  4. Lei Y, Warrior R. The Drosophila Lissencephaly1 (DLis1) gene is required for nuclear migration. Dev Biol. 2000;226:57-72 pubmed
    ..DLis1 mutations affect the localization of gurken mRNA and protein in the oocyte...
  5. Murthy M, Schwarz T. The exocyst component Sec5 is required for membrane traffic and polarity in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 2004;131:377-88 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the impaired membrane trafficking of Gurken, the secreted ligand for the EGF receptor, and Yolkless, the vitellogenin receptor, results in defects in dorsal ..
  6. Schweitzer R, Shilo B. A thousand and one roles for the Drosophila EGF receptor. Trends Genet. 1997;13:191-6 pubmed
    ..The cellular mechanisms that translate EGFR activation to discrete cell fates are now the focus of intense studies. ..
  7. Navarro C, Bullock S, Lehmann R. Altered dynein-dependent transport in piRNA pathway mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that aggregate formation is a cellular response to protect germ cells from DNA damage caused by elevated retrotransposon expression. ..
  8. Herpers B, Xanthakis D, Rabouille C. ISH-IEM: a sensitive method to detect endogenous mRNAs at the ultrastructural level. Nat Protoc. 2010;5:678-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The localization of targeted transcripts, such as gurken and oskar mRNA in the Drosophila oocyte, and of structural elements and proteins that mediate their localization ..
  9. Norvell A, Debec A, Finch D, Gibson L, Thoma B. Squid is required for efficient posterior localization of oskar mRNA during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Genes Evol. 2005;215:340-9 pubmed
    ..Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis, where it plays a critical role in the regulation of the TGFalpha-like molecule Gurken (Grk)...
  10. Jekely G, Sung H, Luque C, Rørth P. Regulators of endocytosis maintain localized receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in guided migration. Dev Cell. 2005;9:197-207 pubmed
    ..Cbl and Sprint both regulate early steps of RTK endocytosis. Thus, a physiological role of RTK endocytosis is to ensure localized intracellular response to guidance cues by stimulating spatial restriction of signaling. ..
  11. van Eeden F, Palacios I, Petronczki M, Weston M, St Johnston D. Barentsz is essential for the posterior localization of oskar mRNA and colocalizes with it to the posterior pole. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:511-23 pubmed
    ..barentsz-null mutants completely block the posterior localization of oskar mRNA without affecting bicoid and gurken mRNA localization, the organization of the microtubules, or subsequent steps in pole plasm assembly...
  12. Dienstbier M, Boehl F, Li X, Bullock S. Egalitarian is a selective RNA-binding protein linking mRNA localization signals to the dynein motor. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1546-58 pubmed publisher
    ..embryonic extracts that are abundantly and specifically enriched on RNA localization signals from transcripts of gurken, hairy, K10, and the I factor retrotransposon...
  13. Ivshina M, Lasko P, Richter J. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding proteins in development, health, and disease. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2014;30:393-415 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the biochemical features of the CPEB proteins, discuss their activities in several biological systems, and illustrate how understanding CPEB activity in model organisms has an important impact on neurological disease. ..
  14. Neuman Silberberg F, Schupbach T. The Drosophila dorsoventral patterning gene gurken produces a dorsally localized RNA and encodes a TGF alpha-like protein. Cell. 1993;75:165-74 pubmed
    ..In contrast, gurken (grk), which also functions in this pathway, is required in the germline...
  15. Hsu T, Bagni C, Sutherland J, Kafatos F. The transcriptional factor CF2 is a mediator of EGF-R-activated dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila oogenesis. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1411-21 pubmed
    ..CF2 appears to act as a repressor of dorsal follicle cell fates and specifically as a repressor of the rhomboid gene transcription. ..
  16. Januschke J, Nicolas E, Compagnon J, Formstecher E, Goud B, Guichet A. Rab6 and the secretory pathway affect oocyte polarity in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:3419-25 pubmed
    ..function together to ensure the correct delivery of secretory pathway components, such as the TGFalpha homolog Gurken, to the plasma membrane...
  17. Roth S, Schupbach T. The relationship between ovarian and embryonic dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:2245-57 pubmed
    ..This signal is supplied by the TGF alpha-like gurken protein whose RNA is localized to the dorsal-anterior corner of the oocyte, gurken protein is the potential ligand ..
