Gene Symbol: grim
Description: grim
Alias: BcDNA:RE28551, CG4345, Dmel\CG4345, GRIM, Grim, gri, grm, grim, CG4345-PA, grim-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Wilson R, Goyal L, Ditzel M, Zachariou A, Baker D, Agapite J, et al. The DIAP1 RING finger mediates ubiquitination of Dronc and is indispensable for regulating apoptosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:445-50 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, the pro-apoptotic proteins Reaper (Rpr), Grim and Hid (head involution defective) all induce cell death by antagonizing the anti-apoptotic activity of Drosophila ..
  2. Vucic D, Kaiser W, Miller L. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins physically interact with and block apoptosis induced by Drosophila proteins HID and GRIM. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3300-9 pubmed
    Reaper (RPR), HID, and GRIM activate apoptosis in cells programmed to die during Drosophila development...
  3. Karlsson D, Baumgardt M, Thor S. Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000368 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a surprisingly restricted, yet multifaceted, function of both anteroposterior and temporal cues with respect to lineage control and cell fate specification...
  4. Kornbluth S, White K. Apoptosis in Drosophila: neither fish nor fowl (nor man, nor worm). J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1779-87 pubmed
    ..Thus, although Drosophila, worms and humans share a host of apoptotic regulators, the way in which they function may not be identical. ..
  5. Wu J, Cocina A, Chai J, Hay B, Shi Y. Structural analysis of a functional DIAP1 fragment bound to grim and hid peptides. Mol Cell. 2001;8:95-104 pubmed
    ..Three proteins, Hid, Grim, and Reaper, promote apoptosis, in part by binding to DIAP1 through their conserved N-terminal sequences...
  6. Jiang C, Baehrecke E, Thummel C. Steroid regulated programmed cell death during Drosophila metamorphosis. Development. 1997;124:4673-83 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that ecdysone directs the death of larval tissues via the precise stage- and tissue-specific regulation of key death effector genes. ..
  7. Yan N, Huh J, Schirf V, Demeler B, Hay B, Shi Y. Structure and activation mechanism of the Drosophila initiator caspase Dronc. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:8667-74 pubmed
    ..This study revealed insights into mechanism of Dronc activation, and in conjunction with other observations, suggests diverse mechanisms for the activation of initiator caspases. ..
  8. Wu J, Nguyen N, Aghazarian M, Tan Y, Sevrioukov E, Mabuchi M, et al. grim promotes programmed cell death of Drosophila microchaete glial cells. Mech Dev. 2010;127:407-17 pubmed publisher
    The Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonists Reaper (Rpr), Grim and Hid are central regulators of developmental apoptosis in Drosophila...
  9. Vernooy S, Chow V, Su J, Verbrugghe K, Yang J, Cole S, et al. Drosophila Bruce can potently suppress Rpr- and Grim-dependent but not Hid-dependent cell death. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1164-8 pubmed
    ..dBruce) can potently inhibit cell death induced by the essential Drosophila cell death activators Reaper (Rpr) and Grim but not Head involution defective (Hid)...

More Information


  1. Yoo S. Grim stimulates Diap1 poly-ubiquitination by binding to UbcD1. Mol Cells. 2005;20:446-51 pubmed
    Diap1 is an essential Drosophila cell death regulator that binds to caspases and inhibits their activity. Reaper, Grim and Hid each antagonize Diap1 by binding to its BIR domain, activating the caspases and eventually causing cell death...
  2. Rodriguez A, Chen P, Oliver H, Abrams J. Unrestrained caspase-dependent cell death caused by loss of Diap1 function requires the Drosophila Apaf-1 homolog, Dark. EMBO J. 2002;21:2189-97 pubmed
    ..Since the action of dark is epistatic to that of Diap1, these findings demonstrate that caspase-dependent cell death requires concurrent positive input through Apaf-1-like proteins together with disruption of IAP-caspase complexes. ..
