Gene Symbol: gl
Description: glass
Alias: CG7672, Dmel\CG7672, E(sina)5, Gla, Glass, SS3-2, SY3-3, gla, none, glass, CG7672-PA, CG7672-PB, CG7672-PC, GLASS, enhancer of seven in absentia 5, gl-PA, gl-PB, gl-PC, no-ocelli--narrow-eyes, rauhig, suppressor of GMR-sina 3-2
Species: fruit fly
Products:     gl

Top Publications

  1. Stark W, Sapp R, Carlson S. Ultrastructure of the ocellar visual system in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1989;5:127-53 pubmed
    ..Three mutants with abnormal ocelli were investigated. The none mutant has unusual compound eye and ocellar corneas...
  2. Liu H, Ma C, Moses K. Identification and functional characterization of conserved promoter elements from glass: a retinal development gene of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;56:73-82 pubmed
    The Drosophila melanogaster glass transcription factor acts in photoreceptor cell development, glass transcription in the developing eye begins in the morphogenetic furrow...
  3. Anand A, Villella A, Ryner L, Carlo T, Goodwin S, Song H, et al. Molecular genetic dissection of the sex-specific and vital functions of the Drosophila melanogaster sex determination gene fruitless. Genetics. 2001;158:1569-95 pubmed
  4. Moses K, Ellis M, Rubin G. The glass gene encodes a zinc-finger protein required by Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Nature. 1989;340:531-6 pubmed
    Null mutations of glass specifically remove photoreceptor cells, leaving other cell types intact. We have isolated the glass gene and have shown that its transcript encodes a putative protein of 604 amino acids with five zinc-fingers...
  5. Vosshall L, Young M. Circadian rhythms in Drosophila can be driven by period expression in a restricted group of central brain cells. Neuron. 1995;15:345-60 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that expression of per under the control of the glass promoter confers both behavioral and molecular rhythmicity...
  6. Pignoni F, Hu B, Zipursky S. Identification of genes required for Drosophila eye development using a phenotypic enhancer-trap. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9220-5 pubmed
    ..of the boss reporter gene in multiple cells assessed for homozygous mutant phenotypes, insertions in the marbles, glass, gap1, and fasciclin II genes were isolated...
  7. Kunes S, Wilson C, Steller H. Independent guidance of retinal axons in the developing visual system of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 1993;13:752-67 pubmed
    ..In a second approach, we examined animals that were somatic mosaics for the mutation, glass. In glass- animals, retinal axons project aberrantly and the larval optic nerve is absent...
  8. Selleck S, Steller H. The influence of retinal innervation on neurogenesis in the first optic ganglion of Drosophila. Neuron. 1991;6:83-99 pubmed
    ..Reducing the number of innervating photoreceptor axons results in fewer mitotic LPCs. In glass mutants photoreceptors project to abnormal locations and LPCs are found adjacent to these aberrant projections...
  9. Su J, Teichmann S, Down T. Assessing computational methods of cis-regulatory module prediction. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1001020 pubmed publisher
    ..We also propose key considerations for the development and evaluation of future CRM-prediction methods. ..

More Information


  1. Busto M, Iyengar B, Campos A. Genetic dissection of behavior: modulation of locomotion by light in the Drosophila melanogaster larva requires genetically distinct visual system functions. J Neurosci. 1999;19:3337-44 pubmed
    ..these responses were measured in strains where the larval photoreceptor neurons were ablated by mutations in the glass (gl) gene or by the targeted expression of the cell death gene head involution defective (hid)...
  2. Kumar J, Hsiung F, Powers M, Moses K. Nuclear translocation of activated MAP kinase is developmentally regulated in the developing Drosophila eye. Development. 2003;130:3703-14 pubmed
    ..We also show that MAPK cytoplasmic hold has an essential function in vivo: if it is overcome, developmental patterning in the furrow is disrupted. ..
  3. Collins B, Rosato E, Kyriacou C. Seasonal behavior in Drosophila melanogaster requires the photoreceptors, the circadian clock, and phospholipase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1945-50 pubmed
    ..This cannot be explained simply by the mutation's effect on the visual pathway and suggests that norpA(P41) is directly involved in thermosensitivity. ..