  18. Abdu U, Brodsky M, Schupbach T. Activation of a meiotic checkpoint during Drosophila oogenesis regulates the translation of Gurken through Chk2/Mnk. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1645-51 pubmed
    ..This checkpoint affects the accumulation of Gurken protein, a transforming growth factor alpha-like signaling molecule, as well as the morphology of the oocyte ..
  19. Clark A, Meignin C, Davis I. A Dynein-dependent shortcut rapidly delivers axis determination transcripts into the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2007;134:1955-65 pubmed
    ..Here, we study the path and mechanism of movement of gurken RNA within the nurse cells and towards and through ring canals connecting them to the oocyte...
  20. Ghiglione C, Bach E, Paraiso Y, Carraway K, Noselli S, Perrimon N. Mechanism of activation of the Drosophila EGF Receptor by the TGFalpha ligand Gurken during oogenesis. Development. 2002;129:175-86 pubmed
    ..of the Epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) by the transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha-like molecule, Gurken (Grk). Grk is expressed in the oocyte and activates the Egfr in the surrounding follicle cells during oogenesis...
  21. Cáceres L, Nilson L. Translational repression of gurken mRNA in the Drosophila oocyte requires the hnRNP Squid in the nurse cells. Dev Biol. 2009;326:327-34 pubmed publisher
    Establishment of the Drosophila dorsal-ventral axis depends upon the correct localization of gurken mRNA and protein within the oocyte...
  22. Reich A, Sapir A, Shilo B. Sprouty is a general inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Development. 1999;126:4139-47 pubmed
    ..polarity of the follicle cells is established, Sprouty limits the ventral expansion of the activating Gurken signal...
  23. Staeva Vieira E, Yoo S, Lehmann R. An essential role of DmRad51/SpnA in DNA repair and meiotic checkpoint control. EMBO J. 2003;22:5863-74 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that under normal conditions a second, Rad51-independent, repair pathway prevents the lethal effects of DNA damage. ..
  24. Pane A, Wehr K, Schupbach T. zucchini and squash encode two putative nucleases required for rasiRNA production in the Drosophila germline. Dev Cell. 2007;12:851-62 pubmed
    ..We show that these defects are due to the inability of zuc and squ mutants to produce repeat-associated small interfering RNAs. ..
  25. Klattenhoff C, Bratu D, McGinnis Schultz N, Koppetsch B, Cook H, Theurkauf W. Drosophila rasiRNA pathway mutations disrupt embryonic axis specification through activation of an ATR/Chk2 DNA damage response. Dev Cell. 2007;12:45-55 pubmed
    ..We conclude that rasiRNA-based gene silencing is not required for axis specification, and that the critical developmental function for this pathway is to suppress DNA damage signaling in the germline. ..
  26. Tan L, Chang J, Costa A, Schedl P. An autoregulatory feedback loop directs the localized expression of the Drosophila CPEB protein Orb in the developing oocyte. Development. 2001;128:1159-69 pubmed
    ..In DV axis formation, Orb protein is required to localize and translate gurken mRNA at the dorsoanterior part of the oocyte...
  27. Shravage B, Altmann G, Technau M, Roth S. The role of Dpp and its inhibitors during eggshell patterning in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:2261-71 pubmed
    The Drosophila eggshell is patterned by the combined action of the epidermal growth factor [EGF; Gurken (Grk)] and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-beta; Decapentaplegic (Dpp)] signaling cascades...
  28. Tian A, Tamori Y, Huang Y, Melendez N, Deng W. Efficient EGFR signaling and dorsal-ventral axis patterning requires syntaxin dependent Gurken trafficking. Dev Biol. 2013;373:349-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The EGFR ligand, Gurken (Grk), is first localized at the posterior of young oocytes for anterior-posterior axis formation and later in the ..
  29. Mahone M, Saffman E, Lasko P. Localized Bicaudal-C RNA encodes a protein containing a KH domain, the RNA binding motif of FMR1. EMBO J. 1995;14:2043-55 pubmed
    ..Alteration of a highly conserved KH domain codon by mutation abrogates in vivo Bic-C function. These results suggest roles for the Bic-C protein in localizing RNAs and in intercellular signaling. ..
