Gene Symbol: GluRIIA
Description: Glutamate receptor IIA
Alias: CG6992, D-GluRIIA, DGluR-II, DGluR-IIA, DGluR2a, DGluRIIA, DGluRIIa, DgluRII, DmelGluRIIA, Dmel\CG6992, Glu-RII, Glu-RIIA, GluR, GluR-IIA, GluR2, GluR2a, GluRII, GluRII-A, GluRIIa, GluR[[IIa]], GlurIIA, dGluRII, dGluRIIA, dglur-IIA, dglurIIA, gluIIA, gluRIIA, glurIIA, gluriia, glutamate receptor IIA, CG6992-PI, GluRIIA-PI, glutamate IIA receptor, glutamate receptor, glutamate receptor subunit IIA
Species: fruit fly
Products:     GluRIIA

Top Publications

  1. Broadie K, Bate M. Innervation directs receptor synthesis and localization in Drosophila embryo synaptogenesis. Nature. 1993;361:350-3 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the muscle autonomously defines the synaptic site, whereas the motor neuron directs the development of the muscle's receptive field by stimulating the synthesis and localization of transmitter receptors. ..
  2. Kittel R, Wichmann C, Rasse T, Fouquet W, Schmidt M, Schmid A, et al. Bruchpilot promotes active zone assembly, Ca2+ channel clustering, and vesicle release. Science. 2006;312:1051-4 pubmed
    ..BRP-like proteins seem to establish proximity between Ca2+ channels and vesicles to allow efficient transmitter release and patterned synaptic plasticity. ..
  3. Frank C, Kennedy M, Goold C, Marek K, Davis G. Mechanisms underlying the rapid induction and sustained expression of synaptic homeostasis. Neuron. 2006;52:663-77 pubmed
    ..increase in presynaptic neurotransmitter release can be induced within minutes following postsynaptic glutamate receptor blockade...
  4. Renden R, Broadie K. Mutation and activation of Galpha s similarly alters pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms modulating neurotransmission. J Neurophysiol. 2003;89:2620-38 pubmed
    ..In the postsynaptic cell, the glutamate receptor field was regulated by Galphas activity; based on immunocytochemical studies, GluRIIA receptor subunits were ..
  5. Muller M, Pym E, Tong A, Davis G. Rab3-GAP controls the progression of synaptic homeostasis at a late stage of vesicle release. Neuron. 2011;69:749-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data define roles for Rab3-GAP and Rab3 in synaptic homeostasis and uncover a mechanism, acting at a late stage of vesicle release, that opposes the progression of homeostatic plasticity. ..
  6. Packard M, Koo E, Gorczyca M, Sharpe J, Cumberledge S, Budnik V. The Drosophila Wnt, wingless, provides an essential signal for pre- and postsynaptic differentiation. Cell. 2002;111:319-30 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Wg signals the coordinated development of pre- and postsynaptic compartments. ..
  7. Featherstone D, Rushton E, Broadie K. Developmental regulation of glutamate receptor field size by nonvesicular glutamate release. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:141-6 pubmed
    We hypothesized that presynaptic glutamate regulates postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptor number during synaptogenesis...
  8. Rohrbough J, Pinto S, Mihalek R, Tully T, Broadie K. latheo, a Drosophila gene involved in learning, regulates functional synaptic plasticity. Neuron. 1999;23:55-70 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that LAT is a novel presynaptic protein with a role in the Ca2(+)-dependent synaptic modulation mechanisms necessary for behavioral plasticity. ..
  9. van Roessel P, Elliott D, Robinson I, Prokop A, Brand A. Independent regulation of synaptic size and activity by the anaphase-promoting complex. Cell. 2004;119:707-18 pubmed
    ..In neurons, the APC/C controls synaptic size via a downstream effector Liprin-alpha; in muscles, the APC/C regulates synaptic transmission, controlling the concentration of a postsynaptic glutamate receptor.

More Information


  1. Karr J, Vagin V, Chen K, Ganesan S, Olenkina O, Gvozdev V, et al. Regulation of glutamate receptor subunit availability by microRNAs. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:685-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, we measured increases in GluRIIA and GluRIIB but not GluRIIC...