  4. Harte P, Kankel D. Genetic analysis of mutations at the Glued locus and interacting loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1982;101:477-501 pubmed
    ..All "revertants" that alter the abnormal eye phenotype towards the wild type have similar impact on the organization of the optic lobe. ..
  5. Braid L, Verheyen E. Drosophila nemo promotes eye specification directed by the retinal determination gene network. Genetics. 2008;180:283-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our genetic analyses reveal that nmo promotes normal and ectopic eye development directed by the RDGN. ..
  6. De Velasco B, Shen J, Go S, Hartenstein V. Embryonic development of the Drosophila corpus cardiacum, a neuroendocrine gland with similarity to the vertebrate pituitary, is controlled by sine oculis and glass. Dev Biol. 2004;274:280-94 pubmed
    ..At this stage, the CC progenitors turn on the homeobox gene glass (gl), which is essential for the differentiation of the CC...
  7. Heberlein U, Singh C, Luk A, Donohoe T. Growth and differentiation in the Drosophila eye coordinated by hedgehog. Nature. 1995;373:709-11 pubmed
    ..We propose that the morphogenetic furrow coincides with a transient boundary that coordinates growth and differentiation of the eye disc, and that hedgehog is necessary and sufficient to propagate this boundary across the epithelium. ..
  8. De Velasco B, Mandal L, Mkrtchyan M, Hartenstein V. Subdivision and developmental fate of the head mesoderm in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:39-51 pubmed
    ..The lSHM contributes hemocytes, as well as the nephrocytes forming the subesophageal body, also called garland cells. ..
  9. Naval Sánchez M, Potier D, Hulselmans G, Christiaens V, Aerts S. Identification of Lineage-Specific Cis-Regulatory Modules Associated with Variation in Transcription Factor Binding and Chromatin Activity Using Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Models. Mol Biol Evol. 2015;32:2441-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we show in this study that CRM scores can be used as quantitative traits and that motif discovery approaches can be extended towards more complex models of divergence. ..
  10. Rosenzweig M, Kang K, Garrity P. Distinct TRP channels are required for warm and cool avoidance in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14668-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, dTRPA1 is essential for warm avoidance, but not cool avoidance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that warm and cool avoidance in the Drosophila larva involves distinct TRP channels and circuits. ..
  11. Mack H, Beck F, Bowtell D. A search for a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila photoreceptor development gene glass yields Zfp64, a zinc finger encoding gene which maps to the distal end of mouse chromosome 2. Gene. 1997;185:11-7 pubmed
    Whilst searching for a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila glass gene we cloned a mouse cDNA whose deduced sequence encodes a 614 amino acid (aa) protein with ten Cys2-His2 (C2H2) zinc finger (Zf) motifs...
  12. Vandendries E, Johnson D, Reinke R. orthodenticle is required for photoreceptor cell development in the Drosophila eye. Dev Biol. 1996;173:243-55 pubmed
    ..The third intron enhancer is the primary regulatory element controlling otd in the R cells and is not under the control of the glass gene.
  13. Shafer O. Blind clocks reveal elusive light input pathway in Drosophila. Trends Neurosci. 2001;24:627-8 pubmed
  14. Moses K. The role of transcription factors in the developing Drosophila eye. Trends Genet. 1991;7:250-5 pubmed
    ..In the target cells, transcription factors may be modulated by the inductive signals to execute their instructions. Four recently isolated genes may encode such developmentally modulated transcription factors. ..
  15. Pan D, Rubin G. Targeted expression of teashirt induces ectopic eyes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:15508-12 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, teashirt and eyeless induce the expression of each other, suggesting that teashirt is part of the gene network that functions to specify eye identity. ..
  16. Garen S, Kankel D. Golgi and genetic mosaic analyses of visual system mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1983;96:445-66 pubmed
    ..neurons in the visual systems of the Canton-S wild-type strain, of flies expressing mutations at the Glued, rough, glass, and uneven loci, all of which affect the organization of the visual system, and of genetic mosaics involving the ..
  17. Warrick J, Paulson H, Gray Board G, Bui Q, Fischbeck K, Pittman R, et al. Expanded polyglutamine protein forms nuclear inclusions and causes neural degeneration in Drosophila. Cell. 1998;93:939-49 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that cellular mechanisms of human glutamine-repeat disease are conserved in invertebrates. This fly model will aid in identifying additional factors that modulate neurodegeneration. ..