  30. Wilhelm J, Buszczak M, Sayles S. Efficient protein trafficking requires trailer hitch, a component of a ribonucleoprotein complex localized to the ER in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2005;9:675-85 pubmed
    ..trailer hitch (tral) as a gene that is required for the proper secretion of the dorsal-ventral patterning factor Gurken, as well as the vitellogenin receptor Yolkless...
  31. Rittenhouse K, Berg C. Mutations in the Drosophila gene bullwinkle cause the formation of abnormal eggshell structures and bicaudal embryos. Development. 1995;121:3023-33 pubmed
    ..Since the mRNA for gurken, the putative ligand that signals dorsal follicle cell fate, is correctly localized in bullwinkle mutants, we ..
  32. Loiseau P, Davies T, Williams L, Mishima M, Palacios I. Drosophila PAT1 is required for Kinesin-1 to transport cargo and to maximize its motility. Development. 2010;137:2763-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This work suggests that the role of PAT1 in cargo transport in the cell is linked to PAT1 function as a positive regulator of Kinesin motility. ..
  33. Theurkauf W. Microtubules and cytoplasm organization during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 1994;165:352-60 pubmed
  34. Atkey M, Lachance J, Walczak M, Rebello T, Nilson L. Capicua regulates follicle cell fate in the Drosophila ovary through repression of mirror. Development. 2006;133:2115-23 pubmed
    ..We propose that Capicua regulates the pattern of follicle cell fates along the dorsoventral axis by blocking the induction of appendage determinants, such as mirror, by anterior positional cues. ..
  35. Lemberg M, Menendez J, Misik A, Garcia M, Koth C, Freeman M. Mechanism of intramembrane proteolysis investigated with purified rhomboid proteases. EMBO J. 2005;24:464-72 pubmed
    ..We identify a motif shared between rhomboids and the recently discovered derlins, which participate in translocation of misfolded membrane proteins. ..
  36. Chen Y, Schupbach T. The role of brinker in eggshell patterning. Mech Dev. 2006;123:395-406 pubmed
    ..Operculum fate results when the sum of the level of activation of both pathways reaches a threshold level, and reduction of activity of one pathway can be compensated to some extent by increase in the other pathway. ..
  37. Delanoue R, Herpers B, Soetaert J, Davis I, Rabouille C. Drosophila Squid/hnRNP helps Dynein switch from a gurken mRNA transport motor to an ultrastructural static anchor in sponge bodies. Dev Cell. 2007;13:523-38 pubmed
    In Drosophila oocytes, dorso-anterior transport of gurken mRNA requires both the Dynein motor and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) Squid...
  38. González Reyes A, Elliott H, St Johnston D. Polarization of both major body axes in Drosophila by gurken-torpedo signalling. Nature. 1995;375:654-8 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that gurken is necessary in the oocyte and torpedo/DER in the follicle cells for the induction of posterior fate...
  39. Jiang H, Edgar B. EGFR signaling regulates the proliferation of Drosophila adult midgut progenitors. Development. 2009;136:483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Two stronger EGFR ligands, Spitz and Keren, are expressed by the AMPs themselves and provide an additional, autocrine mitogenic stimulus to the AMPs during late larval stages. ..
  40. Kelley R. Initial organization of the Drosophila dorsoventral axis depends on an RNA-binding protein encoded by the squid gene. Genes Dev. 1993;7:948-60 pubmed
    ..At least one Sqd isoform is essential in somatic tissues. The ventralizing mutations gurken (grk), torpedo (tor), and cornichon are all epistatic to sqd...
  41. Roth S, Jordan P, Karess R. Binuclear Drosophila oocytes: consequences and implications for dorsal-ventral patterning in oogenesis and embryogenesis. Development. 1999;126:927-34 pubmed
    ..position around the anterior circumference of the egg chamber the follicle cell sheet is equally responsive to the Gurken signal associated with the oocyte nuclei...