  3. Abrams J. An emerging blueprint for apoptosis in Drosophila. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:435-40 pubmed
    ..This review explores genes and molecules that control apoptosis in Drosophila. The death inducers Reaper, Grim and Hid relay signals, possibly through IAPs (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins) and Dark (an Apaf-1/Ced-4 homologue),..
  4. Suissa Y, Ziv O, Dinur T, Arama E, Gerlitz O. The NAB-Brk signal bifurcates at JNK to independently induce apoptosis and compensatory proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:15556-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Once induced, the apoptotic pathway further activates a CP response. Our data suggest that JNK is the candidate factor that differentiates between apoptosis that involves CP and apoptosis that does not. ..
  5. Abdou M, He Q, Wen D, Zyaan O, Wang J, Xu J, et al. Drosophila Met and Gce are partially redundant in transducing juvenile hormone action. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:938-45 pubmed publisher
    ..5k) mutants. Our data suggest a model in which Drosophila Met and Gce redundantly transduce JH action to prevent 20E-induced caspase-dependent PCD during larval molts by induction of Kr-h1 expression and inhibition of br expression. ..
  6. Waldhuber M, Emoto K, Petritsch C. The Drosophila caspase DRONC is required for metamorphosis and cell death in response to irradiation and developmental signals. Mech Dev. 2005;122:914-27 pubmed
    ..In addition, Reaper and Grim, but not Hid induced apoptosis is sensitive to a reduction of DRONC levels...
  7. Neisch A, Speck O, Stronach B, Fehon R. Rho1 regulates apoptosis via activation of the JNK signaling pathway at the plasma membrane. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:311-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that Rho1 functions at the cell cortex to regulate JNK activity and implicate Rho1 and Moe in epithelial cell survival. ..
  8. Lisi S, Mazzon I, White K. Diverse domains of THREAD/DIAP1 are required to inhibit apoptosis induced by REAPER and HID in Drosophila. Genetics. 2000;154:669-78 pubmed
    Significant amounts of apoptosis take place during Drosophila development. The proapoptotic genes reaper (rpr), grim, and head involution defective (hid) are required for virtually all embryonic apoptosis...
  9. Yoo S, Huh J, Muro I, Yu H, Wang L, Wang S, et al. Hid, Rpr and Grim negatively regulate DIAP1 levels through distinct mechanisms. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:416-24 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Head involution defective (Hid), Reaper (Rpr) and Grim downregulate Drosophila melanogaster IAP1 (DIAP) protein levels...
  10. Draizen T, Ewer J, Robinow S. Genetic and hormonal regulation of the death of peptidergic neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system. J Neurobiol. 1999;38:455-65 pubmed
    ..Typically, apoptosis in Drosophila is induced by the expression of the genes reaper, grim, or head involution defective (hid)...
  11. Bergmann A, Yang A, Srivastava M. Regulators of IAP function: coming to grips with the grim reaper. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003;15:717-24 pubmed
    ..The apoptosis-inducing genes grim, reaper and hid modulate these mechanisms, and determine the outcome.
  12. Olson M, Holley C, Yoo S, Huh J, Hay B, Kornbluth S. Reaper is regulated by IAP-mediated ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:4028-34 pubmed
    ..inhibition has been shown to be an important activity for pro-apoptotic proteins in Drosophila (Reaper, HID, and Grim) and in mammalian cells (Smac/DIABLO and Omi/HtrA2)...
  13. Yang C, Sinenko S, Thomenius M, Robeson A, Freel C, Horn S, et al. The deubiquitinating enzyme DUBAI stabilizes DIAP1 to suppress Drosophila apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:604-11 pubmed publisher
    ..DUBAI, therefore, represents a novel locus of apoptotic regulation in Drosophila, antagonizing cell death signals that would otherwise result in DIAP1 degradation. ..
  14. Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S, Gould A. Postmitotic specification of Drosophila insulinergic neurons from pioneer neurons. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e58 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal striking similarities between the transcription factors regulating insulin expression in insect neurons and mammalian pancreatic beta-cells. ..
