Gene Symbol: Grip91
Description: Gamma-tubulin ring protein 91
Alias: CG10988, DGrip91, Dd4, Dgrip9, Dgrip91, Dgrips91, Dmel\CG10988, GCP3, GRIP91, anon-WO03040301.197, dGRIP91, dd4, l(1)G0122, l(1)d deg-4, l(1)d.deg.-4, l(1)d.deg.4, l(1)dd4, Gamma-tubulin ring protein 91, CG10988-PA, Dgrip91, Dgrips91, Grip91-PA, lethal (1) discs degenerate 4
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Oegema K, Wiese C, Martin O, Milligan R, Iwamatsu A, Mitchison T, et al. Characterization of two related Drosophila gamma-tubulin complexes that differ in their ability to nucleate microtubules. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:721-33 pubmed
    ..In addition to gamma-tubulin, the gammaTuSC contains Dgrip84 and Dgrip91, two proteins homologous to the Spc97/98p protein family...
  2. Gatti M, Baker B. Genes controlling essential cell-cycle functions in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 1989;3:438-53 pubmed
  3. Barbosa V, Yamamoto R, Henderson D, Glover D. Mutation of a Drosophila gamma tubulin ring complex subunit encoded by discs degenerate-4 differentially disrupts centrosomal protein localization. Genes Dev. 2000;14:3126-39 pubmed
    We have cloned the Drosophila gene discs degenerate-4 (dd4) and find that it encodes a component of the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC) homologous to Spc98 of budding yeast...
  4. Minakhina S, Druzhinina M, Steward R. Zfrp8, the Drosophila ortholog of PDCD2, functions in lymph gland development and controls cell proliferation. Development. 2007;134:2387-96 pubmed
    ..phenotype of the lymph gland of Zfpr8 heterozygous mutants is dominantly enhanced by the l(1)dd4 gene encoding Dgrip91, which is involved in anchoring gamma-Tubulin to the centrosome...
  5. Sibon O, Kelkar A, Lemstra W, Theurkauf W. DNA-replication/DNA-damage-dependent centrosome inactivation in Drosophila embryos. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:90-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that centrosome inactivation is part of a damage-control system that blocks chromosome segregation when replication/damage checkpoint control fails. ..
  6. Stumpff J, Kellogg D, Krohne K, Su T. Drosophila Wee1 interacts with members of the gammaTURC and is required for proper mitotic-spindle morphogenesis and positioning. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1525-34 pubmed
    ..Instead, dWee1 is also required for phosphorylation of gamma-tubulin, centrosome positioning, and mitotic-spindle integrity. We propose a model to account for these requirements. ..
  7. Gunawardane R, Martin O, Zheng Y. Characterization of a new gammaTuRC subunit with WD repeats. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1017-26 pubmed
    ..In contrast, in the same assay Dgp71WD interacts with gamma-tubulin but does not facilitate nucleotide binding. ..
  8. Vogt N, Koch I, Schwarz H, Schnorrer F, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. The gammaTuRC components Grip75 and Grip128 have an essential microtubule-anchoring function in the Drosophila germline. Development. 2006;133:3963-72 pubmed
    ..The gammaTuRC cap structure may be essential only for non-centrosome-based microtubule functions. ..
  9. Baker B, Smith D, Gatti M. Region-specific effects on chromosome integrity of mutations at essential loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:1205-9 pubmed

More Information


  1. Jankovics F, Brunner D. Transiently reorganized microtubules are essential for zippering during dorsal closure in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Cell. 2006;11:375-85 pubmed
    ..We provide a clearly defined example where cells of a developing organism transiently reorganize their microtubules to fulfill a specialized morphogenetic task. ..
  2. Gopalakrishnan J, Chim Y, Ha A, Basiri M, Lerit D, Rusan N, et al. Tubulin nucleotide status controls Sas-4-dependent pericentriolar material recruitment. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:865-73 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of its guanine-bound state, tubulin can act as a molecular switch in PCM recruitment. ..