  2. Wang T, Hauswirth A, Tong A, Dickman D, Davis G. Endostatin is a trans-synaptic signal for homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Neuron. 2014;83:616-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a model in which proteolytic release of Endostatin signals trans-synaptically, acting in concert with the presynaptic CaV2.1 calcium channel, to promote presynaptic homeostasis. ..
  3. Albin S, Davis G. Coordinating structural and functional synapse development: postsynaptic p21-activated kinase independently specifies glutamate receptor abundance and postsynaptic morphology. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6871-9 pubmed
    ..One pathway controls glutamate receptor abundance...
  4. Viquez N, Füger P, Valakh V, Daniels R, Rasse T, DiAntonio A. PP2A and GSK-3beta act antagonistically to regulate active zone development. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11484-94 pubmed publisher
    ..When PP2A is inhibited presynaptically, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot (Brp), an active zone protein required for normal transmitter release...
  5. Featherstone D, Rushton E, Rohrbough J, Liebl F, Karr J, Sheng Q, et al. An essential Drosophila glutamate receptor subunit that functions in both central neuropil and neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3199-208 pubmed
    ..tests, and genomic sequencing show that brec mutations disrupt a previously uncharacterized ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit, named here "GluRIID...
  6. Pan L, Broadie K. Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein and metabotropic glutamate receptor A convergently regulate the synaptic ratio of ionotropic glutamate receptor subclasses. J Neurosci. 2007;27:12378-89 pubmed RNA-binding translational regulator, acts downstream of glutamatergic transmission, via metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) G(q)-dependent signaling, to modulate protein synthesis critical for trafficking ionotropic ..
  7. Sulkowski M, Kim Y, Serpe M. Postsynaptic glutamate receptors regulate local BMP signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Development. 2014;141:436-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, synaptic pMad functions as a local sensor for NMJ synapse activity and has the potential to coordinate synaptic activity with a BMP retrograde signal required for synapse growth and homeostasis. ..
  8. Parnas D, Haghighi A, Fetter R, Kim S, Goodman C. Regulation of postsynaptic structure and protein localization by the Rho-type guanine nucleotide exchange factor dPix. Neuron. 2001;32:415-24 pubmed
    ..lead to decreased synaptic levels of the PDZ protein Dlg, the cell adhesion molecule Fas II, and the glutamate receptor subunit GluRIIA, and to a complete reduction of the serine/threonine kinase Pak and the subsynaptic ..
  9. Wang D, Zhang L, Zhao G, Wahlström G, Heino T, Chen J, et al. Drosophila twinfilin is required for cell migration and synaptic endocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1546-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we found that the actin-dependent postsynaptic localization of glutamate receptor GluRIIA, but not GluRIIB, was specifically reduced in twf mutants...
  10. Dickman D, Tong A, Davis G. Snapin is critical for presynaptic homeostatic plasticity. J Neurosci. 2012;32:8716-24 pubmed publisher
    ..long-term expression of synaptic homeostasis induced by the genetic deletion of the muscle-specific GluRIIA glutamate receptor subunit...
  11. Lee J, Ueda A, Wu C. Pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms of synaptic strength homeostasis revealed by slowpoke and shaker K+ channel mutations in Drosophila. Neuroscience. 2008;154:1283-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, slo mutants displayed altered immunoreactivity intensity ratio between DGluRIIA and DGluRIIB receptor subunits...
  12. Schuster C, Ultsch A, Schloss P, Cox J, Schmitt B, Betz H. Molecular cloning of an invertebrate glutamate receptor subunit expressed in Drosophila muscle. Science. 1991;254:112-4 pubmed
    ..designated DGluR-II, has been isolated that encodes a distant homolog of the cloned mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor family and is expressed in somatic muscle tissue of Drosophila embryos...
