gig

Summary

Gene Symbol: gig
Description: gigas
Alias: 6975, CG6975, Dmel\CG6975, FBpp0074588, Gigas, ME 109, TSC2, Tsc2, Tsc2/gig, dTSC2, dTsc2, gig/Tsc2, gig, Tsc2, l(3)109, tsc2, gigas, CG6975-PA, CG6975-PB, gig-PA, gig-PB, lethal(3)109, tuberous sclerosis complex 2
Species: fruit fly
Products:     gig

Top Publications

  1. Amcheslavsky A, Ito N, Jiang J, Ip Y. Tuberous sclerosis complex and Myc coordinate the growth and division of Drosophila intestinal stem cells. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:695-710 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we have uncovered a context-dependent phenotype of TSC mutants in adult ISCs, such that the excessive growth leads to inhibition of division. ..
  2. Radimerski T, Montagne J, Hemmings Mieszczak M, Thomas G. Lethality of Drosophila lacking TSC tumor suppressor function rescued by reducing dS6K signaling. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2627-32 pubmed
    ..sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in one of two tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Here, we show that absence of Drosophila Tsc1/2 leads to constitutive dS6K activation and inhibition of dPKB, the ..
  3. Gao X, Zhang Y, Arrazola P, Hino O, Kobayashi T, Yeung R, et al. Tsc tumour suppressor proteins antagonize amino-acid-TOR signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:699-704 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that tuberous sclerosis 1 (Tsc1) and Tsc2, tumour suppressors that are responsible for the tuberous sclerosis syndrome, antagonize this amino acid-TOR ..
  4. Chang Y, Neufeld T. An Atg1/Atg13 complex with multiple roles in TOR-mediated autophagy regulation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2004-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Atg1-Atg13 complexes thus function at multiple levels to mediate and adjust nutrient-dependent autophagic signaling. ..
  5. Demontis F, Perrimon N. Integration of Insulin receptor/Foxo signaling and dMyc activity during muscle growth regulates body size in Drosophila. Development. 2009;136:983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, maximal dMyc transcriptional activity depends on InR to control muscle mass, which in turn induces a systemic behavioral response to allocate body size and proportions. ..
  6. Scott R, Schuldiner O, Neufeld T. Role and regulation of starvation-induced autophagy in the Drosophila fat body. Dev Cell. 2004;7:167-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, in cells lacking TOR, autophagy plays a protective role that is dominant over its potential role as a growth suppressor. ..
  7. Reiling J, Hafen E. The hypoxia-induced paralogs Scylla and Charybdis inhibit growth by down-regulating S6K activity upstream of TSC in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2879-92 pubmed
  8. Zhang Y, Billington C, Pan D, Neufeld T. Drosophila target of rapamycin kinase functions as a multimer. Genetics. 2006;172:355-62 pubmed
    ..in the HEAT and kinase domains can dominantly interfere with wild-type TOR function in cells lacking TSC1 or TSC2. TOR multimerization thus partially accounts for the high apparent molecular weight of TOR complexes and offers ..
  9. Schleich S, Teleman A. Akt phosphorylates both Tsc1 and Tsc2 in Drosophila, but neither phosphorylation is required for normal animal growth. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6305 pubmed publisher
    ..One of Akt's phosphorylation targets is Tsc2, an inhibitor of the anabolic kinase TOR. This could account for part of Akt's growth promoting activity...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Sun P, Quan Z, Zhang B, Wu T, Xi R. TSC1/2 tumour suppressor complex maintains Drosophila germline stem cells by preventing differentiation. Development. 2010;137:2461-9 pubmed publisher
    Tuberous sclerosis complex human disease gene products TSC1 and TSC2 form a functional complex that negatively regulates target of rapamycin (TOR), an evolutionarily conserved kinase that plays a central role in cell growth and metabolism...
  2. Potter C, Huang H, Xu T. Drosophila Tsc1 functions with Tsc2 to antagonize insulin signaling in regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and organ size. Cell. 2001;105:357-68 pubmed
    ..We also show that the Tsc1 protein binds to Drosophila Tsc2 in vitro...
  3. Demetriades C, Doumpas N, Teleman A. Regulation of TORC1 in response to amino acid starvation via lysosomal recruitment of TSC2. Cell. 2014;156:786-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that, upon amino acid removal, the Rag GTPases also recruit TSC2 to the lysosome, where it can act on Rheb...
  4. Layalle S, Arquier N, Leopold P. The TOR pathway couples nutrition and developmental timing in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:568-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the PG uses TOR signaling to couple nutritional input with ecdysone production and developmental timing. ..