  18. Robinson A, Curtis C. Crossing over in a double translocation in Drosophila. Can J Genet Cytol. 1972;14:129-37 pubmed
  19. Wang T, Montell C. A phosphoinositide synthase required for a sustained light response. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12816-25 pubmed
    ..Because the dpis1 mutation eliminates production of an enzyme essential for PIP2 regeneration, our data argue against activation of TRP and TRPL through a reduction of inhibitory PIP2. ..
  20. Meyerowitz E, Kankel D. A genetic analysis of visual system development in Drosophilia melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1978;62:112-142 pubmed
  21. Smith P, Lucchesi J. The role of sexuality in dosage compensation in Drosophila. Genetics. 1969;61:607-18 pubmed
  22. Liu L, Davis R, Roman G. Exploratory activity in Drosophila requires the kurtz nonvisual arrestin. Genetics. 2007;175:1197-212 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the exploratory phase of open field activity requires kurtz in the nervous system, but is independent of dopamine's stimulation of activity. ..
  23. Treisman J, Ito N, Rubin G. misshapen encodes a protein kinase involved in cell shape control in Drosophila. Gene. 1997;186:119-25 pubmed
    ..misshapen is also expressed in the embryonic mesoderm, pole plasm and other sites of cell shape change or movement. We propose that msn may act in a signal transduction pathway leading to cytoskeletal re-arrangements. ..
  24. Nguyen D, Rohrbaugh M, Lai Z. The Drosophila homolog of Onecut homeodomain proteins is a neural-specific transcriptional activator with a potential role in regulating neural differentiation. Mech Dev. 2000;97:57-72 pubmed
    ..In the eye, D-Onecut expression is independent of glass, a transcriptional regulator of R cell differentiation...
  25. Ellis M, O Neill E, Rubin G. Expression of Drosophila glass protein and evidence for negative regulation of its activity in non-neuronal cells by another DNA-binding protein. Development. 1993;119:855-65 pubmed
    The glass gene encodes a DNA-binding zinc-finger protein required for the development of Drosophila photoreceptor cells and which appears to regulate a number of genes specifically expressed in photoreceptors...
  26. Liu Z, Friedrich M. The Tribolium homologue of glass and the evolution of insect larval eyes. Dev Biol. 2004;269:36-54 pubmed publisher
    ..orthologues have been found for many Drosophila eye developmental genes, this has not been the case for the glass (gl) gene, which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor required for photoreceptor cell specification, ..
  27. Veleri S, Brandes C, Helfrich Forster C, Hall J, Stanewsky R. A self-sustaining, light-entrainable circadian oscillator in the Drosophila brain. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1758-67 pubmed
    ..Analysis of similar "stable mosaic" transgenes should help to reveal the function of the other clock neuronal clusters within the fly brain. ..
  28. Moreno E. Design and construction of "synthetic species". PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39054 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, the transition from transgenic organisms towards synthetic species could constitute a safety mechanism to avoid the hybridization of genetically modified animals with wild type populations, preserving biodiversity. ..
  29. Chen R, Amoui M, Zhang Z, Mardon G. Dachshund and eyes absent proteins form a complex and function synergistically to induce ectopic eye development in Drosophila. Cell. 1997;91:893-903 pubmed
    ..We propose that a conserved regulatory network, rather than a linear hierarchy, controls retinal specification and involves multiple protein complexes that function during distinct steps of eye development. ..
  30. Shieh B, Zhu M. Regulation of the TRP Ca2+ channel by INAD in Drosophila photoreceptors. Neuron. 1996;16:991-8 pubmed
    ..Given the impaired electrophysiology of the InaD mutant, this novel interaction suggests that INAD functions as a regulatory subunit of the TRP Ca2+ channel. ..
  31. Altshuler D, Lillien L. Control of photoreceptor development. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1992;2:16-22 pubmed
    ..In this review the strategies used to generate rods in the vertebrate retina are compared with those described for photoreceptor development in the Drosophila retina. ..
