Gene Symbol: grh
Description: grainy head
Alias: BcDNA:LD38807, CG30111, CG42311, CG5058, DREB, Dmel\CG42311, Dmel_CG30111, Dmel_CG5058, EG:191D12.1, ELF1, Elf-1, Elf-1/NTF-1, Elf1, GRH, Grh, NTF, NTF-1, NTF-1/Elf-1, NTF1, Ntf, Ntf1, elf1, elf1(CAG)[[7]], hsk, l(2)06850, l(2)IM45, l(2)s2140, ntf-1, grainy head, CG42311-PH, CG42311-PI, CG42311-PJ, CG42311-PK, CG42311-PL, CG42311-PN, CG42311-PO, CG42311-PP, decapentaplegic repression element binding protein, element I binding activity, grainyhead, grh-PH, grh-PI, grh-PJ, grh-PK, grh-PL, grh-PN, grh-PO, grh-PP, head skeleton, neurogenic element binding transcription factor, neuronal transcription factor 1
Species: fruit fly
Products:     grh

Top Publications

  1. Bray S, Kafatos F. Developmental function of Elf-1: an essential transcription factor during embryogenesis in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1991;5:1672-83 pubmed
    ..Elf-1/grh mutations cause late embryonic lethality accompanied by multiple defects in the cuticle and head skeleton. Using Ddc-lacZ gene fusions, we show that these mutations affect Ddc expression in the embryo...
  2. Prokop A, Bray S, Harrison E, Technau G. Homeotic regulation of segment-specific differences in neuroblast numbers and proliferation in the Drosophila central nervous system. Mech Dev. 1998;74:99-110 pubmed
  3. Maurange C, Cheng L, Gould A. Temporal transcription factors and their targets schedule the end of neural proliferation in Drosophila. Cell. 2008;133:891-902 pubmed publisher
    ..the combined action of a late phase of the temporal series and indirect feedforward via Castor targets such as Grainyhead and Dichaete...
  4. Liaw G, Rudolph K, Huang J, Dubnicoff T, Courey A, Lengyel J. The torso response element binds GAGA and NTF-1/Elf-1, and regulates tailless by relief of repression. Genes Dev. 1995;9:3163-76 pubmed
    ..protein purification, we have determined that the proteins GAGA and NTF-1 (also known as Elf-1, product of the grainyhead gene) bind to the tor-RE...
  5. Cenci C, Gould A. Drosophila Grainyhead specifies late programmes of neural proliferation by regulating the mitotic activity and Hox-dependent apoptosis of neuroblasts. Development. 2005;132:3835-45 pubmed
    ..At later stages, it is known that neuroblasts switch on expression of Grainyhead (Grh) and maintain it through many subsequent divisions...
  6. Jennings B, Tyler D, Bray S. Target specificities of Drosophila enhancer of split basic helix-loop-helix proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:4600-10 pubmed
  7. Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Terriente J, Diaz Benjumea F, Thor S. Neuronal subtype specification within a lineage by opposing temporal feed-forward loops. Cell. 2009;139:969-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism of temporal and "subtemporal" genes acting in opposing feed-forward loops may be used by many stem cell lineages to generate diversity. ..
  8. Wang S, Tsarouhas V, Xylourgidis N, Sabri N, Tiklová K, Nautiyal N, et al. The tyrosine kinase Stitcher activates Grainy head and epidermal wound healing in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:890-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Grainy head (Grh) transcription factors induce gene expression to crosslink the extracellular barrier in wounded flies and ..
  9. Kim M, McGinnis W. Phosphorylation of Grainy head by ERK is essential for wound-dependent regeneration but not for development of an epidermal barrier. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:650-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Grainy head (GRH) is a key transcription factor responsible for epidermal barrier formation and repair, whose function is highly conserved across diverse animal species...

More Information


  1. Harrison M, Botchan M, Cline T. Grainyhead and Zelda compete for binding to the promoters of the earliest-expressed Drosophila genes. Dev Biol. 2010;345:248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand how this unique subset of genes is regulated, we identified a TAGteam-binding factor Grainyhead (Grh)...