  5. McNeill H, Craig G, Bateman J. Regulation of neurogenesis and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling by the insulin receptor/target of rapamycin pathway in Drosophila. Genetics. 2008;179:843-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of s6k delays differentiation, and is epistatic to the loss of tsc2, indicating that S6K acts downstream or in parallel to TOR in differentiation as in growth...
  6. Hu J, Zacharek S, He Y, Lee H, Shumway S, Duronio R, et al. WD40 protein FBW5 promotes ubiquitination of tumor suppressor TSC2 by DDB1-CUL4-ROC1 ligase. Genes Dev. 2008;22:866-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, depletion of FBW5, DDB1, or CUL4A/B stabilizes TSC2. Ddb1 or Cul4 mutations in Drosophila result in Gigas/TSC2 protein accumulation and cause growth defects that can be partially rescued by Gigas/Tsc2 reduction...
  7. Gordon G, Zhang T, Zhao J, Du W. Deregulated G1-S control and energy stress contribute to the synthetic-lethal interactions between inactivation of RB and TSC1 or TSC2. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:2004-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that inactivation of both RB and TSC2 induces synergistic apoptosis during the development of Drosophila melanogaster and in cancer cells...
  8. Canal I, Acebes A, Ferrus A. Single neuron mosaics of the drosophila gigas mutant project beyond normal targets and modify behavior. J Neurosci. 1998;18:999-1008 pubmed
    b>gigas is a lethal mutant that differentiates enlarged cells, including the nucleus. This trait manifests only after the completion of the mitotic program...
  9. Gutierrez E, Wiggins D, Fielding B, Gould A. Specialized hepatocyte-like cells regulate Drosophila lipid metabolism. Nature. 2007;445:275-80 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence that some lipid-processing functions of the mammalian liver are performed in insects by oenocytes...
  10. Teleman A, Chen Y, Cohen S. Drosophila Melted modulates FOXO and TOR activity. Dev Cell. 2005;9:271-81 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that in the melted mutant, TOR activity is reduced and FOXO is activated. The melted mutant condition mimics the effects of nutrient deprivation in a normal animal, producing an animal with 40% less fat than normal. ..
  11. Tapon N, Ito N, Dickson B, Treisman J, Hariharan I. The Drosophila tuberous sclerosis complex gene homologs restrict cell growth and cell proliferation. Cell. 2001;105:345-55 pubmed
    ..We have characterized mutations in the Drosophila Tsc1 and Tsc2/gigas genes...
  12. Kockel L, Kerr K, Melnick M, Brückner K, Hebrok M, Perrimon N. Dynamic switch of negative feedback regulation in Drosophila Akt-TOR signaling. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000990 pubmed publisher
    ..is switched from TORC1 to S6K only in the context of enhanced TORC1 activity, as triggered by mutations in tsc2. These results illustrate how the Akt-TOR pathway dynamically adapts the routing of negative feedback in response ..
  13. Gao X, Pan D. TSC1 and TSC2 tumor suppressors antagonize insulin signaling in cell growth. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1383-92 pubmed
    Tuberous sclerosis is a human disease caused by mutations in the TSC1 or the TSC2 tumor suppressor gene...
  14. Pan D, Dong J, Zhang Y, Gao X. Tuberous sclerosis complex: from Drosophila to human disease. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:78-85 pubmed
    ..This disease is caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor genes; the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of these have long been elusive...
  15. Cheng L, Bailey A, Leevers S, Ragan T, Driscoll P, Gould A. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase spares organ growth during nutrient restriction in Drosophila. Cell. 2011;146:435-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings identify a brain-sparing mechanism that shares some regulatory features with the starvation-resistant growth programs of mammalian tumors. ..
  16. Sousa Nunes R, Yee L, Gould A. Fat cells reactivate quiescent neuroblasts via TOR and glial insulin relays in Drosophila. Nature. 2011;471:508-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism indicates that dietary nutrients and remote organs, as well as local niches, are key regulators of transitions in stem-cell behaviour...
  17. Li B, Gordon G, Du C, Xu J, Du W. Specific killing of Rb mutant cancer cells by inactivating TSC2. Cancer Cell. 2010;17:469-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified gig (fly TSC2) and found that inactivation of rbf (fly Rb) and gig synergistically induced cell death...
  18. Ito N, Rubin G. gigas, a Drosophila homolog of tuberous sclerosis gene product-2, regulates the cell cycle. Cell. 1999;96:529-39 pubmed
    ..We show that the Drosophila gene gigas encodes a homolog of TSC2, a gene mutated in half of TSC patients...