  32. Fortini M, Bonini N. Modeling human neurodegenerative diseases in Drosophila: on a wing and a prayer. Trends Genet. 2000;16:161-7 pubmed
    ..With the advent of complete genomic sequencing on the horizon, Drosophila will continue to be an outstanding model system in which to unravel the complexities, causes and treatments for human neural degeneration. ..
  33. Mukhopadhyay M, Campos A. The larval optic nerve is required for the development of an identified serotonergic arborization in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1995;169:629-43 pubmed
  34. Reig G, Cabrejos M, Concha M. Functions of BarH transcription factors during embryonic development. Dev Biol. 2007;302:367-75 pubmed
  35. Liu M, Parker L, Wadzinski B, Shieh B. Reversible phosphorylation of the signal transduction complex in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12194-9 pubmed
    ..activities were enriched in the cytosol of wild-type heads, but drastically reduced in extracts prepared from glass mutants, which lack photoreceptors...
  36. Yun B, Lee K, Farkas R, Hitte C, Rabinow L. The LAMMER protein kinase encoded by the Doa locus of Drosophila is required in both somatic and germline cells and is expressed as both nuclear and cytoplasmic isoforms throughout development. Genetics. 2000;156:749-61 pubmed
    ..Finally, in contrast to results reported in other systems and despite some phenotypic similarities, genetic data demonstrate that the LAMMER kinases do not participate in the ras-MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. ..
  37. Ni L, Guo P, Reddig K, Mitra M, Li H. Mutation of a TADR protein leads to rhodopsin and Gq-dependent retinal degeneration in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13478-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that TADR-like proteins may also protect photoreceptors from degeneration in mammals including humans. ..
  38. Bonini N, Leiserson W, Benzer S. Multiple roles of the eyes absent gene in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1998;196:42-57 pubmed
    ..Despite multiple roles at multiple stages of development of the fly, both the type I and type II forms of the protein, when expressed ectopically during larval development, can direct eye formation. ..
  39. Tavsanli B, Ostrin E, Burgess H, Middlebrooks B, Pham T, Mardon G. Structure-function analysis of the Drosophila retinal determination protein Dachshund. Dev Biol. 2004;272:231-47 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the physical interaction between Eya and DD2 is not required for the genetic synergy between the two proteins. Finally, we show that DD1 also plays a central role for nuclear localization of Dac. ..
  40. Burke T, Willy P, Kutach A, Butler J, Kadonaga J. The DPE, a conserved downstream core promoter element that is functionally analogous to the TATA box. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1998;63:75-82 pubmed
  41. Fogle K, Baik L, Houl J, Tran T, Roberts L, Dahm N, et al. CRYPTOCHROME-mediated phototransduction by modulation of the potassium ion channel β-subunit redox sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:2245-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Light activation of CRY is transduced to membrane depolarization, increased firing rate, and acute behavioral responses by the Kvβ subunit redox sensor. ..
  42. Kwon Y, Montell C. Dependence on the Lazaro phosphatidic acid phosphatase for the maximum light response. Curr Biol. 2006;16:723-9 pubmed
    ..The genetic interactions with both rdgA and Pld indicate that Laza functions in the convergence of both PLC- and PLD-coupled signaling in vivo. ..
  43. Wang T, Montell C. Rhodopsin formation in Drosophila is dependent on the PINTA retinoid-binding protein. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5187-94 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our data implicate Drosophila retinal pigment cells as functioning in the conversion of dietary all-trans-retinol to 11-cis-retinal and suggest that these cells are the closest invertebrate equivalent to the RPE. ..
  44. Green E, O Callaghan E, Hansen C, Bastianello S, Bhutani S, Vanin S, et al. Drosophila circadian rhythms in seminatural environments: Summer afternoon component is not an artifact and requires TrpA1 channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:8702-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using video recordings, we show that the A component is not an artifact, neither in the glass tubes used in TriKinetics monitors nor in open-field arenas...
  45. Malpel S, Klarsfeld A, Rouyer F. Larval optic nerve and adult extra-retinal photoreceptors sequentially associate with clock neurons during Drosophila brain development. Development. 2002;129:1443-53 pubmed
    ..The Hofbauer-Buchner eyelet therefore does not appear to account for the previously described norpA-independent light input to the adult clock. This supports the existence of yet uncharacterized photoreceptive structures in Drosophila. ..