  42. Queenan A, Barcelo G, Van Buskirk C, Schupbach T. The transmembrane region of Gurken is not required for biological activity, but is necessary for transport to the oocyte membrane in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1999;89:35-42 pubmed
    ..During Drosophila oogenesis, localization of the transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha)-like signaling molecule Gurken to the oocyte membrane is required for polarity establishment of the egg and embryo...
  43. Duchek P, Rørth P. Guidance of cell migration by EGF receptor signaling during Drosophila oogenesis. Science. 2001;291:131-3 pubmed
    ..The transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha)-like ligand Gurken appears to serve as the guidance cue...
  44. Peri F, Technau M, Roth S. Mechanisms of Gurken-dependent pipe regulation and the robustness of dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:2965-75 pubmed
    ..pipe repression depends on the TGFalpha-like ligand Gurken, which activates the Drosophila EGF receptor in dorsal follicle cells...
  45. Geng C, Macdonald P. Imp associates with squid and Hrp48 and contributes to localized expression of gurken in the oocyte. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:9508-16 pubmed
    Localization and translational control of Drosophila melanogaster gurken and oskar mRNAs rely on the hnRNP proteins Squid and Hrp48, which are complexed with one another in the ovary...
  46. Saunders C, Cohen R. The role of oocyte transcription, the 5'UTR, and translation repression and derepression in Drosophila gurken mRNA and protein localization. Mol Cell. 1999;3:43-54 pubmed
    The establishment of the major body axes of the Drosophila egg and future embryo requires strict regulation of gurken mRNA and protein localization...
  47. Duncan J, Warrior R. The cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin motors have interdependent roles in patterning the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1982-91 pubmed required for several processes that impact patterning; such processes include localization of bicoid (bcd) and gurken (grk) mRNAs and anchoring of the oocyte nucleus to the cell cortex...
  48. Freeman M. Feedback control of intercellular signalling in development. Nature. 2000;408:313-9 pubmed
    ..These feedback interactions can impart precision, robustness and versatility to intercellular signals. Feedback failure can cause disease. ..
  49. Tanaka T, Nakamura A. The endocytic pathway acts downstream of Oskar in Drosophila germ plasm assembly. Development. 2008;135:1107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Osk stimulates endosomal cycling, which in turn promotes F-actin reorganization to anchor the pole plasm components to the oocyte cortex. ..
  50. Kugler J, Chicoine J, Lasko P. Bicaudal-C associates with a Trailer Hitch/Me31B complex and is required for efficient Gurken secretion. Dev Biol. 2009;328:160-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify a novel function for Bic-C in secretion of the TGF-alpha homolog Gurken (Grk). In Bic-C mutant egg chambers, Grk is sequestered within actin-coated structures during mid-oogenesis...
  51. Wong L, Costa A, McLeod I, Sarkeshik A, Yates J, Kyin S, et al. The functioning of the Drosophila CPEB protein Orb is regulated by phosphorylation and requires casein kinase 2 activity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24355 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to being associated with Orb in vivo, we show that ck2 is required for orb functioning in gurken signaling and in the autoregulation of orb mRNA localization and translation...
  52. Benton R, Palacios I, St Johnston D. Drosophila 14-3-3/PAR-5 is an essential mediator of PAR-1 function in axis formation. Dev Cell. 2002;3:659-71 pubmed
    ..The C. elegans 14-3-3 protein, PAR-5, is also required for A-P polarization, suggesting that this is a conserved mechanism by which PAR-1 establishes cellular asymmetries. ..
  53. Doerflinger H, Vogt N, Torres I, Mirouse V, Koch I, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, et al. Bazooka is required for polarisation of the Drosophila anterior-posterior axis. Development. 2010;137:1765-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Since non-phosphorylatable Par-1 is epistatic to uninhibitable Baz, Par-1 seems to function downstream of the other PAR proteins to polarize the oocyte microtubule cytoskeleton. ..
  54. Torres I, Lopez Schier H, St Johnston D. A Notch/Delta-dependent relay mechanism establishes anterior-posterior polarity in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;5:547-58 pubmed
    ..asymmetry is unclear, however, since anterior and posterior follicle cells are equivalent until midoogenesis, when Gurken signaling from the oocyte induces posterior fate...
  55. Krauss J, López de Quinto S, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, Ephrussi A. Myosin-V regulates oskar mRNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1058-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that a balance of microtubule- and actin-based motor activities regulates oskar mRNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. ..