  19. Lee J, Koh H, Kim M, Park J, Lee S, Lee S, et al. JNK pathway mediates apoptotic cell death induced by tumor suppressor LKB1 in Drosophila. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1110-22 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our studies unprecedentedly elucidate JNK as the downstream mediator of the LKB1-dependent apoptosis, and provide a new paradigm for understanding the diverse LKB1 functions in vivo. ..
  20. Oldham S, Hafen E. Insulin/IGF and target of rapamycin signaling: a TOR de force in growth control. Trends Cell Biol. 2003;13:79-85 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes current studies primarily from Drosophila regarding the function of the insulin/IGF system in the control of growth. ..
  21. Juhasz G, Hill J, Yan Y, Sass M, Baehrecke E, Backer J, et al. The class III PI(3)K Vps34 promotes autophagy and endocytosis but not TOR signaling in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:655-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Vps34 is regulated by TOR-dependent nutrient signals directly at sites of autophagosome formation. ..
  22. Acebes A, Ferrus A. Increasing the number of synapses modifies olfactory perception in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2001;21:6264-73 pubmed
    The Drosophila mutant gigas produces an enlargement of postmitotic cells caused by additional rounds of DNA replication. In neurons, the mutant cell establishes more synapses than normal...
  23. Karbowniczek M, Zitserman D, Khabibullin D, Hartman T, Yu J, Morrison T, et al. The evolutionarily conserved TSC/Rheb pathway activates Notch in tuberous sclerosis complex and Drosophila external sensory organ development. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:93-102 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in either of the genes encoding the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), TSC1 and TSC2, result in a multisystem tumor disorder characterized by lesions with unusual lineage expression patterns...
  24. Scott R, Juhasz G, Neufeld T. Direct induction of autophagy by Atg1 inhibits cell growth and induces apoptotic cell death. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1-11 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this work identifies autophagy as a critical mechanism by which inhibition of TOR signaling leads to reduced cell growth. ..
  25. Meinertzhagen I. The early causal influence of cell size upon synaptic number: the mutant gigas of Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 1994;9:157-76 pubmed
    ..between these two possibilities clones of enlarged ommatidia were generated in the retina of the Drosophila mutant gigas, by mitotic recombination following gamma-irradiation in the third-instar larva...
  26. Dong J, Pan D. Tsc2 is not a critical target of Akt during normal Drosophila development. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2479-84 pubmed
    ..Akt, an essential component of the insulin pathway, stimulates growth by phosphorylating and inhibiting tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)...
  27. Yang Q, Inoki K, Kim E, Guan K. TSC1/TSC2 and Rheb have different effects on TORC1 and TORC2 activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6811-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) and TSC2, which are negative regulators of Rheb, have negative and positive effects on TORC1 and -2, respectively...
  28. Goberdhan D, Meredith D, Boyd C, Wilson C. PAT-related amino acid transporters regulate growth via a novel mechanism that does not require bulk transport of amino acids. Development. 2005;132:2365-75 pubmed
    ..As PATH is likely to be saturated in vivo, we propose that one specialised function of high-affinity PAT-related molecules is to maintain growth as local nutrient levels fluctuate during development. ..
  29. Saucedo L, Gao X, Chiarelli D, Li L, Pan D, Edgar B. Rheb promotes cell growth as a component of the insulin/TOR signalling network. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:566-71 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that the tuberous sclerosis complex Tsc1-Tsc2 may couple insulin signalling to Tor activity [corrected]...
  30. Slaidina M, Delanoue R, Gronke S, Partridge L, Leopold P. A Drosophila insulin-like peptide promotes growth during nonfeeding states. Dev Cell. 2009;17:874-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a specific class of ILPs induced upon metabolic stress that promotes growth in conditions of nutritional deprivation or following developmentally induced cessation of feeding. ..
  31. Wang T, Lao U, Edgar B. TOR-mediated autophagy regulates cell death in Drosophila neurodegenerative disease. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data indicate that TOR induces cell death by suppressing autophagy and provide direct genetic evidence that autophagy alleviates cell death in several common types of neurodegenerative disease. ..
  32. Hsieh T, Nicolay B, Frolov M, Moon N. Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 regulates dE2F1 expression during development and cooperates with RBF1 to control proliferation and survival. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001071 pubmed publisher
    ..Clonal analysis revealed that the protein level of dE2F1 is increased in tsc1 or tsc2 mutant cells and conversely decreased in rheb or dTor mutant cells...