  15. Bergmann A, Agapite J, Steller H. Mechanisms and control of programmed cell death in invertebrates. Oncogene. 1998;17:3215-23 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes some of the key findings in this area, but also touches on some of the many unresolved questions and challenges that remain. ..
  16. Xu P, Vernooy S, Guo M, Hay B. The Drosophila microRNA Mir-14 suppresses cell death and is required for normal fat metabolism. Curr Biol. 2003;13:790-5 pubmed
    ..Deletion of mir-14 results in animals with increased levels of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol, whereas increases in mir-14 copy number have the converse effect. We discuss possible relationships between these phenotypes. ..
  17. Xu D, Woodfield S, Lee T, Fan Y, Antonio C, Bergmann A. Genetic control of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:78-90 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the key players of the cell death pathway in Drosophila and discuss their roles in apoptotic and non-apoptotic processes. ..
  18. Fan Y, Lee T, Xu D, Chen Z, Lamblin A, Steller H, et al. Dual roles of Drosophila p53 in cell death and cell differentiation. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:912-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into the pathways activated by Dp53 and reveal that Dp53 incorporates functions of multiple p53 family members. ..
  19. Zimmermann K, Ricci J, Droin N, Green D. The role of ARK in stress-induced apoptosis in Drosophila cells. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:1077-87 pubmed pronounced inhibition of stress-induced apoptosis, whereas loss of ARK did not protect the cells from Reaper- or Grim-induced cell death...
  20. Jassim O, Fink J, Cagan R. Dmp53 protects the Drosophila retina during a developmentally regulated DNA damage response. EMBO J. 2003;22:5622-32 pubmed
    ..These in vivo results demonstrate that the cellular effects of DNA damage depend on the developmental status of the tissue. ..
  21. Wing J, Karres J, Ogdahl J, Zhou L, Schwartz L, Nambu J. Drosophila sickle is a novel grim-reaper cell death activator. Curr Biol. 2002;12:131-5 pubmed
    The Drosophila genes reaper, head involution defective (hid), and grim all reside at 75C on chromosome three and encode related proteins that have crucial functions in programmed cell death (reviewed in )...
  22. Christich A, Kauppila S, Chen P, Sogame N, Ho S, Abrams J. The damage-responsive Drosophila gene sickle encodes a novel IAP binding protein similar to but distinct from reaper, grim, and hid. Curr Biol. 2002;12:137-40 pubmed
    ..At its N terminus, Skl shares residues in common with other IAP antagonists in flies (Rpr, Grim, and Hid) and in mammals (Smac/DIABLO and Omi/Htra2)...
  23. Peterson C, Carney G, Taylor B, White K. reaper is required for neuroblast apoptosis during Drosophila development. Development. 2002;129:1467-76 pubmed
    Developmentally regulated apoptosis in Drosophila requires the activity of the reaper (rpr), grim and head involution defective (hid) genes...
  24. Zhou L, Schnitzler A, Agapite J, Schwartz L, Steller H, Nambu J. Cooperative functions of the reaper and head involution defective genes in the programmed cell death of Drosophila central nervous system midline cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5131-6 pubmed
    ..the chromosomal region 75C1-2 contains at least three genes, reaper (rpr), head involution defective (hid), and grim, that have important functions in the activation of programmed cell death...
  25. Wang S, Hawkins C, Yoo S, Muller H, Hay B. The Drosophila caspase inhibitor DIAP1 is essential for cell survival and is negatively regulated by HID. Cell. 1999;98:453-63 pubmed
    Drosophila Reaper (RPR), Head Involution Defective (HID), and GRIM induce caspase-dependent cell death and physically interact with the cell death inhibitor DIAP1...