  56. Technau M, Knispel M, Roth S. Molecular mechanisms of EGF signaling-dependent regulation of pipe, a gene crucial for dorsoventral axis formation in Drosophila. Dev Genes Evol. 2012;222:1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, EGF signaling does not act by down-regulating an activator of pipe as previously suggested but rather by activating a repressor. Surprisingly, this repressor acts independent of the common co-repressors Groucho or CtBP. ..
  57. Rom I, Faicevici A, Almog O, Neuman Silberberg F. Drosophila Dynein light chain (DDLC1) binds to gurken mRNA and is required for its localization. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1773:1526-33 pubmed
    ..The TGF-alpha like signaling molecule Gurken has a central role in the polarization of both body axes and the corresponding mRNA displays a unique localization ..
  58. Urban S, Schlieper D, Freeman M. Conservation of intramembrane proteolytic activity and substrate specificity in prokaryotic and eukaryotic rhomboids. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1507-12 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a function for Rhomboids in activating intercellular signaling appears to have evolved early. ..
  59. Urban S, Lee J, Freeman M. A family of Rhomboid intramembrane proteases activates all Drosophila membrane-tethered EGF ligands. EMBO J. 2002;21:4277-86 pubmed
    Drosophila has three membrane-tethered epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like proteins: Spitz, Gurken and Keren. Spitz and Gurken have been genetically confirmed to activate the EGF receptor, but Keren is uncharacterized...
  60. Pizette S, Rabouille C, Cohen S, Therond P. Glycosphingolipids control the extracellular gradient of the Drosophila EGFR ligand Gurken. Development. 2009;136:551-61 pubmed publisher results from in vitro studies, we find that GSLs are required in cells producing the TGFalpha-like ligand Gurken, but not in EGFR-expressing cells...
  61. Clouse K, Ferguson S, Schupbach T. Squid, Cup, and PABP55B function together to regulate gurken translation in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2008;313:713-24 pubmed
    During Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis, the proper localization of gurken (grk) mRNA and protein is required for the establishment of the dorsal-ventral axis of the egg and future embryo...
  62. Chang W, Liou W, Pen H, Chou H, Chang Y, Li W, et al. The gradient of Gurken, a long-range morphogen, is directly regulated by Cbl-mediated endocytosis. Development. 2008;135:1923-33 pubmed publisher
    The asymmetric localization of gurken mRNA and post-translational sorting mechanisms are responsible for the polar distribution of Gurken protein in Drosophila...
  63. Zimyanin V, Lowe N, St Johnston D. An oskar-dependent positive feedback loop maintains the polarity of the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2007;17:353-9 pubmed
  64. Neuman Silberberg F, Schupbach T. The Drosophila TGF-alpha-like protein Gurken: expression and cellular localization during Drosophila oogenesis. Mech Dev. 1996;59:105-13 pubmed
    ..and dorsal-ventral polarity of the Drosophila egg and embryo depends on the function of the genes gurken, cornichon and Egfr (Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor homolog)...
  65. Gonsalvez G, Rajendra T, Wen Y, Praveen K, Matera A. Sm proteins specify germ cell fate by facilitating oskar mRNA localization. Development. 2010;137:2341-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Sm proteins function to establish the germline in Drosophila, at least in part by mediating oskar mRNA localization. ..
  66. Nakamura A, Sato K, Hanyu Nakamura K. Drosophila cup is an eIF4E binding protein that associates with Bruno and regulates oskar mRNA translation in oogenesis. Dev Cell. 2004;6:69-78 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that translational repression of osk RNA is achieved through a 5'/3' interaction mediated by an eIF4E-Cup-Bru complex. ..
  67. Shulman J, Benton R, St Johnston D. The Drosophila homolog of C. elegans PAR-1 organizes the oocyte cytoskeleton and directs oskar mRNA localization to the posterior pole. Cell. 2000;101:377-88 pubmed
    ..These results identify a molecular parallel between anterior-posterior polarization in Drosophila and C. elegans. ..
