Gene Symbol: gammaTub37C
Description: gamma-Tubulin at 37C
Alias: CG17566, D.m.GAMMA-37C, Dmel\CG17566, GTU88*, PL10, Rb1011, TW1, Tub3B, fs(2)TW1, fs(2)TWI, fsTW1, g-Tubulin, gamma Tub37CD, gamma tubulin, gamma-Tub, gamma-Tub37C, gamma-tub, gamma-tub37C, gamma-tub37CD, gamma-tubulin, gammaTUB, gammaTUB37C, gammaTub, gammaTub2, gammaTub37CD, gammaTub37c, gamma[mat], gammatub, gamma-Tubulin at 37C, 37CD gamma-tubulin, CG17566-PA, CG17566-PB, female sterile(2)Ted wright 1, gama-tubulin, gamma Tubulin2, gamma tubulin, gamma tubulin at 37C, gamma-Tubulin, gamma-tubulin (37C), gamma-tubulin-2, gamma-tubulin37C, gammaTub37C-PA, gammaTub37C-PB, gammatubulin, maternal gamma-tubulin, tubulin
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Zheng Y, Jung M, Oakley B. Gamma-tubulin is present in Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens and is associated with the centrosome. Cell. 1991;65:817-23 pubmed
    The mipA gene of A. nidulans encodes a newly discovered member of the tubulin superfamily of proteins, gamma-tubulin. In A...
  2. Oegema K, Wiese C, Martin O, Milligan R, Iwamatsu A, Mitchison T, et al. Characterization of two related Drosophila gamma-tubulin complexes that differ in their ability to nucleate microtubules. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:721-33 pubmed
    gamma-tubulin exists in two related complexes in Drosophila embryo extracts (Moritz, M., Y. Zheng, B.M. Alberts, and K. Oegema. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 142:1- 12)...
  3. Hallen M, Ho J, Yankel C, Endow S. Fluorescence recovery kinetic analysis of gamma-tubulin binding to the mitotic spindle. Biophys J. 2008;95:3048-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use it to analyze gamma-tubulin binding to the mitotic spindle and centrosomes to determine the role of gamma-tubulin in microtubule nucleation ..
  4. Moritz M, Braunfeld M, Guenebaut V, Heuser J, Agard D. Structure of the gamma-tubulin ring complex: a template for microtubule nucleation. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:365-70 pubmed
    The gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC) is a protein complex of relative molecular mass approximately 2.2 x 10(6) that nucleates microtubules at the centrosome...
  5. Wakefield J, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. The drosophila protein asp is involved in microtubule organization during spindle formation and cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:637-48 pubmed
    ..both meiotic and mitotic divisions of asp mutants, microtubule nucleation occurs from the centrosome, and gamma-tubulin localizes correctly. However, spindle pole focusing and organization are severely affected...
  6. Gunawardane R, Martin O, Cao K, Zhang L, Dej K, Iwamatsu A, et al. Characterization and reconstitution of Drosophila gamma-tubulin ring complex subunits. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:1513-24 pubmed
    The gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC) is important for microtubule nucleation from the centrosome...
  7. Wilson P, Zheng Y, Oakley C, Oakley B, Borisy G, Fuller M. Differential expression of two gamma-tubulin isoforms during gametogenesis and development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1997;184:207-21 pubmed
    ..1991). We now report identification of a second gamma-tubulin gene, gamma Tub37CD. Immunoblot analysis and immunolocalization show that gamma Tub37CD and gamma Tub23C are differentially ..
  8. Gonzalez C, Tavosanis G, Mollinari C. Centrosomes and microtubule organisation during Drosophila development. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 18):2697-706 pubmed
    ..In this review we present some of the many examples which illustrate how centrosomes and microtubule organisation changes through development in Drosophila and discuss some of its implications. ..
  9. Goshima G, Nedelec F, Vale R. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:229-40 pubmed
    ..From these results and simulations, we propose a model on how two minus end-directed motors cooperate to ensure spindle pole coalescence during mitosis. ..