  13. Schmid A, Qin G, Wichmann C, Kittel R, Mertel S, Fouquet W, et al. Non-NMDA-type glutamate receptors are essential for maturation but not for initial assembly of synapses at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. J Neurosci. 2006;26:11267-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data suggest that incorporation of non-NMDA-type glutamate receptors and likely their protein-protein interactions with additional PSD components triggers a conversion from an initial to a mature stage of PSD assembly. ..
  14. Wan H, DiAntonio A, Fetter R, Bergstrom K, Strauss R, Goodman C. Highwire regulates synaptic growth in Drosophila. Neuron. 2000;26:313-29 pubmed
    ..Within presynaptic terminals, HIW is localized to the periactive zone surrounding active zones; Fasciclin II (Fas II), which also controls synaptic growth, is found at the same location. ..
  15. Weyhersmüller A, Hallermann S, Wagner N, Eilers J. Rapid active zone remodeling during synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6041-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that presynaptic plasticity can induce active zone remodeling, which regulates the number of release-ready vesicles within minutes. ..
  16. Menon K, Sanyal S, Habara Y, Sanchez R, Wharton R, Ramaswami M, et al. The translational repressor Pumilio regulates presynaptic morphology and controls postsynaptic accumulation of translation factor eIF-4E. Neuron. 2004;44:663-76 pubmed
    ..The GluRIIa glutamate receptor is upregulated in pum mutants...
  17. Chen K, Featherstone D. Discs-large (DLG) is clustered by presynaptic innervation and regulates postsynaptic glutamate receptor subunit composition in Drosophila. BMC Biol. 2005;3:1 pubmed
    ..MAGUKs are thought to be critical for postsynaptic assembly at glutamatergic synapses. However, glutamate receptor cluster formation has never been examined in Drosophila DLG mutants...
  18. Pack Chung E, Kurshan P, Dickman D, Schwarz T. A Drosophila kinesin required for synaptic bouton formation and synaptic vesicle transport. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:980-9 pubmed
    ..Our data thus indicate that Imac transports components required for synaptic maturation and provide insight into presynaptic maturation as a process that can be differentiated from axon outgrowth and targeting. ..
  19. Morimoto T, Nobechi M, Komatsu A, Miyakawa H, Nose A. Subunit-specific and homeostatic regulation of glutamate receptor localization by CaMKII in Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Neuroscience. 2010;165:1284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of an inhibitory peptide of CaMKII, Ala, in muscle cells enhanced the density of GluRIIA, which is a major and calcium-permeable subunit of GluR, at synapses of third instar larval NMJs...
  20. Fuentes Medel Y, Ashley J, Barria R, Maloney R, FREEMAN M, Budnik V. Integration of a retrograde signal during synapse formation by glia-secreted TGF-? ligand. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1831-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work identifies a novel glia-derived synaptogenic factor by which glia modulate synapse formation in vivo. ..
  21. Rasse T, Fouquet W, Schmid A, Kittel R, Mertel S, Sigrist C, et al. Glutamate receptor dynamics organizing synapse formation in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:898-905 pubmed
    ..Here, we imaged postsynaptic densities (PSDs) expressing a functional, GFP-tagged glutamate receptor subunit (GluR-IIA(GFP)) at neuromuscular junctions of Drosophila melanogaster larvae for several days in ..
  22. Marie B, Pym E, Bergquist S, Davis G. Synaptic homeostasis is consolidated by the cell fate gene gooseberry, a Drosophila pax3/7 homolog. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8071-82 pubmed publisher
    ..However, gsb function is required postembryonically for the sustained expression of synaptic homeostasis. In GluRIIA mutant animals, miniature EPSP (mEPSP) amplitudes are significantly decreased, and there is a compensatory ..
  23. Li J, Ashley J, Budnik V, Bhat M. Crucial role of Drosophila neurexin in proper active zone apposition to postsynaptic densities, synaptic growth, and synaptic transmission. Neuron. 2007;55:741-55 pubmed
    ..Together, our results provide compelling evidence for an in vivo role of neurexins in the modulation of synaptic architecture and adhesive interactions between pre- and postsynaptic compartments. ..