  2. Papatsenko D, Goltsev Y, Levine M. Organization of developmental enhancers in the Drosophila embryo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that grammar of gene control regions is pervasively used in the patterning of the Drosophila embryo. ..
  3. Pearson J, Juarez M, Kim M, Drivenes Ø, McGinnis W. Multiple transcription factor codes activate epidermal wound-response genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..epidermal wound enhancers all contain evolutionarily conserved sequences matching binding sites for JUN/FOS and GRH transcription factors, but vary widely in trans- and cis-requirements for these inputs and their binding sites...
  4. Chai P, Liu Z, Chia W, Cai Y. Hedgehog signaling acts with the temporal cascade to promote neuroblast cell cycle exit. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001494 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the Hh pathway functions downstream of Castor but upstream of Grainyhead, two components of the temporal series, to schedule neuroblast cell cycle exit...
  5. Bello B, Reichert H, Hirth F. The brain tumor gene negatively regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation in the larval central brain of Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:2639-48 pubmed
  6. Brody T, Yavatkar A, Kuzin A, Kundu M, Tyson L, Ross J, et al. Use of a Drosophila genome-wide conserved sequence database to identify functionally related cis-regulatory enhancers. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:169-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The database and accompanying algorithms should prove useful in the discovery and analysis of enhancers involved in any developmental process. ..
  7. Uv A, Harrison E, Bray S. Tissue-specific splicing and functions of the Drosophila transcription factor Grainyhead. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6727-35 pubmed
    b>Grainyhead belongs to a recently identified group of transcription factors which share a 250-amino-acid domain required for binding to DNA and a carboxy-terminal dimerization domain...
  8. Blastyak A, Mishra R, Karch F, Gyurkovics H. Efficient and specific targeting of Polycomb group proteins requires cooperative interaction between Grainyhead and Pleiohomeotic. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1434-44 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the grainyhead gene, which encodes a DNA binding protein, interacts with one such Polycomb response element of the bithorax ..
  9. Dynlacht B, Attardi L, Admon A, Freeman M, Tjian R. Functional analysis of NTF-1, a developmentally regulated Drosophila transcription factor that binds neuronal cis elements. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1677-88 pubmed
    ..regulate gene expression during Drosophila development, we identified and purified a novel DNA-binding activity (NTF-1)...
  10. García M, Stathopoulos A. Lateral gene expression in Drosophila early embryos is supported by Grainyhead-mediated activation and tiers of dorsally-localized repression. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29172 pubmed publisher
    ..Only Grainyhead (Grh), a CP2 transcription factor with a unique DNA-binding domain, was found to bind the A-box sequence...
  11. Huang J, Dubnicoff T, Liaw G, Bai Y, Valentine S, Shirokawa J, et al. Binding sites for transcription factor NTF-1/Elf-1 contribute to the ventral repression of decapentaplegic. Genes Dev. 1995;9:3177-89 pubmed
    ..We have found the DRE-binding protein to be identical to NTF-1 (equivalent to Elf-1, the product of the grainyhead gene), a factor originally identified as an activator of the Ultrabithorax and Dopa decarboxylase promoters...
  12. Almeida M, Bray S. Regulation of post-embryonic neuroblasts by Drosophila Grainyhead. Mech Dev. 2005;122:1282-93 pubmed
    ..The transcription factor Grainyhead (Grh), which is required for morphogenesis of epidermal and tracheal cells, is also expressed in all pNBs...
  13. Mace K, Pearson J, McGinnis W. An epidermal barrier wound repair pathway in Drosophila is mediated by grainy head. Science. 2005;308:381-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway includes a wound response enhancer from the Ddc gene that requires grainy head (grh) function and binding sites for the Grh transcription factor...
  14. Brody T, Odenwald W. Programmed transformations in neuroblast gene expression during Drosophila CNS lineage development. Dev Biol. 2000;226:34-44 pubmed
    ..generating additional progeny, which can be identified by the expression of the bHLH transcription factor Grainyhead (Gh). Gh appears to be a terminal embryonic CNS lineage marker...