More Information


  1. Bonaccorsi S, Giansanti M, Gatti M. Spindle assembly in Drosophila neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:54-6 pubmed
  2. Raynaud Messina B, Mazzolini L, Moisand A, Cirinesi A, Wright M. Elongation of centriolar microtubule triplets contributes to the formation of the mitotic spindle in gamma-tubulin-depleted cells. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5497-507 pubmed
    The assembly of the mitotic spindle after depletion of the major gamma-tubulin isotype by RNA-mediated interference was assessed in the Drosophila S2 cell line...
  3. Terada Y, Uetake Y, Kuriyama R. Interaction of Aurora-A and centrosomin at the microtubule-nucleating site in Drosophila and mammalian cells. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:757-63 pubmed
    ..and CNN are mutually dependent for localization at spindle poles, which is required for proper targeting of gamma-tubulin and other centrosomal components to the centrosome...
  4. Giunta K, Jang J, Manheim E, Subramanian G, McKim K. subito encodes a kinesin-like protein required for meiotic spindle pole formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;160:1489-501 pubmed
    ..sub is also required for the early embryonic divisions but is otherwise dispensable for most mitotic divisions. ..
  5. Endow S, Komma D. Assembly and dynamics of an anastral:astral spindle: the meiosis II spindle of Drosophila oocytes. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 17):2487-95 pubmed
    ..gamma-Tubulin transiently localizes to the central spindle pole body, implying that the body acts as a microtubule nucleating ..
  6. Bolivar J, Huynh J, Lopez Schier H, Gonzalez C, St Johnston D, González Reyes A. Centrosome migration into the Drosophila oocyte is independent of BicD and egl, and of the organisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Development. 2001;128:1889-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, centrosome migration is independent of the organisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton, and seems to depend instead on the polarity of the fusome. ..
  7. Megraw T, Kao L, Kaufman T. Zygotic development without functional mitotic centrosomes. Curr Biol. 2001;11:116-20 pubmed
    ..These results challenge long-held assumptions that the centrosome and the astral microtubules emanating from it are essential for development and are required specifically for spindle orientation during asymmetric cell divisions. ..
  8. Lajoie Mazenc I, Tollon Y, Detraves C, Julian M, Moisand A, Gueth Hallonet C, et al. Recruitment of antigenic gamma-tubulin during mitosis in animal cells: presence of gamma-tubulin in the mitotic spindle. J Cell Sci. 1994;107 ( Pt 10):2825-37 pubmed
    It has been claimed repeatedly that gamma-tubulin is exclusively localized at the spindle poles in mitotic animal cells, where it plays a role in microtubule nucleation...
  9. Vaizel Ohayon D, Schejter E. Mutations in centrosomin reveal requirements for centrosomal function during early Drosophila embryogenesis. Curr Biol. 1999;9:889-98 pubmed
    ..Centrosomin is an essential core component of early embryonic centrosomes in Drosophila. Microtubule-dependent events of early embryogenesis display differential requirements for centrosomal function. ..
  10. Colombié N, Cullen C, Brittle A, Jang J, Earnshaw W, Carmena M, et al. Dual roles of Incenp crucial to the assembly of the acentrosomal metaphase spindle in female meiosis. Development. 2008;135:3239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the two functions of Incenp are part of the mechanisms that compensate for the lack of centrosomes during meiotic spindle formation. ..
  11. Conduit P, Raff J. Cnn dynamics drive centrosome size asymmetry to ensure daughter centriole retention in Drosophila neuroblasts. Curr Biol. 2010;20:2187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This ensures that the daughter centriole maintains its PCM and so its position at the apical cortex. Thus, the daughter centriole, rather than an "immortal" mother centriole, is ultimately retained in these stem cells. ..
  12. Grieder N, de Cuevas M, Spradling A. The fusome organizes the microtubule network during oocyte differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:4253-64 pubmed
    ..During this same period, discrete foci rich in gamma tubulin that very probably correspond to migrating cystocyte centrosomes also associate with the fusome, first on the ..
  13. Bucciarelli E, Pellacani C, Naim V, Palena A, Gatti M, Somma M. Drosophila Dgt6 interacts with Ndc80, Msps/XMAP215, and gamma-tubulin to promote kinetochore-driven MT formation. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work has suggested that additional spindle MTs can be nucleated by gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRCs) that associate laterally with preexisting spindle MTs, leading to spindle ..