  3. Cha B, Serbus L, Koppetsch B, Theurkauf W. Kinesin I-dependent cortical exclusion restricts pole plasm to the oocyte posterior. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:592-8 pubmed
  4. Varmark H. Functional role of centrosomes in spindle assembly and organization. J Cell Biochem. 2004;91:904-14 pubmed
    ..It is further described how Drosophila mutants are used to address the functional interrelationships between individual centrosomal proteins and spindle formation in vivo. ..
  5. Brodu V, Baffet A, Le Droguen P, Casanova J, Guichet A. A developmentally regulated two-step process generates a noncentrosomal microtubule network in Drosophila tracheal cells. Dev Cell. 2010;18:790-801 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that these changes are essential for tracheal development, thus stressing the functional relevance of MT reorganization for morphogenesis. ..
  6. Colombié N, Verollet C, Sampaio P, Moisand A, Sunkel C, Bourbon H, et al. The Drosophila gamma-tubulin small complex subunit Dgrip84 is required for structural and functional integrity of the spindle apparatus. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:272-82 pubmed
    ..The nature of a minimal gamma-tubulin complex necessary for proper microtubule organization in the metazoans is discussed. ..
  7. Jeng R, Stearns T. Gamma-tubulin complexes: size does matter. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:339-42 pubmed
    ..Recently, the nature of these gamma-tubulin complexes has been explored in different organisms, and this has led us closer to a molecular understanding of microtubule nucleation. ..
  8. Goshima G, Mayer M, Zhang N, Stuurman N, Vale R. Augmin: a protein complex required for centrosome-independent microtubule generation within the spindle. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:421-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that an important mitotic function for gamma-tubulin may lie within the spindle, where augmin and gamma-tubulin function cooperatively to amplify the number of microtubules. ..
  9. Kawaguchi S, Zheng Y. Characterization of a Drosophila centrosome protein CP309 that shares homology with Kendrin and CG-NAP. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:37-45 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the microtubule-nucleating activity of the centrosome requires the function of CP309. ..
  10. Gunawardane R, Martin O, Cao K, Zhang L, Dej K, Iwamatsu A, et al. Characterization and reconstitution of Drosophila gamma-tubulin ring complex subunits. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:1513-24 pubmed
    ..We found that Dgrips128 and 163 can each interact with gammaTuSC. However, this interaction is insufficient for gammaTuRC assembly. ..
  11. Gatti M, Goldberg M. Mutations affecting cell division in Drosophila. Methods Cell Biol. 1991;35:543-86 pubmed
  12. Barbosa V, Gatt M, Rebollo E, Gonzalez C, Glover D. Drosophila dd4 mutants reveal that gammaTuRC is required to maintain juxtaposed half spindles in spermatocytes. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:929-41 pubmed
    ..Bipolar and bi-astral spindles could form in Drosophila mutants for dd4, the gene encoding the 91 kDa subunit of gammaTuRC...
  13. Blagden S, Glover D. Polar expeditions--provisioning the centrosome for mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:505-11 pubmed
    ..Centrosomes enlarge dramatically after mitotic entry, when both Aurora A and Polo-like kinases cooperate to recruit additional gamma-tubulin ring complexes and microtubule-associated proteins to assist spindle formation. ..
  14. Perrimon N, Engstrom L, Mahowald A. The effects of zygotic lethal mutations on female germ-line functions in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1984;105:404-14 pubmed
    ..Three loci were found which, in germ-line clones, produced embryonic phenotypes that resemble maternal effect mutations. The implications of this study for the genetic analysis of early development are discussed. ..
  15. Stewart M, Murphy C, Fristrom J. The recovery and preliminary characterization of X chromosome mutants affecting imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1972;27:71-83 pubmed
  16. Giansanti M, Bucciarelli E, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. Drosophila SPD-2 is an essential centriole component required for PCM recruitment and astral-microtubule nucleation. Curr Biol. 2008;18:303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..requires the wild-type activity of Asl but is independent of the function of D-PLP, Cnn, gamma-tubulin, DGrip91, and D-TACC...
  17. Bucciarelli E, Pellacani C, Naim V, Palena A, Gatti M, Somma M. Drosophila Dgt6 interacts with Ndc80, Msps/XMAP215, and gamma-tubulin to promote kinetochore-driven MT formation. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Dgt6 may also promote elongation of kinetochore-driven k-fibers through its interaction with gamma-tubulin and Msps. ..