  26. Silke J, Kratina T, Ekert P, Pakusch M, Vaux D. Unlike Diablo/smac, Grim promotes global ubiquitination and specific degradation of X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and neither cause apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4313-21 pubmed
    b>Grim is a Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonist that directly interferes with inhibition of caspases by IAPs. Expression of Grim, or removal of DIAP1, is sufficient to activate apoptosis in fly cells...
  27. Danial N, Korsmeyer S. Cell death: critical control points. Cell. 2004;116:205-19 pubmed
    ..The identification of critical control points in the cell death pathway has yielded fundamental insights for basic biology, as well as provided rational targets for new therapeutics. ..
  28. Song Z, Guan B, Bergman A, Nicholson D, Thornberry N, Peterson E, et al. Biochemical and genetic interactions between Drosophila caspases and the proapoptotic genes rpr, hid, and grim. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2907-14 pubmed
    ..the induction of apoptosis requires three closely linked genes, reaper (rpr), head involution defective (hid), and grim. The products of these genes induce apoptosis by activating a caspase pathway...
  29. Hays R, Wickline L, Cagan R. Morgue mediates apoptosis in the Drosophila melanogaster retina by promoting degradation of DIAP1. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:425-31 pubmed
    ..Reaper (Rpr) and Grim, but not Hid, also promote the degradation of DIAP1 in vivo, suggesting that these proteins promote cell death ..
  30. Lee J, Koh H, Kim M, Park J, Lee S, Lee S, et al. JNK pathway mediates apoptotic cell death induced by tumor suppressor LKB1 in Drosophila. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1110-22 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our studies unprecedentedly elucidate JNK as the downstream mediator of the LKB1-dependent apoptosis, and provide a new paradigm for understanding the diverse LKB1 functions in vivo. ..
  31. Leaman D, Chen P, Fak J, Yalcin A, Pearce M, Unnerstall U, et al. Antisense-mediated depletion reveals essential and specific functions of microRNAs in Drosophila development. Cell. 2005;121:1097-108 pubmed
    ..apoptosis; this is achieved by differential posttranscriptional repression of the proapoptotic factors hid, grim, reaper, and sickle...
  32. Benitez S, Sosa C, Tomasini N, Macias A. Both JNK and apoptosis pathways regulate growth and terminalia rotation during Drosophila genital disc development. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:643-53 pubmed publisher
  33. McCall K, Steller H. Facing death in the fly: genetic analysis of apoptosis in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1997;13:222-6 pubmed
    ..Drosophila have revealed the existence of three novel apoptotic activators, reaper, head involution defective and grim. Additionally, Drosophila homologs of evolutionarily conserved IAPs (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins) and CED-3/ICE-..
  34. Bergmann A, Agapite J, McCall K, Steller H. The Drosophila gene hid is a direct molecular target of Ras-dependent survival signaling. Cell. 1998;95:331-41 pubmed
    ..These findings define a novel mechanism by which growth factor signaling directly inactivates a critical component of the intrinsic cell death machinery. These studies provide further insights into the function of ras as an oncogene. ..
  35. Claveria C, Albar J, Serrano A, Buesa J, Barbero J, Martinez A C, et al. Drosophila grim induces apoptosis in mammalian cells. EMBO J. 1998;17:7199-208 pubmed
    Genetic studies have shown that grim is a central genetic switch of programmed cell death in Drosophila; however, homologous genes have not been described in other species, nor has its mechanism of action been defined...
  36. Kurada P, White K. Ras promotes cell survival in Drosophila by downregulating hid expression. Cell. 1998;95:319-29 pubmed
    ..Null alleles of hid recapitulate the antiapoptotic activities of Ras/MAPK, providing genetic evidence that downregulation of hid is an important mechanism by which Ras promotes survival. ..
  37. Chen P, Rodriguez A, Erskine R, Thach T, Abrams J. Dredd, a novel effector of the apoptosis activators reaper, grim, and hid in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1998;201:202-16 pubmed development exhibit a striking accumulation of dredd RNA that requires signaling by the death activators REAPER, GRIM, and HID...