  24. Higashi Kovtun M, Mosca T, Dickman D, Meinertzhagen I, Schwarz T. Importin-beta11 regulates synaptic phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic, and thereby influences synaptic development and function at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5253-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, importin-beta11 function interacts with the BMP pathway to regulate a pool of pMAD that must be present at the presynapse for its proper development and function. ..
  25. Petersen S, Fetter R, Noordermeer J, Goodman C, DiAntonio A. Genetic analysis of glutamate receptors in Drosophila reveals a retrograde signal regulating presynaptic transmitter release. Neuron. 1997;19:1237-48 pubmed
    ..We cloned the gene encoding a second muscle-specific glutamate receptor, DGluRIIB, which is closely related to the previously identified DGluRIIA and located adjacent to it in the ..
  26. Liebl F, Chen K, Karr J, Sheng Q, Featherstone D. Increased synaptic microtubules and altered synapse development in Drosophila sec8 mutants. BMC Biol. 2005;3:27 pubmed
    ..Synaptic electrophysiology showed no evidence that Sec8 is required for basal neurotransmission, though glutamate receptor trafficking was mildly disrupted in sec8 mutants...
  27. Currie D, Truman J, Burden S. Drosophila glutamate receptor RNA expression in embryonic and larval muscle fibers. Dev Dyn. 1995;203:311-6 pubmed
    ..We used a cDNA encoding a subunit of the Drosophila muscle glutamate receptor (DGluR-II) to determine the temporal and spatial expression pattern of the DGluR-II gene during ..
  28. Kaufmann N, DeProto J, Ranjan R, Wan H, Van Vactor D. Drosophila liprin-alpha and the receptor phosphatase Dlar control synapse morphogenesis. Neuron. 2002;34:27-38 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a model where Dliprin-alpha and Dlar cooperate to regulate the formation and/or maintenance of a network of presynaptic proteins. ..
  29. Chen K, Merino C, Sigrist S, Featherstone D. The 4.1 protein coracle mediates subunit-selective anchoring of Drosophila glutamate receptors to the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6667-75 pubmed
    ..junctions contain two spatially, biophysically, and pharmacologically distinct subtypes of postsynaptic glutamate receptor (GluR)...
  30. Nahm M, Long A, Paik S, Kim S, Bae Y, Broadie K, et al. The Cdc42-selective GAP rich regulates postsynaptic development and retrograde BMP transsynaptic signaling. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:661-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, dRich increases Gbb release and elevates presynaptic phosphorylated Mad levels. We propose that dRich coordinates the Gbb-dependent modulation of synaptic growth and function with postsynaptic development. ..
  31. Marrus S, Portman S, Allen M, Moffat K, DiAntonio A. Differential localization of glutamate receptor subunits at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2004;24:1406-15 pubmed
    ..Two glutamate receptor subunits, Drosophila glutamate receptor IIA (DGluRIIA) and DGluRIIB, are expressed at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction and are redundant for ..
  32. Rivlin P, St Clair R, Vilinsky I, Deitcher D. Morphology and molecular organization of the adult neuromuscular junction of Drosophila. J Comp Neurol. 2004;468:596-613 pubmed
    ..differentially localized at adult prothoracic NMJs; and 4) while all type I terminals contain glutamate, the glutamate receptor subunits, DGluRIIA and DGluRIIB, are expressed and clustered in only a subset of muscles...
  33. Haghighi A, McCabe B, Fetter R, Palmer J, Hom S, Goodman C. Retrograde control of synaptic transmission by postsynaptic CaMKII at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 2003;39:255-67 pubmed
    ..Consistently, we show that glutamate receptor mutants also have a higher number of T bars; this increase is suppressed by postsynaptic activation of ..
  34. Sigrist S, Thiel P, Reiff D, Schuster C. The postsynaptic glutamate receptor subunit DGluR-IIA mediates long-term plasticity in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2002;22:7362-72 pubmed
    ..protein synthesis and that is associated with an elevated synaptic accumulation of the postsynaptic glutamate receptor subunit DGluR-IIA...