  14. Kawaguchi S, Zheng Y. Characterization of a Drosophila centrosome protein CP309 that shares homology with Kendrin and CG-NAP. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:37-45 pubmed
    ..this novel Drosophila centrosome protein, centrosome protein of 309 kDa (CP309), cofractionates with the gamma-tubulin ring complex and the centrosome-complementing activity...
  15. Yamashita Y, Mahowald A, Perlin J, Fuller M. Asymmetric inheritance of mother versus daughter centrosome in stem cell division. Science. 2007;315:518-21 pubmed
    ..The mother centrosome remains anchored near the niche while the daughter centrosome migrates to the opposite side of the cell before spindle formation. ..
  16. Wiese C. Distinct Dgrip84 isoforms correlate with distinct gamma-tubulins in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:368-77 pubmed
    ..the gamma-tubulin genes are developmentally regulated: the "maternal" gamma-tubulin isotype (named gammaTub37CD according to its location on the genetic map) is expressed in the ovary and is deposited in the egg, where it ..
  17. Zhang J, Megraw T. Proper recruitment of gamma-tubulin and D-TACC/Msps to embryonic Drosophila centrosomes requires Centrosomin Motif 1. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4037-49 pubmed
    ..Cnn Motif 1 is necessary for proper recruitment of gamma-tubulin, D-TACC (the homolog of vertebrate transforming acidic coiled-coil proteins [TACC]), and Minispindles (Msps) to ..
  18. Callaini G, Whitfield W, Riparbelli M. Centriole and centrosome dynamics during the embryonic cell cycles that follow the formation of the cellular blastoderm in Drosophila. Exp Cell Res. 1997;234:183-90 pubmed
    ..The centrosomal material, as recognized by antibodies against CP190 and gamma-tubulin, does not show the typical shape changes observed in syncytial embryos, but remains compact throughout mitosis...
  19. Riparbelli M, Callaini G, Glover D, Avides M. A requirement for the Abnormal Spindle protein to organise microtubules of the central spindle for cytokinesis in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:913-22 pubmed
    ..Upon fertilisation, Asp is also recruited to the MTOC that nucleates the sperm aster. Asp is required for growth of the microtubules of the sperm aster, which in asp mutants remains diminutive and so prevents migration of the pronuclei. ..
  20. Ori McKenney K, Jan L, Jan Y. Golgi outposts shape dendrite morphology by functioning as sites of acentrosomal microtubule nucleation in neurons. Neuron. 2012;76:921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This acentrosomal nucleation requires gamma-tubulin and CP309, the Drosophila homolog of AKAP450, and contributes to the complex microtubule organization within the ..
  21. Robinson J, Wojcik E, Sanders M, McGrail M, Hays T. Cytoplasmic dynein is required for the nuclear attachment and migration of centrosomes during mitosis in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:597-608 pubmed
    ..The disruption of these centrosome attachments in mutant embryos reveals a critical role for dynein function and centrosome positioning in the spatial organization of the syncytial cytoplasm of the developing embryo. ..
  22. Vogt N, Koch I, Schwarz H, Schnorrer F, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. The gammaTuRC components Grip75 and Grip128 have an essential microtubule-anchoring function in the Drosophila germline. Development. 2006;133:3963-72 pubmed
    The gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC) forms an essential template for microtubule nucleation in animal cells...
  23. Reschen R, Colombié N, Wheatley L, Dobbelaere J, St Johnston D, Ohkura H, et al. Dgp71WD is required for the assembly of the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle, and is not a general targeting factor for the γ-TuRC. Biol Open. 2012;1:422-9 pubmed publisher
    Dgp71WD/Nedd1 proteins are essential for mitotic spindle formation. In human cells, Nedd1 targets γ-tubulin to both centrosomes and spindles, but in other organisms the function of Dgp71WD/Nedd1 is less clear...
  24. Verollet C, Colombié N, Daubon T, Bourbon H, Wright M, Raynaud Messina B. Drosophila melanogaster gamma-TuRC is dispensable for targeting gamma-tubulin to the centrosome and microtubule nucleation. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:517-28 pubmed
    In metazoans, gamma-tubulin acts within two main complexes, gamma-tubulin small complexes (gamma-TuSCs) and gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRCs)...