  15. Bray S, Burke B, Brown N, Hirsh J. Embryonic expression pattern of a family of Drosophila proteins that interact with a central nervous system regulatory element. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1130-45 pubmed
    ..The antibodies also were used to isolate cDNA clones encoding Elf-1. Alternate forms of Elf-1 mRNA result in at least three protein isoforms. ..
  16. Cobb M, Huet M, Lachaise D, Veuille M. Fragmented forests, evolving flies: molecular variation in African populations of Drosophila teissieri. Mol Ecol. 2000;9:1591-7 pubmed
    ..It seems probable that the species has undergone abrupt changes involving isolation, merging and migration of populations, as a consequence of repeated waves of forest fragmentation and coalescence. ..
  17. Gangishetti U, Veerkamp J, Bezdan D, Schwarz H, Lohmann I, Moussian B. The transcription factor Grainy head and the steroid hormone ecdysone cooperate during differentiation of the skin of Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2012;21:283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly explored. In this work, we show that the transcription factor Grainy head and the steroid hormone ecdysone drive the production of two partially overlapping sets of cuticle factors...
  18. Gravot E, Huet M, Veuille M. Effect of breeding structure on population genetic parameters in Drosophila. Genetics. 2004;166:779-88 pubmed
    ..More generally, this suggests the existence of differential reactions to local environments that might contribute to several genomic differences observed between these species. ..
  19. Muñoz Soriano V, Lopez Domenech S, Paricio N. Why mammalian wound-healing researchers may wish to turn to Drosophila as a model. Exp Dermatol. 2014;23:538-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we discuss the benefits and limitations of using Drosophila in wound-healing research, especially presenting this organism as a promising tool for the identification of new therapeutic targets and drugs in this context. ..
  20. Uv A, Roth P, Xylourgidis N, Wickberg A, Cantera R, Samakovlis C. members only encodes a Drosophila nucleoporin required for rel protein import and immune response activation. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1945-57 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that distinct nuclear import events require different nucleoporins in vivo and suggest a regulatory role for mbo in signal transduction. ..
  21. Zacharioudaki E, Housden B, Garinis G, Stojnic R, Delidakis C, Bray S. Genes implicated in stem cell identity and temporal programme are directly targeted by Notch in neuroblast tumours. Development. 2016;143:219-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the results suggest that Notch induces neuroblast tumours by directly promoting the expression of genes that contribute to stem cell identity and by reprogramming the expression of factors that could regulate maturity. ..
  22. Mohr S, Gelbart W. Using the P[wHy] hybrid transposable element to disrupt genes in region 54D-55B in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;162:165-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, the P[wHy] method provides an efficient method for systematically determining the phenotypes of genes in a given region of the fly genome. ..
  23. Bello B, Holbro N, Reichert H. Polycomb group genes are required for neural stem cell survival in postembryonic neurogenesis of Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:1091-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, together with data on mammalian PcG genes, they imply that repression of aberrant reactivation of Hox genes may be a general and evolutionarily conserved role for PcG genes in CNS development. ..
  24. Chen J, Attardi L, Verrijzer C, Yokomori K, Tjian R. Assembly of recombinant TFIID reveals differential coactivator requirements for distinct transcriptional activators. Cell. 1994;79:93-105 pubmed
    ..By contrast, reconstituted holo-TFIID supports activation by an assortment of activators. The activator NTF-1, which binds TAFII150, stimulates transcription with a complex containing only TBP, TAFII250, and TAFII150, ..
  25. Stramer B, Martin P. Cell biology: master regulators of sealing and healing. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R425-7 pubmed
    ..Yet new evidence suggests a conserved transcription factor, Grainyhead, controls both their development and the means by which both structures repair themselves.
  26. Nicholls R, Gelbart W. Identification of chromosomal regions involved in decapentaplegic function in Drosophila. Genetics. 1998;149:203-15 pubmed
    ..As neither of these regions has been previously implicated in dpp function, we propose that each of the deficiencies removes a novel factor or factors required for dpp function. ..