  33. Kim E, Goraksha Hicks P, Li L, Neufeld T, Guan K. Regulation of TORC1 by Rag GTPases in nutrient response. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:935-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic studies in Drosophila also show that Rag GTPases regulate cell growth, autophagy and animal viability during starvation. Our studies establish a function of Rag GTPases in TORC1 activation in response to amino acid signals. ..
  34. Manning B, Cantley L. Rheb fills a GAP between TSC and TOR. Trends Biochem Sci. 2003;28:573-6 pubmed
    ..determining the molecular and cellular functions of hamartin and tuberin, which are encoded by the genes TSC1 and TSC2 that are mutated in the tuberous sclerosis complex disease...
  35. Jorgensen P, Tyers M. How cells coordinate growth and division. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R1014-27 pubmed
    ..Recently, genetic screens in Drosophila and functional genomics approaches in yeast have macheted into the thicket of cell size control. ..
  36. Murthy V, Han S, Beauchamp R, Smith N, Haddad L, Ito N, et al. Pam and its ortholog highwire interact with and may negatively regulate the TSC1.TSC2 complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:1351-8 pubmed
    ..Complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with mutations in TSC1, which codes for hamartin, or TSC2, which codes for tuberin...
  37. Day S, Lawrence P. Measuring dimensions: the regulation of size and shape. Development. 2000;127:2977-87 pubmed
    ..We discuss a hypothesis that the local steepness of a morphogen gradient is a measure of length in one axis, a measure that is used to determine whether there will be net growth or not. ..
  38. Stocker H, Radimerski T, Schindelholz B, Wittwer F, Belawat P, Daram P, et al. Rheb is an essential regulator of S6K in controlling cell growth in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:559-65 pubmed
    ..biochemical analyses suggest that Rheb functions downstream of the tumour suppressors Tsc1 (tuberous sclerosis 1)-Tsc2 in the TOR (target of rapamycin) signalling pathway to control growth, and that a major effector of Rheb function ..
  39. Zhang Y, Gao X, Saucedo L, Ru B, Edgar B, Pan D. Rheb is a direct target of the tuberous sclerosis tumour suppressor proteins. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:578-81 pubmed
    Mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes cause tuberous sclerosis, a benign tumour syndrome in humans...
  40. Kapahi P, Zid B, Harper T, Koslover D, Sapin V, Benzer S. Regulation of lifespan in Drosophila by modulation of genes in the TOR signaling pathway. Curr Biol. 2004;14:885-90 pubmed
    ..We find that overexpression of dTsc1, dTsc2, or dominant-negative forms of dTOR or dS6K all cause lifespan extension...
  41. Colombani J, Raisin S, Pantalacci S, Radimerski T, Montagne J, Leopold P. A nutrient sensor mechanism controls Drosophila growth. Cell. 2003;114:739-49 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the fat body functions as a nutrient sensor that restricts global growth through a humoral mechanism. ..
  42. Hennig K, Colombani J, Neufeld T. TOR coordinates bulk and targeted endocytosis in the Drosophila melanogaster fat body to regulate cell growth. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:963-74 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that endocytosis acts both as an effector function downstream of TOR and as a physiologically relevant regulator of TOR signaling...
  43. Teleman A. Molecular mechanisms of metabolic regulation by insulin in Drosophila. Biochem J. 2009;425:13-26 pubmed publisher
    ..I discuss both the intracellular signalling network, as well as the communication between organs in the fly. ..
  44. Geminard C, Rulifson E, Leopold P. Remote control of insulin secretion by fat cells in Drosophila. Cell Metab. 2009;10:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the availability of nutrients is remotely sensed in fat body cells and conveyed to the brain IPCs by a humoral signal controlling ILP release. ..
  45. Potter C, Pedraza L, Xu T. Akt regulates growth by directly phosphorylating Tsc2. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:658-65 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster Akt/PKB stimulates growth by phosphorylating the tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2) tumour suppressor and inhibiting formation of a Tsc1-Tsc2 complex...
  46. Patel P, Tamanoi F. Increased Rheb-TOR signaling enhances sensitivity of the whole organism to oxidative stress. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4285-92 pubmed
    ..These data imply that pathological situations that increase TOR activity might perturb the ability of the whole organism to cope with stress causing disease progression and aging. ..
  47. van Dam T, Bos J, Snel B. Evolution of the Ras-like small GTPases and their regulators. Small Gtpases. 2011;2:4-16 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our analysis forms an extensive evolutionary framework for Ras-like signaling pathways and provides specific predictions for molecular biologists and biochemists. ..