  25. Jang J, Rahman T, McKim K. The kinesinlike protein Subito contributes to central spindle assembly and organization of the meiotic spindle in Drosophila oocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4684-94 pubmed
    ..We propose that Subito is required for establishing and/or maintaining the central spindle in Drosophila oocytes, and this substitutes for the role of centrosomes in organizing the bipolar spindle. ..
  26. Lee M, Gergely F, Jeffers K, Peak Chew S, Raff J. Msps/XMAP215 interacts with the centrosomal protein D-TACC to regulate microtubule behaviour. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:643-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that D-TACC and Msps normally cooperate to stabilize centrosomal microtubules by binding to their minus ends and binding to their plus ends as they grow out from the centrosome. ..
  27. Barbosa V, Yamamoto R, Henderson D, Glover D. Mutation of a Drosophila gamma tubulin ring complex subunit encoded by discs degenerate-4 differentially disrupts centrosomal protein localization. Genes Dev. 2000;14:3126-39 pubmed
    We have cloned the Drosophila gene discs degenerate-4 (dd4) and find that it encodes a component of the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC) homologous to Spc98 of budding yeast...
  28. Herrmann S, Amorim I, Sunkel C. The POLO kinase is required at multiple stages during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1998;107:440-51 pubmed
    ..Immunostaining of polo mutant cells with alpha-tubulin shows several abnormalities of the meiotic spindle, including a significantly reduced central spindle...
  29. Carmena M, Riparbelli M, Minestrini G, Tavares A, Adams R, Callaini G, et al. Drosophila polo kinase is required for cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:659-71 pubmed
    ..We discuss these findings in respect to conserved functions for the Polo-like kinases in regulating progression through M phase, including the earliest events of cytokinesis. ..
  30. Januschke J, Reina J, Llamazares S, Bertran T, Rossi F, Roig J, et al. Centrobin controls mother-daughter centriole asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblasts. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They also reveal an interphase function for POLO in this process that seems to have co-opted part of the protein network involved in mitotic centrosome maturation. ..
  31. Moutinho Santos T, Sampaio P, Amorim I, Costa M, Sunkel C. In vivo localisation of the mitotic POLO kinase shows a highly dynamic association with the mitotic apparatus during early embryogenesis in Drosophila. Biol Cell. 1999;91:585-96 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the wide distribution of the GFP-POLO protein to all compartments of the mitotic apparatus provides a valuable tool for future studies on cell cycle during development. ..
  32. Gopalakrishnan J, Mennella V, Blachon S, Zhai B, Smith A, Megraw T, et al. Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes and tethers them in a centrosome. Nat Commun. 2011;2:359 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, PCM assembly begins in the cytosol where Sas-4 provides a scaffold for pre-assembled cytoplasmic complexes before tethering of the complexes in a centrosome. ..
  33. Cha B, Serbus L, Koppetsch B, Theurkauf W. Kinesin I-dependent cortical exclusion restricts pole plasm to the oocyte posterior. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:592-8 pubmed
  34. Moritz M, Zheng Y, Alberts B, Oegema K. Recruitment of the gamma-tubulin ring complex to Drosophila salt-stripped centrosome scaffolds. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:775-86 pubmed
    ..2 M KI generates salt-resistant scaffolds that lack the centrosomal proteins CP190, CP60, centrosomin, and gamma-tubulin. To clarify the role of these proteins in microtubule nucleation by centrosomes and to identify additional ..
  35. Parton R, Hamilton R, Ball G, Yang L, Cullen C, Lu W, et al. A PAR-1-dependent orientation gradient of dynamic microtubules directs posterior cargo transport in the Drosophila oocyte. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:121-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings explain the biased random posterior cargo movements in the oocyte that establish the germline and posterior. ..
  36. Tavosanis G, Llamazares S, Goulielmos G, Gonzalez C. Essential role for gamma-tubulin in the acentriolar female meiotic spindle of Drosophila. EMBO J. 1997;16:1809-19 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster there are two gamma-tubulin genes, gammaTUB23C and gammaTUB37C. Here we report the cytological and molecular characterization of the 37C isoform...