  35. Pielage J, Fetter R, Davis G. A postsynaptic spectrin scaffold defines active zone size, spacing, and efficacy at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:491-503 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which a postsynaptic Spectrin-actin lattice acts as an organizing scaffold upon which pre- and postsynaptic development are arranged. ..
  36. Kumar V, Fricke R, Bhar D, Reddy Alla S, Krishnan K, Bogdan S, et al. Syndapin promotes formation of a postsynaptic membrane system in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2254-64 pubmed publisher
  37. Fouquet W, Owald D, Wichmann C, Mertel S, Depner H, Dyba M, et al. Maturation of active zone assembly by Drosophila Bruchpilot. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:129-45 pubmed publisher
    ..BRP seems responsible for effectively clustering Ca(2+) channels beneath the T-bar density late in a protracted AZ formation process, potentially through a direct molecular interaction with intracellular Ca(2+) channel domains. ..
  38. Shi W, Chen Y, Gan G, Wang D, Ren J, Wang Q, et al. Brain tumor regulates neuromuscular synapse growth and endocytosis in Drosophila by suppressing mad expression. J Neurosci. 2013;33:12352-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results together reveal an important and previously unidentified role for Brat in synaptic development and endocytosis mediated by suppression of BMP signaling. ..
  39. Sigrist S, Thiel P, Reiff D, Lachance P, Lasko P, Schuster C. Postsynaptic translation affects the efficacy and morphology of neuromuscular junctions. Nature. 2000;405:1062-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that large aggregates of translational components as well as messenger RNA of the postsynaptic glutamate receptor subunit DGluR-IIA are localized within subsynaptic compartments of larval neuromuscular junctions of ..
  40. Ataman B, Ashley J, Gorczyca D, Gorczyca M, Mathew D, Wichmann C, et al. Nuclear trafficking of Drosophila Frizzled-2 during synapse development requires the PDZ protein dGRIP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7841-6 pubmed
    ..These results provide a mechanism by which DFz2 is transported from the postsynaptic membrane to the postsynaptic nucleus during synapse formation and implicate dGRIP as an essential molecule in the transport of this signal. ..
  41. Fukui A, Inaki M, Tonoe G, Hamatani H, Homma M, Morimoto T, et al. Lola regulates glutamate receptor expression at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Biol Open. 2012;1:362-75 pubmed publisher
    ..When the function of lola was knocked down in muscles by RNAi, the abundance of glutamate receptors (GluRs), GluRIIA, GluRIIB and GluRIII, as well as that of p-21 activated kinase (PAK), was greatly reduced at the neuromuscular ..
  42. Ruiz Canada C, Ashley J, Moeckel Cole S, Drier E, Yin J, Budnik V. New synaptic bouton formation is disrupted by misregulation of microtubule stability in aPKC mutants. Neuron. 2004;42:567-80 pubmed
    ..Our findings establish a novel role for this complex during synapse development and provide a cellular context for understanding the role of aPKC in synaptic plasticity and memory. ..
  43. van der Plas M, Pilgram G, Plomp J, de Jong A, Fradkin L, Noordermeer J. Dystrophin is required for appropriate retrograde control of neurotransmitter release at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2006;26:333-44 pubmed
    ..Therefore, postsynaptic glutamate receptor function does not appear to be affected...
  44. Davis G, DiAntonio A, Petersen S, Goodman C. Postsynaptic PKA controls quantal size and reveals a retrograde signal that regulates presynaptic transmitter release in Drosophila. Neuron. 1998;20:305-15 pubmed
    ..The PKA-dependent modulation of quantal size requires the presence of the muscle-specific glutamate receptor DGluRIIA, since PKA-dependent modulation of quantal size is lost in homozygous viable DGluRIIA- mutants...
  45. DiAntonio A, Petersen S, Heckmann M, Goodman C. Glutamate receptor expression regulates quantal size and quantal content at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 1999;19:3023-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, the diversity of receptors expressed at this synapse provides the cell with mechanisms for generating synaptic plasticity. ..
  46. Koh T, Verstreken P, Bellen H. Dap160/intersectin acts as a stabilizing scaffold required for synaptic development and vesicle endocytosis. Neuron. 2004;43:193-205 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that Dap160, like dynamin, is involved in synaptic vesicle retrieval at active and periactive zones. ..