  46. Helfrich Forster C, Edwards T, Yasuyama K, Wisotzki B, Schneuwly S, Stanewsky R, et al. The extraretinal eyelet of Drosophila: development, ultrastructure, and putative circadian function. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9255-66 pubmed
    ..strains: in flies lacking compound eyes but retaining eyelet (so(1)), lacking both compound eyes and eyelet (so(1);gl(60j)), and retaining eyelet but lacking compound eyes as well as cryptochrome (so(1);cry(b))...
  47. Koushika S, Lisbin M, White K. ELAV, a Drosophila neuron-specific protein, mediates the generation of an alternatively spliced neural protein isoform. Curr Biol. 1996;6:1634-41 pubmed
    ..The findings reported in this paper demonstrate that ELAV is necessary, and the ectopic expression of ELAV in imaginal disc cells is sufficient, to mediate neuron-specific alternative splicing. ..
  48. Wang A, Sharp N, Spencer C, Tedman Aucoin K, Agrawal A. Selection, epistasis, and parent-of-origin effects on deleterious mutations across environments in Drosophila melanogaster. Am Nat. 2009;174:863-74 pubmed publisher
    ..e., epistasis becomes more positive). In addition, we find a high incidence of indirect genetic effects whereby the strength of selection against the alleles carried by offspring is dependent on the genotypes of their parents. ..
  49. Hay B, Wolff T, Rubin G. Expression of baculovirus P35 prevents cell death in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:2121-9 pubmed
    ..Identification of molecules that interact biochemically or genetically with P35 in Drosophila should provide important insights into how cell death is regulated. ..
  50. Yarfitz S, Niemi G, McConnell J, Fitch C, Hurley J. A G beta protein in the Drosophila compound eye is different from that in the brain. Neuron. 1991;7:429-38 pubmed
    ..The Gbe product is approximately 45% identical to previously identified G beta subunits and defines a new G beta class. Its localization suggests a possible role in phototransduction. ..
  51. Lim J, Choi K. Induction and autoregulation of the anti-proneural gene Bar during retinal neurogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:5573-80 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that the domain of Bar expression for Ato repression is established and maintained by a combination of non autonomous Hh/EGFR signaling pathways and autoregulation of Bar. ..
  52. Rieger D, Stanewsky R, Helfrich Forster C. Cryptochrome, compound eyes, Hofbauer-Buchner eyelets, and ocelli play different roles in the entrainment and masking pathway of the locomotor activity rhythm in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Rhythms. 2003;18:377-91 pubmed
    ..The specific roles of the remaining photoreceptors are more difficult to assess. ..
  53. Farkas R, Mechler B. The timing of drosophila salivary gland apoptosis displays an l(2)gl-dose response. Cell Death Differ. 2000;7:89-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of the lethal(2)giant larvae (l(2)gl) gene encoding the cytoskeletal associated p127 protein, causes malignant transformation of brain neuroblasts and ..
  54. Vaias L, Napolitano L, Tompkins L. Identification of stimuli that mediate experience-dependent modification of homosexual courtship in Drosophila melanogaster. Behav Genet. 1993;23:91-7 pubmed
    ..This phenomenon is called experience-dependent courtship modification (EDCM). We have shown that exposure to either or both of the two courtship-stimulating pheromones that immature males synthesize is sufficient to induce EDCM. ..
  55. Wang T, Wang X, Xie Q, Montell C. The SOCS box protein STOPS is required for phototransduction through its effects on phospholipase C. Neuron. 2008;57:56-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this work demonstrates that a PLCbeta derivative that does not promote TRP channel activation, still contributes to signaling in vivo. ..
  56. Wang N, Leung H, Pak W, Carl Y, Wadzinski B, Shieh B. Role of protein phosphatase 2A in regulating the visual signaling in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus propose that the fast deactivation of the visual response is modulated in part by the phosphorylation of INAD. ..
  57. Malpel S, Klarsfeld A, Rouyer F. Circadian synchronization and rhythmicity in larval photoperception-defective mutants of Drosophila. J Biol Rhythms. 2004;19:10-21 pubmed
    ..The results show that both cryptochrome and the larval visual system participate to circadian photoreception in larvae and that mutations affecting the visual system can impair behavioral rhythmicity. ..