  37. Barros T, Kinoshita K, Hyman A, Raff J. Aurora A activates D-TACC-Msps complexes exclusively at centrosomes to stabilize centrosomal microtubules. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:1039-46 pubmed
    ..This may explain why centrosomes are such dominant sites of MT assembly during mitosis. ..
  38. Peel N, Stevens N, Basto R, Raff J. Overexpressing centriole-replication proteins in vivo induces centriole overduplication and de novo formation. Curr Biol. 2007;17:834-43 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigate the effects of overexpressing the three proteins known to be required for centriole replication in Drosophila-DSas-6, DSas-4, and Sak...
  39. Moritz M, Braunfeld M, Fung J, Sedat J, Alberts B, Agard D. Three-dimensional structural characterization of centrosomes from early Drosophila embryos. J Cell Biol. 1995;130:1149-59 pubmed
  40. Januschke J, Gervais L, Gillet L, Keryer G, Bornens M, Guichet A. The centrosome-nucleus complex and microtubule organization in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2006;133:129-39 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, the centrosomal components, gamma-tubulin and Drosophila pericentrin-like protein also strongly accumulate at the periphery of this nucleus...
  41. Hughes S, Beeler J, Seat A, Slaughter B, Unruh J, Bauerly E, et al. Gamma-tubulin is required for bipolar spindle assembly and for proper kinetochore microtubule attachments during prometaphase I in Drosophila oocytes. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002209 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies of Drosophila oocytes failed to detect the native form of the germline-specific ?-tubulin (?Tub37C) in meiosis I spindles, and genetic studies have yielded conflicting data regarding the role of ?Tub37C ..
  42. Raynaud Messina B, Debec A, Tollon Y, Gares M, Wright M. Differential properties of the two Drosophila gamma-tubulin isotypes. Eur J Cell Biol. 2001;80:643-9 pubmed
    ..The two gamma-tubulins exhibit distinct biochemical properties. Gamma-tub23C is present in the soluble gamma-tubulin small complexes (10S) and gamma-tubulin big complexes (35S) and is loosely associated to the cytoskeleton...
  43. Martinez Campos M, Basto R, Baker J, Kernan M, Raff J. The Drosophila pericentrin-like protein is essential for cilia/flagella function, but appears to be dispensable for mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:673-83 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the flagella in mutant sperm are nonmotile. Thus, D-PLP is essential for the formation of functional cilia and flagella in flies. ..
  44. do Carmo Avides M, Glover D. Abnormal spindle protein, Asp, and the integrity of mitotic centrosomal microtubule organizing centers. Science. 1999;283:1733-5 pubmed
    ..This was corrected by addition of purified Asp protein. Thus, Asp appears to hold together the microtubule-nucleating gamma-tubulin ring complexes that organize the mitotic centrosome.
  45. Endow S, Hallen M. Anastral spindle assembly and ?-tubulin in Drosophila oocytes. BMC Cell Biol. 2011;12:1 pubmed publisher
    ..It is still uncertain whether ?-tubulin, a microtubule nucleator essential for mitotic spindle assembly and maintenance, plays a role...
  46. Megraw T, Li K, Kao L, Kaufman T. The centrosomin protein is required for centrosome assembly and function during cleavage in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:2829-39 pubmed
    ..poles in the mutants contain little or no detectable amounts of the centrosomal proteins CP60, CP190 and (gamma)-tubulin and late stage embryos often do not have astral microtubules at their spindle poles...
  47. Rogers G, Rusan N, Peifer M, Rogers S. A multicomponent assembly pathway contributes to the formation of acentrosomal microtubule arrays in interphase Drosophila cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3163-78 pubmed publisher
    ..However, gamma-tubulin RNAi delays microtubule regrowth after depolymerization, suggesting that it may function partially redundantly ..
  48. Zhang D, Rogers G, Buster D, Sharp D. Three microtubule severing enzymes contribute to the "Pacman-flux" machinery that moves chromosomes. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:231-42 pubmed
    ..attached microtubule plus ends (Pacman) while being reeled in to spindle poles by the continual poleward flow of tubulin subunits driven by minus-end depolymerization (flux)...
  49. Morales Mulia S, Scholey J. Spindle pole organization in Drosophila S2 cells by dynein, abnormal spindle protein (Asp), and KLP10A. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3176-86 pubmed
    ..These results extend recent findings from Xenopus extracts to Drosophila cultured cells and suggest that common pathways contribute to spindle pole organization and length determination. ..