  48. Quan Z, Sun P, Lin G, Xi R. TSC1/2 regulates intestinal stem cell maintenance and lineage differentiation through Rheb-TORC1-S6K but independently of nutritional status or Notch regulation. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:3884-92 pubmed publisher
    Tubular sclerosis complex gene products TSC1 and TSC2 have evolutionarily conserved roles in cell growth from Drosophila to mammals...
  49. Parker J, Struhl G. Scaling the Drosophila Wing: TOR-Dependent Target Gene Access by the Hippo Pathway Transducer Yorkie. PLoS Biol. 2015;13:e1002274 pubmed publisher
  50. Ribeiro C, Dickson B. Sex peptide receptor and neuronal TOR/S6K signaling modulate nutrient balancing in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1000-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the brain uses these internal states to assign value to external sensory information from potential food sources, thereby guiding food choice and ensuring nutrient homeostasis. ..
  51. Steinhilb M, Dias Santagata D, Fulga T, Felch D, Feany M. Tau phosphorylation sites work in concert to promote neurotoxicity in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:5060-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that serine-proline/threonine-proline sites cooperate to mediate neurodegeneration in vivo. ..
  52. Schulze S, McAllister B, Sinclair D, FitzPatrick K, Marchetti M, Pimpinelli S, et al. Heterochromatic genes in Drosophila: a comparative analysis of two genes. Genetics. 2006;173:1433-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that Dbp80 and RpL15 can function in contrasting chromatin contexts on an evolutionary timescale. The complex history of these genes also provides unique insight into the dynamic nature of genome evolution...
  53. Tsokanos F, Albert M, Demetriades C, Spirohn K, Boutros M, Teleman A. eIF4A inactivates TORC1 in response to amino acid starvation. EMBO J. 2016;35:1058-76 pubmed publisher
    ..How the absence of amino acids inactivates TORC1 is less well understood. Amino acid starvation recruits the TSC1/TSC2 complex to the vicinity of TORC1 to inhibit Rheb; however, the upstream mechanisms regulating TSC2 are not known...
  54. Resnik Docampo M, de Celis J. MAP4K3 is a component of the TORC1 signalling complex that modulates cell growth and viability in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14528 pubmed publisher
  55. Nuzhdin S, Brisson J, Pickering A, Wayne M, Harshman L, McIntyre L. Natural genetic variation in transcriptome reflects network structure inferred with major effect mutations: insulin/TOR and associated phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:124 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results question the assertion of the 'sparse' nature of genetic networks, while validating and extending candidate gene approaches in the analyses of complex traits. ..
  56. Poels J, Spasić M, Gistelinck M, Mutert J, Schellens A, Callaerts P, et al. Autophagy and phagocytosis-like cell cannibalism exert opposing effects on cellular survival during metabolic stress. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1590-601 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide new insights into the roles of autophagy and phagocytosis in the neuronal metabolic stress response and open new avenues into understanding of human disease and development of therapeutic strategies. ..
  57. Inoki K, Guan K. Complexity of the TOR signaling network. Trends Cell Biol. 2006;16:206-12 pubmed
    ..Here, we discuss new findings that have extended the complexity of TOR signaling and the different roles of the TORC complexes in yeast, flies and mammals. ..
  58. Hayashi R, Wainwright S, Liddell S, Pinchin S, Horswell S, Ish Horowicz D. A genetic screen based on in vivo RNA imaging reveals centrosome-independent mechanisms for localizing gurken transcripts in Drosophila. G3 (Bethesda). 2014;4:749-60 pubmed publisher
    ..grk mRNA localization and other aspects of oogenesis, including alleles of elg1, scaf6, quemao, nudE, Tsc2/gigas, rasp, and Chd5/Wrb, and several null alleles of the armitage Piwi-pathway gene...
  59. Deivasigamani S, Verma H, Ueda R, Ratnaparkhi A, Ratnaparkhi G. A genetic screen identifies Tor as an interactor of VAPB in a Drosophila model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biol Open. 2014;3:1127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The VAPB network and further mechanistic understanding of interactions with key pathways, such as the TOR cassette, will pave the way for a better understanding of the mechanisms of onset and progression of motor neuron disease. ..
  60. Hengstschlager M, Rodman D, Miloloza A, Hengstschläger Ottnad E, Rosner M, Kubista M. Tuberous sclerosis gene products in proliferation control. Mutat Res. 2001;488:233-9 pubmed
    Two genes, TSC1 and TSC2, have been shown to be responsible for tuberous sclerosis (TSC)...
  61. Hengstschlager M. Tuberous sclerosis complex genes: from flies to human genetics. Arch Dermatol Res. 2001;293:383-6 pubmed