  27. Moussian B, Uv A. An ancient control of epithelial barrier formation and wound healing. Bioessays. 2005;27:987-90 pubmed
    ..A key role is carried out by Grainy head, a phylogenetically conserved transcription factor expressed in epidermal cells in nematodes, flies, frogs, ..
  28. Muñoz Soriano V, Belacortu Y, Paricio N. Planar cell polarity signaling in collective cell movements during morphogenesis and disease. Curr Genomics. 2012;13:609-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, new discoveries about the contribution of this pathway to collective cell movements could provide new potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for these disorders. ..
  29. Dourlen P, Levet C, Mejat A, Gambis A, Mollereau B. The Tomato/GFP-FLP/FRT method for live imaging of mosaic adult Drosophila photoreceptor cells. J Vis Exp. 2013;:e50610 pubmed publisher
    ..This method is also useful for addressing cell autonomy issues in developmental mutants, such as those in which the establishment of planar cell polarity is affected. ..
  30. Losada Pérez M, Gabilondo H, del Saz D, Baumgardt M, Molina I, Leon Y, et al. Lineage-unrelated neurons generated in different temporal windows and expressing different combinatorial codes can converge in the activation of the same terminal differentiation gene. Mech Dev. 2010;127:458-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these results imply that the activation of a particular terminal differentiation gene in temporally unrestricted. ..
  31. Goldstein D, Clark A. Microsatellite variation in North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:3882-6 pubmed
  32. Brody T, Odenwald W. Cellular diversity in the developing nervous system: a temporal view from Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:3763-70 pubmed
    ..Further investigation of the genetic programs that guide both invertebrate and vertebrate neural precursor cell lineage development will ultimately lead to an understanding of the molecular events that control neuronal diversity. ..
  33. D Andrea R, Stratmann R, Lehner C, John U, Saint R. The three rows gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a novel protein that is required for chromosome disjunction during mitosis. Mol Biol Cell. 1993;4:1161-74 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the novel thr product is required specifically for chromosome disjunction during all mitoses. ..
  34. Shirra M, Hansen U. LSF and NTF-1 share a conserved DNA recognition motif yet require different oligomerization states to form a stable protein-DNA complex. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:19260-8 pubmed
    ..LSF and the Drosophila transcription factor NTF-1 (also known as Elf-1 and Grainyhead) share a similar DNA binding region, which is unlike any established DNA binding motifs...
  35. Maurel Zaffran C, Pradel J, Graba Y. Reiterative use of signalling pathways controls multiple cellular events during Drosophila posterior spiracle organogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;343:18-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the reiterative use of the Wg, Hh, and EGFR signalling pathways serves to coordinate in time and space the sequential deployment of events that collectively allow proper organogenesis. ..
  36. Hayashi Y, Yamagishi M, Nishimoto Y, Taguchi O, Matsukage A, Yamaguchi M. A binding site for the transcription factor Grainyhead/Nuclear transcription factor-1 contributes to regulation of the Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene promoter. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:35080-8 pubmed
    ..A yeast one-hybrid screen using URE as a bait allowed isolation of a cDNA encoding a transcription factor, Grainyhead/nuclear transcription factor-1 (GRH/NTF-1)...
  37. Danzer J, Wallrath L. Mechanisms of HP1-mediated gene silencing in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:3571-80 pubmed
    ..Silencing was minimally affected at 1.9 kb, but eliminated at 3.7 kb, suggesting that HP1-mediated silencing can operate in a SU(VAR)3-9-independent and -dependent manner. ..
  38. Ulvklo C, Macdonald R, Bivik C, Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Thor S. Control of neuronal cell fate and number by integration of distinct daughter cell proliferation modes with temporal progression. Development. 2012;139:678-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that different daughter cell proliferation modes can be integrated with temporal competence changes, and suggests a novel mechanism for coordinately controlling neuronal subtype numbers. ..
  39. Lovegrove B, Simoes S, Rivas M, Sotillos S, Johnson K, Knust E, et al. Coordinated control of cell adhesion, polarity, and cytoskeleton underlies Hox-induced organogenesis in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2206-16 pubmed
    ..We propose that during animal development, Hox-controlled genetic cascades coordinate the local cell-specific behaviors that result in organogenesis of segment-specific structures. ..