  68. St Johnston D. The intracellular localization of messenger RNAs. Cell. 1995;81:161-70 pubmed
    ..Indeed, there are already several examples where the direct linkage between translational control and localization has been demonstrated, and these are discussed in the accompanying review by Curtis et al. (1995). ..
  69. Goodrich J, Clouse K, Schupbach T. Hrb27C, Sqd and Otu cooperatively regulate gurken RNA localization and mediate nurse cell chromosome dispersion in Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2004;131:1949-58 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila oogenesis, the hnRNP Squid (Sqd) functions in the localization and translational regulation of gurken (grk) mRNA. We show that Sqd interacts with Hrb27C, an hnRNP previously implicated in splicing...
  70. Goff D, Nilson L, Morisato D. Establishment of dorsal-ventral polarity of the Drosophila egg requires capicua action in ovarian follicle cells. Development. 2001;128:4553-62 pubmed
    ..follicular epithelium is spatially regulated by the dorsally restricted distribution of its presumptive ligand, Gurken. As a consequence, pipe is transcribed in a broad ventral domain to initiate the Toll signaling pathway in the ..
  71. Shmueli A, Cohen Gazala O, Neuman Silberberg F. Gurken, a TGF-alpha-like protein involved in axis determination in Drosophila, directly binds to the EGF-receptor homolog Egfr. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:732-7 pubmed
    ..The genes gurken and egfr encode two essential players of this communication pathway...
  72. Herpers B, Rabouille C. mRNA localization and ER-based protein sorting mechanisms dictate the use of transitional endoplasmic reticulum-golgi units involved in gurken transport in Drosophila oocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:5306-17 pubmed
    ..The anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of the future embryo are specified within Drosophila oocytes by localizing gurken mRNA, which targets the secreted Gurken transforming growth factor-alpha synthesis and transport to the same site...
  73. Grunert S, St Johnston D. RNA localization and the development of asymmetry during Drosophila oogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:395-402 pubmed
    ..Each of these symmetry-breaking steps involves the asymmetric localization of a unique structure, leading to polarization of the cytoskeleton and the localization of specific mRNAs. ..
  74. Yan N, Macdonald P. Genetic interactions of Drosophila melanogaster arrest reveal roles for translational repressor Bruno in accumulation of Gurken and activity of Delta. Genetics. 2004;168:1433-42 pubmed
    ..One enhancer, identified fortuitously, is the Star gene. Star interaction with arrest results in excess Gurken protein, supporting the model that gurken is a target of repression. Two modifiers were mapped to individual genes...
  75. Webster P, Liang L, Berg C, Lasko P, Macdonald P. Translational repressor bruno plays multiple roles in development and is widely conserved. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2510-21 pubmed
    ..Bru belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of genes, suggesting that Bru-mediated translational regulation may be widespread. Models for the molecular mechanism of Bru function are discussed. ..
  76. Queenan A, Ghabrial A, Schupbach T. Ectopic activation of torpedo/Egfr, a Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase, dorsalizes both the eggshell and the embryo. Development. 1997;124:3871-80 pubmed
    ..This result indicates that subpopulations of follicle cells along the anterior/posterior axis can respond to Top/Egfr activation independently of one another. ..
  77. Twombly V, Blackman R, Jin H, Graff J, Padgett R, Gelbart W. The TGF-beta signaling pathway is essential for Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 1996;122:1555-65 pubmed
    ..Some phenotypes of sax mutations during oogenesis suggest that SAX responds to at least one other TGF-beta ligand as well in the posterior follicle cells. ..
  78. Peri F, Bökel C, Roth S. Local Gurken signaling and dynamic MAPK activation during Drosophila oogenesis. Mech Dev. 1999;81:75-88 pubmed
    During Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis Gurken, a TGF-alpha like protein localized close to the oocyte nucleus, activates the MAPK cascade via the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER)...
  79. Ghiglione C, Carraway K, Amundadottir L, Boswell R, Perrimon N, Duffy J. The transmembrane molecule kekkon 1 acts in a feedback loop to negatively regulate the activity of the Drosophila EGF receptor during oogenesis. Cell. 1999;96:847-56 pubmed
    ..During oogenesis, kek1 is expressed in response to the Gurken/EGFR signaling pathway, and loss of kek1 activity is associated with an increase in EGFR signaling...
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