  58. Pak W, Grossfield J, White N. Nonphototactic mutants in a study of vision of Drosophila. Nature. 1969;222:351-4 pubmed
  59. Pickup A, Lamka M, Sun Q, Yip M, Lipshitz H. Control of photoreceptor cell morphology, planar polarity and epithelial integrity during Drosophila eye development. Development. 2002;129:2247-58 pubmed
  60. Venkatesh T. Neuronal development in the Drosophila retina. J Neurobiol. 1993;24:740-56 pubmed
    ..Recent genetic and molecular studies have provided important clues regarding the nature of the molecules involved in cellular signalling and neuronal differentiation. ..
  61. Dolezelova E, Dolezel D, Hall J. Rhythm defects caused by newly engineered null mutations in Drosophila's cryptochrome gene. Genetics. 2007;177:329-45 pubmed
    ..Because some norpAP24 cry0 individuals can resynchronize to novel photic regimes, an as-yet undetermined light-input route exists in Drosophila. ..
  62. De Velasco B, Erclik T, Shy D, Sclafani J, Lipshitz H, McInnes R, et al. Specification and development of the pars intercerebralis and pars lateralis, neuroendocrine command centers in the Drosophila brain. Dev Biol. 2007;302:309-23 pubmed
  63. Bernardo Garcia F, Fritsch C, Sprecher S. The transcription factor Glass links eye field specification with photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2016;143:1413-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that photoreceptor cell identity in Drosophila is critically regulated by the transcription factor Glass, which is primarily expressed in photoreceptors and whose role in this process was previously unknown...
  64. Friedrich M. Continuity versus split and reconstitution: exploring the molecular developmental corollaries of insect eye primordium evolution. Dev Biol. 2006;299:310-29 pubmed
  65. Ni J, Baik L, Holmes T, Montell C. A rhodopsin in the brain functions in circadian photoentrainment in Drosophila. Nature. 2017;545:340-344 pubmed publisher
    ..The demonstration that Rh7 functions in circadian pacemaker neurons represents, to our knowledge, the first role for an opsin in the central brain. ..
  66. Klarsfeld A, Malpel S, Michard Vanhée C, Picot M, Chélot E, Rouyer F. Novel features of cryptochrome-mediated photoreception in the brain circadian clock of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2004;24:1468-77 pubmed DN1s, are the only brain neurons to coexpress the CRY protein and the photoreceptor differentiation factor GLASS. Studies of various visual system mutants and their combination with the cry(b) mutation indicated that the adult ..
  67. Baden H, Kollias N, Anderson R, Hopkins T, Raftery L. Drosophila melanogaster larvae detect low doses of UVC radiation as manifested by a writhing response. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 1996;32:187-96 pubmed
    ..Possible targets for the UVC radiation are catecholic compounds secreted and processed into the cuticle of third instar larvae just to pupariation whose primary function is to crosslink the protein and carbohydrate components...
  68. Mahoney M, Parks A, Ruddy D, Tiong S, Esengil H, Phan A, et al. Presenilin-based genetic screens in Drosophila melanogaster identify novel notch pathway modifiers. Genetics. 2006;172:2309-24 pubmed
    ..The predicted functions of these newly identified genes are consistent with extracellular matrix and vesicular trafficking mechanisms in Presenilin and Notch pathway regulation and suggest a novel role for gamma-tubulin in the pathway. ..
  69. He B, Ludwig M, Dickerson D, Barse L, Arun B, Vilhjálmsson B, et al. Effect of genetic variation in a Drosophila model of diabetes-associated misfolded human proinsulin. Genetics. 2014;196:557-67 pubmed publisher
  70. Bonini N, Bui Q, Gray Board G, Warrick J. The Drosophila eyes absent gene directs ectopic eye formation in a pathway conserved between flies and vertebrates. Development. 1997;124:4819-26 pubmed
  71. Head L, Tang X, Hayley S, Goda T, Umezaki Y, Chang E, et al. The influence of light on temperature preference in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2015;25:1063-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that both Drosophila and mammals respond to acute light by increasing their body temperature, the effect of acute light on temperature regulation may be conserved evolutionarily between flies and humans. ..