  47. Ataman B, Ashley J, Gorczyca M, Ramachandran P, Fouquet W, Sigrist S, et al. Rapid activity-dependent modifications in synaptic structure and function require bidirectional Wnt signaling. Neuron. 2008;57:705-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that activation of the postsynaptic Wg pathway is required for the assembly of the postsynaptic apparatus, while activation of the presynaptic Wg pathway regulates cytoskeletal dynamics. ..
  48. Kazama H, Morimoto Tanifuji T, Nose A. Postsynaptic activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II promotes coordinated pre- and postsynaptic maturation of Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Neuroscience. 2003;117:615-25 pubmed
    ..These results suggest two significant functions of postsynaptic CaMKII in synaptogenesis-retrograde modulation of presynaptic properties and coordinated regulation of pre- and postsynaptic maturation. ..
  49. Schmid A, Hallermann S, Kittel R, Khorramshahi O, Frölich A, Quentin C, et al. Activity-dependent site-specific changes of glutamate receptor composition in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:659-66 pubmed publisher during the formation of new postsynaptic densities (PSDs) at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions coexpressing GluRIIA and GluRIIB subunits...
  50. Morimoto Tanifuji T, Kazama H, Nose A. Developmental stage-dependent modulation of synapses by postsynaptic expression of activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Neuroscience. 2004;128:797-806 pubmed
    ..This suggests the interesting possibility that at certain developmental stages only, modification of synapses on one target cell can influence the synapses on another target cell innervated by the same neurons. ..
  51. Kohsaka H, Takasu E, Nose A. In vivo induction of postsynaptic molecular assembly by the cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1289-300 pubmed
    ..however, we see a reduction in the synaptic accumulation of Scribble (another scaffolding protein) and glutamate receptor subunits GluRIIA and GluRIIB...
  52. Kurshan P, Oztan A, Schwarz T. Presynaptic alpha2delta-3 is required for synaptic morphogenesis independent of its Ca2+-channel functions. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1415-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that alpha(2)delta proteins have functions that are independent of their roles in the biophysics and localization of Ca(2+) channels and that synaptic architecture depends on these functions. ..
  53. Bogdanik L, Framery B, Frölich A, Franco B, Mornet D, Bockaert J, et al. Muscle dystroglycan organizes the postsynapse and regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2084 pubmed publisher
  54. Jordán Álvarez S, Fouquet W, Sigrist S, Acebes A. Presynaptic PI3K activity triggers the formation of glutamate receptors at neuromuscular terminals of Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3621-9 pubmed
    ..overexpression of PI3K in the presynaptic element also leads to a correlated increase in the levels of glutamate receptor (GluRII) subunits and the number of postsynaptic densities (PSDs), without altering GluRII formation and ..
  55. Tsurudome K, Tsang K, Liao E, Ball R, Penney J, Yang J, et al. The Drosophila miR-310 cluster negatively regulates synaptic strength at the neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 2010;68:879-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that repression of Khc-73 by miR-310-313 cluster influences the establishment of normal synaptic homeostasis. Our findings establish a role for miRNAs in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. ..
  56. Heckscher E, Fetter R, Marek K, Albin S, Davis G. NF-kappaB, IkappaB, and IRAK control glutamate receptor density at the Drosophila NMJ. Neuron. 2007;55:859-73 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the NF-kappaB and IkappaB homologs Dorsal and Cactus surround postsynaptic glutamate receptor (GluR) clusters at the Drosophila NMJ...
  57. Sigrist S, Reiff D, Thiel P, Steinert J, Schuster C. Experience-dependent strengthening of Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6546-56 pubmed
    ..After 4 hr, postsynaptic DGluR-IIA glutamate receptor subunits started to transiently accumulate in ring-shaped areas around synapses, and they condensed later on,..
  58. Ljaschenko D, Ehmann N, Kittel R. Hebbian plasticity guides maturation of glutamate receptor fields in vivo. Cell Rep. 2013;3:1407-13 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulation increased postsynaptic sensitivity by promoting synapse-specific recruitment of GluR-IIA-type glutamate receptor subunits into postsynaptic receptor fields...