  40. Hemphälä J, Uv A, Cantera R, Bray S, Samakovlis C. Grainy head controls apical membrane growth and tube elongation in response to Branchless/FGF signalling. Development. 2003;130:249-58 pubmed
    ..for lumenal elongation of the Drosophila airways, and is independently controlled by the transcription factor Grainy head. Apical membrane overgrowth in grainy head mutants generates branches that are too long and tortuous without ..
  41. Benito Sipos J, Ulvklo C, Gabilondo H, Baumgardt M, Angel A, Torroja L, et al. Seven up acts as a temporal factor during two different stages of neuroblast 5-6 development. Development. 2011;138:5311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This is controlled by a temporal cascade of Hb?Kr?Pdm?Cas?Grh, which acts to dictate distinct competence windows sequentially...
  42. Nagel A, Krejci A, Tenin G, Bravo Patiño A, Bray S, Maier D, et al. Hairless-mediated repression of notch target genes requires the combined activity of Groucho and CtBP corepressors. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10433-41 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that Hairless has a second mode of repression that antagonizes Notch intracellular domain and is independent of Gro or CtBP binding. ..
  43. Dai Q, Ren A, Westholm J, Serganov A, Patel D, Lai E. The BEN domain is a novel sequence-specific DNA-binding domain conserved in neural transcriptional repressors. Genes Dev. 2013;27:602-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we define novel DNA-binding activity in a conserved family of transcriptional repressors, opening a molecular window on this extensive gene family. ..
  44. Capy P, Veuille M, Paillette M, Jallon J, Vouidibio J, David J. Sexual isolation of genetically differentiated sympatric populations of Drosophila melanogaster in Brazzaville, Congo: the first step towards speciation?. Heredity (Edinb). 2000;84 ( Pt 4):468-75 pubmed
  45. Pearson J, WATSON J, Crews S. Drosophila melanogaster Zelda and Single-minded collaborate to regulate an evolutionarily dynamic CNS midline cell enhancer. Dev Biol. 2012;366:420-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, Zelda collaborates with bHLH-PAS proteins to directly regulate midline and tracheal expression of an evolutionary dynamic enhancer in the post-blastoderm embryo. ..
  46. Karlsson D, Baumgardt M, Thor S. Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000368 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a surprisingly restricted, yet multifaceted, function of both anteroposterior and temporal cues with respect to lineage control and cell fate specification...
  47. Nevil M, Bondra E, Schulz K, Kaplan T, Harrison M. Stable Binding of the Conserved Transcription Factor Grainy Head to its Target Genes Throughout Drosophila melanogaster Development. Genetics. 2017;205:605-620 pubmed publisher
    ..The essential transcription factor Grainy head (Grh) is conserved from fungi to humans, and controls epithelial development and barrier formation in numerous ..
  48. Steinel M, Whitington P. The atypical cadherin Flamingo is required for sensory axon advance beyond intermediate target cells. Dev Biol. 2009;327:447-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of function mutants for a number of key genes that act together with Flamingo in the planar cell polarity pathway do not display the highly penetrant stalling phenotype seen in flamingo mutants. ..
  49. Gisselbrecht S, Barrera L, Porsch M, Aboukhalil A, Estep P, Vedenko A, et al. Highly parallel assays of tissue-specific enhancers in whole Drosophila embryos. Nat Methods. 2013;10:774-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of eFS to other cell types and organisms should accelerate the cataloging of enhancers and understanding how transcriptional regulation is encoded in them. ..
  50. Tsikala G, Karagogeos D, Strigini M. Btk-dependent epithelial cell rearrangements contribute to the invagination of nearby tubular structures in the posterior spiracles of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2014;396:42-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the complex physical interactions that take place among organ components during morphogenesis, which contribute to their final form and function. ..
  51. Attardi L, Tjian R. Drosophila tissue-specific transcription factor NTF-1 contains a novel isoleucine-rich activation motif. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1341-53 pubmed
    The Drosophila tissue-specific transcription factor NTF-1 provides a useful model system for studying the mechanisms by which promoter-selective factors control the development of a multicellular organism...