  72. Liang X, Mahato S, Hemmerich C, Zelhof A. Two temporal functions of Glass: Ommatidium patterning and photoreceptor differentiation. Dev Biol. 2016;414:4-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the transcription factor Glass has a dual role in establishing a functional Drosophila eye...
  73. Glenwinkel L, Wu D, Minevich G, Hobert O. TargetOrtho: a phylogenetic footprinting tool to identify transcription factor targets. Genetics. 2014;197:61-76 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans ventral nerve cord motor neurons. We have also implemented the use of TargetOrtho in Drosophila melanogaster using conservation among five species in the D. melanogaster species subgroup for target gene discovery. ..
  74. Higashijima S, Kojima T, Michiue T, Ishimaru S, Emori Y, Saigo K. Dual Bar homeo box genes of Drosophila required in two photoreceptor cells, R1 and R6, and primary pigment cells for normal eye development. Genes Dev. 1992;6:50-60 pubmed
    ..In R1/R6, the expression of BarH1 and BarH2 appears to be regulated by rough and glass gene products...
  75. Hayashi T, Xu C, Carthew R. Cell-type-specific transcription of prospero is controlled by combinatorial signaling in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2008;135:2787-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the transcription of pros is activated by two visual-specific transcription selectors, Glass and Sine Oculis, that bind to an enhancer and promote its activation...
  76. Moses K, Rubin G. Glass encodes a site-specific DNA-binding protein that is regulated in response to positional signals in the developing Drosophila eye. Genes Dev. 1991;5:583-93 pubmed
    The glass gene encodes a zinc finger protein required for normal photoreceptor cell development in Drosophila...
  77. Mealey Ferrara M, Montalvo A, Hall J. Effects of combining a cryptochrome mutation with other visual-system variants on entrainment of locomotor and adult-emergence rhythms in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 2003;17:171-221 pubmed
    ..All photoreceptor cells including the H-B eyelet have been surmised to be removed by glass-null mutations...
  78. Kutach A, Kadonaga J. The downstream promoter element DPE appears to be as widely used as the TATA box in Drosophila core promoters. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4754-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, these data reveal that the DPE exhibits a strict spacing requirement yet some sequence flexibility and appears to be as widely used as the TATA box in Drosophila...
  79. Bernardo Garcia F, Humberg T, Fritsch C, Sprecher S. Successive requirement of Glass and Hazy for photoreceptor specification and maintenance in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2017;11:112-120 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we decipher the function of 2 transcription factors, Glass and Hazy, which play a central role during photoreceptor development...
  80. Yan H, Canon J, Banerjee U. A transcriptional chain linking eye specification to terminal determination of cone cells in the Drosophila eye. Dev Biol. 2003;263:323-9 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that Sine oculis and Glass are the two major activators of Lz expression during eye development...
  81. Chanut F, Luk A, Heberlein U. A screen for dominant modifiers of ro(Dom), a mutation that disrupts morphogenetic furrow progression in Drosophila, identifies groucho and hairless as regulators of atonal expression. Genetics. 2000;156:1203-17 pubmed
    ..Analysis of their phenotypes in somatic clones suggests that both normally act to restrict neuronal cell fate in the retina, although they control different aspects of ato's complex expression pattern. ..
  82. Shen W, Mardon G. Ectopic eye development in Drosophila induced by directed dachshund expression. Development. 1997;124:45-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the control of eye development requires the complex interaction of multiple genes, even at the very highest regulatory levels. ..
  83. Ashley J, Katz F. Competition and position-dependent targeting in the development of the Drosophila R7 visual projections. Development. 1994;120:1537-47 pubmed
    ..The availability of a genetic model for these events should facilitate studies aimed at understanding the molecular bases of retinotopic map development. ..
  84. Jarman A, Sun Y, Jan L, Jan Y. Role of the proneural gene, atonal, in formation of Drosophila chordotonal organs and photoreceptors. Development. 1995;121:2019-30 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, a remnant morphogenetic furrow is still observed in the atonal mutant disc. This presumably reflects the process of furrow initiation, which would not depend on signals from developing photoreceptors. ..
  85. Winberg M, Perez S, Steller H. Generation and early differentiation of glial cells in the first optic ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 1992;115:903-11 pubmed
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