  38. Rovani M, Brachmann C, Ramsay G, Katzen A. The dREAM/Myb-MuvB complex and Grim are key regulators of the programmed death of neural precursor cells at the Drosophila posterior wing margin. Dev Biol. 2012;372:88-102 pubmed publisher
    ..In cooperation with the pro-apoptotic protein Grim and dREAM/MMB, DMyb promotes the PCD of specified sensory organ precursor daughter cells in at least two different ..
  39. Vazquez Pianzola P, Hernandez G, Suter B, Rivera Pomar R. Different modes of translation for hid, grim and sickle mRNAs in Drosophila. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:286-95 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the 5'UTR of hid and grim mRNAs promote translation of uncapped-mRNA reporters in cell-free embryonic extracts and that hid and grim mRNA 5'..
  40. Wing J, Zhou L, Schwartz L, Nambu J. Distinct cell killing properties of the Drosophila reaper, head involution defective, and grim genes. Cell Death Differ. 1998;5:930-9 pubmed
    The Drosophila reaper, head involution defective (hid), and grim genes play key roles in regulating the activation of programmed cell death...
  41. Krieser R, Moore F, Dresnek D, Pellock B, Patel R, Huang A, et al. The Drosophila homolog of the putative phosphatidylserine receptor functions to inhibit apoptosis. Development. 2007;134:2407-14 pubmed
    ..The increased apoptosis is mediated by the head involution defective (Wrinkled) gene product. In addition, our data suggest that dPSR acts through the c-Jun-NH(2) terminal kinase pathway to alter the sensitivity to cell death. ..
  42. Kondo S, Senoo Matsuda N, Hiromi Y, Miura M. DRONC coordinates cell death and compensatory proliferation. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7258-68 pubmed
    ..These results show that the apoptotic pathway bifurcates at DRONC and that DRONC coordinates the execution of cell death and compensatory proliferation. ..
  43. Brachmann C, Cagan R. Patterning the fly eye: the role of apoptosis. Trends Genet. 2003;19:91-6 pubmed
    ..But, we have yet to understand how this signaling is regulated spatially to result in such precision. In this article, we describe and speculate on the role of selective cell death during maturation of the fly eye. ..
  44. Bidla G, Hauling T, Dushay M, Theopold U. Activation of insect phenoloxidase after injury: endogenous versus foreign elicitors. J Innate Immun. 2009;1:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings have implications for the evolutionary dynamics of immune mechanisms and are in agreement with recent comparisons of insect immune transcriptomes. ..
  45. Riddiford L, Truman J, Mirth C, Shen Y. A role for juvenile hormone in the prepupal development of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2010;137:1117-26 pubmed publisher
    ..of Drosophila melanogaster, the corpora allata cells, which produce JH, were killed using the cell death gene grim. These allatectomized (CAX) larvae were smaller at pupariation and died at head eversion...
  46. White K. Cell death: drosophila Apaf-1 - no longer in the (d)Ark. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R167-9 pubmed
    ..The new findings also suggest that cell death in flies is very similar to that in mammals after all. ..
  47. Siegrist S, Haque N, Chen C, Hay B, Hariharan I. Inactivation of both Foxo and reaper promotes long-term adult neurogenesis in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:643-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, inhibition of the pathways that normally function to eliminate neural stem cells during development enables adult neurogenesis. ..
  48. Lee G, Kikuno K, Nair S, Park J. Mechanisms of postecdysis-associated programmed cell death of peptidergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:3972-91 pubmed publisher
    ..DIAP1 is an important survival factor that inhibits premature death of bursCCAP neurons. We found that grim functions as a principal death inducer, whereas other death genes, hid, reaper, and sickle, show no endogenous ..
  49. Bartel D. MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function. Cell. 2004;116:281-97 pubmed
    ..Although they escaped notice until relatively recently, miRNAs comprise one of the more abundant classes of gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms and likely influence the output of many protein-coding genes. ..