  59. Rohrbough J, Rushton E, Woodruff E, Fergestad T, Vigneswaran K, Broadie K. Presynaptic establishment of the synaptic cleft extracellular matrix is required for post-synaptic differentiation. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2607-28 pubmed form the specialized transsynaptic matrix that links the presynaptic active zone with the post-synaptic glutamate receptor (GluR) domain...
  60. Penney J, Tsurudome K, Liao E, Elazzouzi F, Livingstone M, González M, et al. TOR is required for the retrograde regulation of synaptic homeostasis at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 2012;74:166-78 pubmed publisher
    ..enhancement in neurotransmitter release that is normally triggered by a reduction in postsynaptic glutamate receptor activity...
  61. Dickman D, Davis G. The schizophrenia susceptibility gene dysbindin controls synaptic homeostasis. Science. 2009;326:1127-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, dysbindin is essential for adaptive neural plasticity and may link altered homeostatic signaling with a complex neurological disease. ..
  62. Yoshihara M, Littleton J. Synaptotagmin I functions as a calcium sensor to synchronize neurotransmitter release. Neuron. 2002;36:897-908 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that synaptotagmin is the major Ca(2+) sensor for evoked release and functions to trigger synchronous fusion in response to Ca(2+), while suppressing asynchronous release. ..
  63. Frank C, Pielage J, Davis G. A presynaptic homeostatic signaling system composed of the Eph receptor, ephexin, Cdc42, and CaV2.1 calcium channels. Neuron. 2009;61:556-69 pubmed publisher
    ..factor) that disrupt the homeostatic enhancement of presynaptic release following impairment of postsynaptic glutamate receptor function at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction...
  64. Saitoe M, Tanaka S, Takata K, Kidokoro Y. Neural activity affects distribution of glutamate receptors during neuromuscular junction formation in Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 1997;184:48-60 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the neural activity differentially regulates dissipation of receptor clusters in the nonjunctional region and accumulation of receptors at the junctional region. ..
  65. Qin G, Schwarz T, Kittel R, Schmid A, Rasse T, Kappei D, et al. Four different subunits are essential for expressing the synaptic glutamate receptor at neuromuscular junctions of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3209-18 pubmed
    Three ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits, designated GluRIIA, GluRIIB, and GluRIII, have been identified at neuromuscular junctions of Drosophila...
  66. Zelhof A, Bao H, Hardy R, Razzaq A, Zhang B, Doe C. Drosophila Amphiphysin is implicated in protein localization and membrane morphogenesis but not in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Development. 2001;128:5005-15 pubmed
    ..The strong misexpression phenotype coupled with the mild mutant and lack of phenotypes suggests that Amphiphysin acts redundantly with other proteins to organize specialized membrane domains within a diverse array of cell types. ..
  67. Zhang Y, Guo H, Kwan H, Wang J, Kosek J, Lu B. PAR-1 kinase phosphorylates Dlg and regulates its postsynaptic targeting at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 2007;53:201-15 pubmed
    ..Control of Dlg synaptic targeting by PAR-1-mediated phosphorylation thus constitutes a critical event in synaptogenesis. ..
  68. Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Chen K, Sheng Q, Featherstone D. Nonvesicular release of glutamate by glial xCT transporters suppresses glutamate receptor clustering in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007;27:111-23 pubmed
    ..Consistent with previous studies showing that extracellular glutamate regulates postsynaptic glutamate receptor clustering, gb mutants show a large (200-300%) increase in the number of postsynaptic glutamate receptors...
  69. Ultsch A, Schuster C, Laube B, Betz H, Schmitt B. Glutamate receptors of Drosophila melanogaster. Primary structure of a putative NMDA receptor protein expressed in the head of the adult fly. FEBS Lett. 1993;324:171-7 pubmed the rat NMDAR1 polypeptide and shows significant homology (16-23%) to other vertebrate and invertebrate glutamate receptor proteins...