  52. Flores C, Engels W. Microsatellite instability in Drosophila spellchecker1 (MutS homolog) mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2964-9 pubmed
    ..Contrary to the case in mammalian cells, spel1 deficiency does not affect tolerance of flies to a methylating agent nor does it affect resistance to gamma-irradiation. ..
  53. Walker J, Tchoudakova A, McKenney P, Brill S, Wu D, Cowley G, et al. Reduced growth of Drosophila neurofibromatosis 1 mutants reflects a non-cell-autonomous requirement for GTPase-Activating Protein activity in larval neurons. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3311-23 pubmed
  54. Laney J, Biggin M. Redundant control of Ultrabithorax by zeste involves functional levels of zeste protein binding at the Ultrabithorax promoter. Development. 1996;122:2303-11 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that zeste is significantly active in the wild-type animal and not simply a factor that is induced as a back-up when other activators fail. ..
  55. Gabilondo H, Stratmann J, Rubio Ferrera I, Millán Crespo I, Contero García P, Bahrampour S, et al. Neuronal Cell Fate Specification by the Convergence of Different Spatiotemporal Cues on a Common Terminal Selector Cascade. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002450 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, two different spatiotemporal combinations can funnel into a common downstream terminal selector cascade to determine a highly related cell fate. ..
  56. Carney T, Miller M, Robinson K, Bayraktar O, Osterhout J, Doe C. Functional genomics identifies neural stem cell sub-type expression profiles and genes regulating neuroblast homeostasis. Dev Biol. 2012;361:137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes are excellent candidates for regulating neural progenitor self-renewal in Drosophila and mammals. ..
  57. Rusch J, Levine M. Threshold responses to the dorsal regulatory gradient and the subdivision of primary tissue territories in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:416-23 pubmed
  58. Marrone A, Kucherenko M, Rishko V, Shcherbata H. New dystrophin/dystroglycan interactors control neuron behavior in Drosophila eye. BMC Neurosci. 2011;12:93 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the function of the DGC in the brain and nervous system has not been fully defined, we have here continued to analyze the DGC modifiers' function in the developing Drosophila brain and eye...
  59. Santaren J, Van Damme J, Puype M, Vandekerckhove J, Garcia Bellido A. Identification of Drosophila wing imaginal disc proteins by two-dimensional gel analysis and microsequencing. Exp Cell Res. 1993;206:220-6 pubmed
    ..As an illustration we present 12 of them: 8 corresponding to proteins already known in Drosophila and the 4 showing homologies with proteins of other organisms. ..
  60. Llimargas M, Strigini M, Katidou M, Karagogeos D, Casanova J. Lachesin is a component of a septate junction-based mechanism that controls tube size and epithelial integrity in the Drosophila tracheal system. Development. 2004;131:181-90 pubmed
    ..In addition, mutations in genes encoding other components of the SJs produce a similar tracheal phenotype. These results point out a new role of the SJs in morphogenesis regulating cell adhesion and cell size. ..
  61. Moussian B, Tång E, Tonning A, Helms S, Schwarz H, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, et al. Drosophila Knickkopf and Retroactive are needed for epithelial tube growth and cuticle differentiation through their specific requirement for chitin filament organization. Development. 2006;133:163-71 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which Knk and the predicted chitin-binding protein Rtv form membrane complexes essential for epithelial tubulogenesis and cuticle formation through their specific role in directing chitin filament assembly...
  62. Housden B, Terriente Félix A, Bray S. Context-dependent enhancer selection confers alternate modes of notch regulation on argos. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:664-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This is likely to be a general mechanism for enabling the wiring between these pathways to switch according to context. ..
  63. Losada Pérez M, Gabilondo H, Molina I, Turiegano E, Torroja L, Thor S, et al. Klumpfuss controls FMRFamide expression by enabling BMP signaling within the NB5-6 lineage. Development. 2013;140:2181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to WT1, klu seems to have either self-renewal or differentiation-promoting functions, depending on the developmental context. ..