  50. Tissot M, Stocker R. Metamorphosis in drosophila and other insects: the fate of neurons throughout the stages. Prog Neurobiol. 2000;62:89-111 pubmed
    ..The wealth of information available emphasises the strength of the insect model system used in developmental studies, rendering it clearly the most important system for studies at the cellular level. ..
  51. Song Z, Steller H. Death by design: mechanism and control of apoptosis. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:M49-52 pubmed
    ..However, recent results suggest that these apparent differences in the control of cell death reflect our incomplete knowledge, rather than genuine mechanistic differences between different organisms. ..
  52. Rodriguez A, Oliver H, Zou H, Chen P, Wang X, Abrams J. Dark is a Drosophila homologue of Apaf-1/CED-4 and functions in an evolutionarily conserved death pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:272-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, ectopic cell killing by the Drosophila cell-death activators, Reaper, Grim and Hid, is substantially suppressed in dark mutants...
  53. Rusconi J, Fink J, Cagan R. klumpfuss regulates cell death in the Drosophila retina. Mech Dev. 2004;121:537-46 pubmed
  54. Miller L. An exegesis of IAPs: salvation and surprises from BIR motifs. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:323-8 pubmed
    ..This article discusses current research on the structure and function of the BIR motifs and how it could provide insight into the function of BIRPs in cell division. ..
  55. Sandu C, Ryoo H, Steller H. Drosophila IAP antagonists form multimeric complexes to promote cell death. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:1039-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila, caspase activation depends on the IAP antagonists, Reaper (Rpr), Head involution defective (Hid), and Grim. These proteins share a common motif to bind Drosophila IAP1 (DIAP1) and have partially redundant functions...
  56. Hawkins C, Yoo S, Peterson E, Wang S, Vernooy S, Hay B. The Drosophila caspase DRONC cleaves following glutamate or aspartate and is regulated by DIAP1, HID, and GRIM. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:27084-93 pubmed
    ..dominant negative form of DRONC blocks cell death induced by the Drosophila cell death activators reaper, hid, and grim, and DRONC overexpression in flies promotes cell death...
  57. Zhang Y, Lin N, Carroll P, Chan G, Guan B, Xiao H, et al. Epigenetic blocking of an enhancer region controls irradiation-induced proapoptotic gene expression in Drosophila embryos. Dev Cell. 2008;14:481-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, direct epigenetic regulation of two proapoptotic genes controls cellular sensitivity to cytotoxic stimuli. ..
  58. Gottfried Y, Rotem A, Lotan R, Steller H, Larisch S. The mitochondrial ARTS protein promotes apoptosis through targeting XIAP. EMBO J. 2004;23:1627-35 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, the IAP antagonists Reaper, Hid and Grim are essential for the induction of virtually all apoptotic cell death...
  59. Foley K, Cooley L. Apoptosis in late stage Drosophila nurse cells does not require genes within the H99 deficiency. Development. 1998;125:1075-82 pubmed
    ..The positive regulators, reaper (rpr), head involution defective (hid) and grim, as well as the negative regulators, DIAP1 and DIAP2, are transcribed during oogenesis...
  60. Deveraux Q, Reed J. IAP family proteins--suppressors of apoptosis. Genes Dev. 1999;13:239-52 pubmed
  61. McCarthy J, Dixit V. Apoptosis induced by Drosophila reaper and grim in a human system. Attenuation by inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs). J Biol Chem. 1998;273:24009-15 pubmed
    Previous genetic studies have established Reaper and Grim as central regulators of apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Reaper and Grim induce extensive apoptosis in Drosophila, yet share no homology to known vertebrate proteins...
  62. Lin H, Rogulja A, Cadigan K. Wingless eliminates ommatidia from the edge of the developing eye through activation of apoptosis. Development. 2004;131:2409-18 pubmed
    ..Wingless signaling elevates the expression of the pro-apoptotic factors head involution defective, grim and reaper, which are required for ommatidial elimination...