  64. Hauenschild A, Ringrose L, Altmutter C, Paro R, Rehmsmeier M. Evolutionary plasticity of polycomb/trithorax response elements in Drosophila species. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e261 pubmed publisher
    ..By demonstrating that PRE evolution is not limited to the adaptation of preexisting elements, these findings document a novel dimension of cis-regulatory evolution. ..
  65. Boyle M, French R, Cosand K, Dorman J, Kiehart D, Berg C. Division of labor: subsets of dorsal-appendage-forming cells control the shape of the entire tube. Dev Biol. 2010;346:68-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Gbeta mutant floor cells are unable to control the width of the appendage while Gbeta mutant leading roof cells fail to direct the elongation of the appendage and the convergent-extension of the roof-cell population. ..
  66. Uv A, Thompson C, Bray S. The Drosophila tissue-specific factor Grainyhead contains novel DNA-binding and dimerization domains which are conserved in the human protein CP2. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:4020-31 pubmed
    We have mapped the regions in the Drosophila melanogaster tissue-specific transcription factor Grainyhead that are required for DNA binding and dimerization...
  67. Lichtneckert R, Nobs L, Reichert H. Empty spiracles is required for the development of olfactory projection neuron circuitry in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:2415-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that Drosophila ems, like its murine homologs Emx1/2, is required for the formation of olfactory circuitry implies that conserved genetic programs control olfactory system development in insects and mammals. ..
  68. Furriols M, Casanova J. In and out of Torso RTK signalling. EMBO J. 2003;22:1947-52 pubmed
  69. Razzell W, Wood W, Martin P. Swatting flies: modelling wound healing and inflammation in Drosophila. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:569-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of Drosophila as a wound-healing model, as well as some exciting new research opportunities that will be enabled by its use. ..
  70. Zhu F, Zhang X. The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of phagocytosis of virus in Drosophila. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2069 pubmed publisher
    ..Further data showed that the Wnt signaling pathway played an essential role in phagocytosis. Therefore, our study contributed novel insight into the molecular mechanism of phagocytosis in animals. ..
  71. Tuckfield A, Clouston D, Wilanowski T, Zhao L, Cunningham J, Jane S. Binding of the RING polycomb proteins to specific target genes in complex with the grainyhead-like family of developmental transcription factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1936-46 pubmed
    ..We now demonstrate that the human PcG protein dinG interacts with CP2, a mammalian member of the grainyhead-like family of transcription factors, in vitro and in vivo...
  72. Tsuji T, Hasegawa E, Isshiki T. Neuroblast entry into quiescence is regulated intrinsically by the combined action of spatial Hox proteins and temporal identity factors. Development. 2008;135:3859-69 pubmed publisher
  73. Narasimha M, Uv A, Krejci A, Brown N, Bray S. Grainy head promotes expression of septate junction proteins and influences epithelial morphogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:747-52 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factors of the Grainy head (Grh) family are required in epithelia to generate the impermeable apical layer that protects against the external environment...
  74. Truman J, Moats W, Altman J, Marin E, Williams D. Role of Notch signaling in establishing the hemilineages of secondary neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2010;137:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The need for Numb to direct Notch signaling correlated with a decrease in NB cell cycle time and may be a means for coping with multiple sibling pairs simultaneously undergoing fate decisions...
  75. Laney J, Biggin M. zeste, a nonessential gene, potently activates Ultrabithorax transcription in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1992;6:1531-41 pubmed
    The GAGA, NTF-1, and zeste proteins have been purified previously from Drosophila embryo extracts and shown to activate the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) promoter in vitro...
  76. Luschnig S, Bätz T, Armbruster K, Krasnow M. serpentine and vermiform encode matrix proteins with chitin binding and deacetylation domains that limit tracheal tube length in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:186-94 pubmed
  77. Odenwald W. Changing fates on the road to neuronal diversity. Dev Cell. 2005;8:133-4 pubmed
    ..Two new studies, in this issue of Developmental Cell, provide novel insights into the molecular details of how Drosophila NPCs transition from one offspring identity program to the next. ..
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