  63. Meier P, Evan G. Dying like flies. Cell. 1998;95:295-8 pubmed
  64. Robinow S, Draizen T, Truman J. Genes that induce apoptosis: transcriptional regulation in identified, doomed neurons of the Drosophila CNS. Dev Biol. 1997;190:206-13 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, apoptosis can be induced by the expression of the genes reaper, grim, or head involution defective...
  65. Kato K, Awasaki T, Ito K. Neuronal programmed cell death induces glial cell division in the adult Drosophila brain. Development. 2009;136:51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the life of an adult fly can be divided into two phases: the first week, as a critical period for neuronal cell death-associated glial division, and the remainder. ..
  66. Daish T, Mills K, Kumar S. Drosophila caspase DRONC is required for specific developmental cell death pathways and stress-induced apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2004;7:909-15 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that DRONC is involved in specific developmental cell death pathways and that in some tissues, effector caspase activation and cell death can occur independently of DRONC. ..
  67. Steller H. Drosophila p53: meeting the Grim Reaper. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:E100-2 pubmed
    ..The recent discovery of a Drosophila orthologue of the p53 tumour suppressor promises new insights into the complex function, regulation and evolution of one of the most intensely studied human disease proteins. ..
  68. Quinn L, Dorstyn L, Mills K, Colussi P, Chen P, Coombe M, et al. An essential role for the caspase dronc in developmentally programmed cell death in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:40416-24 pubmed
    ..eye phenotype that can be suppressed by halving the dosage of the genes in the H99 complex (reaper, hid, and grim) and enhanced by mutations in diap1...
  69. Varkey J, Chen P, Jemmerson R, Abrams J. Altered cytochrome c display precedes apoptotic cell death in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:701-10 pubmed
    ..Conditional expression of the Drosophila death activators, reaper or grim, provoked apoptogenic cytochrome c display and, surprisingly, caspase activity was necessary and sufficient to ..
  70. Yan N, Wu J, Chai J, Li W, Shi Y. Molecular mechanisms of DrICE inhibition by DIAP1 and removal of inhibition by Reaper, Hid and Grim. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:420-8 pubmed
    ..The pro-death proteins Reaper, Hid and Grim (RHG) induce apoptosis by antagonizing DIAP1 function. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown...
  71. Guo M, Hong E, Fernandes J, Zipursky S, Hay B. A reporter for amyloid precursor protein gamma-secretase activity in Drosophila. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:2669-78 pubmed
    ..We have used these flies to carry out a screen for mutations that suppress gamma-secretase activity and have identified a small chromosomal region that contains a gene or genes whose products may promote gamma-secretase activity. ..
  72. Claveria C, Caminero E, Martinez A C, Campuzano S, Torres M. GH3, a novel proapoptotic domain in Drosophila Grim, promotes a mitochondrial death pathway. EMBO J. 2002;21:3327-36 pubmed
    b>Grim encodes a protein required for programmed cell death in Drosophila. The Grim N-terminus induces apoptosis by disrupting IAP blockage of caspases; however, N-terminally-deleted Grim retains pro apoptotic activity...
  73. Gross A, McDonnell J, Korsmeyer S. BCL-2 family members and the mitochondria in apoptosis. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1899-911 pubmed
  74. Tan Y, Yamada Mabuchi M, Arya R, St Pierre S, Tang W, Tosa M, et al. Coordinated expression of cell death genes regulates neuroblast apoptosis. Development. 2011;138:2197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..that neuroblast apoptosis during embryogenesis requires the coordinated expression of the cell death genes grim and reaper, and possibly sickle...
  75. Truscott M, Islam A, Lopez Bigas N, Frolov M. mir-11 limits the proapoptotic function of its host gene, dE2f1. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1820-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data support a model in which the coexpression of miR-11 limits the proapoptotic function of its host gene, dE2f1, upon DNA damage by directly modulating a dE2F1-dependent apoptotic transcriptional program. ..