  50. Afshar K, Stuart B, Wasserman S. Functional analysis of the Drosophila diaphanous FH protein in early embryonic development. Development. 2000;127:1887-97 pubmed
    ..Based on known biochemical functions of FH proteins, we propose that Diaphanous serves as a mediator between signaling molecules and actin organizers at specific phases of the cell cycle. ..
  51. Rodrigues Martins A, Riparbelli M, Callaini G, Glover D, Bettencourt Dias M. Revisiting the role of the mother centriole in centriole biogenesis. Science. 2007;316:1046-50 pubmed
    ..The mother centriole is not a bona fide template but a platform for a set of regulatory molecules that catalyzes and regulates daughter centriole assembly...
  52. Riparbelli M, Callaini G. gamma-Tubulin is transiently associated with the Drosophila oocyte meiotic apparatus. Eur J Cell Biol. 1998;75:21-8 pubmed
    ..This center contained gamma-tubulin and CP190 antigens and nucleated a transient array of radial microtubules...
  53. Brent A, MacQueen A, Hazelrigg T. The Drosophila wispy gene is required for RNA localization and other microtubule-based events of meiosis and early embryogenesis. Genetics. 2000;154:1649-62 pubmed
    ..We propose that the wispy gene product functions directly in several microtubule-based events in meiosis and early embryogenesis and speculate about its possible mode of action. ..
  54. Blachon S, Gopalakrishnan J, Omori Y, Polyanovsky A, Church A, Nicastro D, et al. Drosophila asterless and vertebrate Cep152 Are orthologs essential for centriole duplication. Genetics. 2008;180:2081-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The clear absence of several centriolar markers in mecD mutants suggests that Asl is critical early in centriole duplication...
  55. Schnorrer F, Luschnig S, Koch I, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Gamma-tubulin37C and gamma-tubulin ring complex protein 75 are essential for bicoid RNA localization during drosophila oogenesis. Dev Cell. 2002;3:685-96 pubmed
    ..They encode maternal gamma-Tubulin37C (gammaTub37C) and gamma-tubulin ring complex protein 75 (Dgrip75), both of which are gamma-tubulin ring complex components...
  56. Wilson P, Borisy G. Maternally expressed gamma Tub37CD in Drosophila is differentially required for female meiosis and embryonic mitosis. Dev Biol. 1998;199:273-90 pubmed
    We report functional analysis of gamma Tub37CD, a maternally synthesized gamma-tubulin that is highly expressed during oogenesis and utilized at centrosomes in precellular embryos...
  57. Raff J, Kellogg D, Alberts B. Drosophila gamma-tubulin is part of a complex containing two previously identified centrosomal MAPs. J Cell Biol. 1993;121:823-35 pubmed
    gamma-tubulin is a minor tubulin that is localized to the microtubule organizing center of many fungi and higher eucaryotic cells (Oakley, B. R., C. E. Oakley, Y. Yoon, and M. C. Jung. 1990. Cell. 61: 1289-1301; Stearns, T., L...
  58. Riparbelli M, Callaini G, Glover D. Failure of pronuclear migration and repeated divisions of polar body nuclei associated with MTOC defects in polo eggs of Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 18):3341-50 pubmed
    ..Migration of the female pronucleus did not take place and so a gonomeric spindle could not form. We discuss these findings in relation to the known roles of polo like kinases in regulating the behaviour of MTOCs. ..
  59. Goshima G, Mayer M, Zhang N, Stuurman N, Vale R. Augmin: a protein complex required for centrosome-independent microtubule generation within the spindle. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:421-9 pubmed publisher
    Since the discovery of gamma-tubulin, attention has focused on its involvement as a microtubule nucleator at the centrosome...
  60. Jeng R, Stearns T. Gamma-tubulin complexes: size does matter. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:339-42 pubmed
    gamma-Tubulin is a conserved component of all microtubule-organizing centres and is required for these organelles to nucleate microtubule polymerization. However, the mechanism of nucleation is not known...
  61. Berdnik D, Knoblich J. Drosophila Aurora-A is required for centrosome maturation and actin-dependent asymmetric protein localization during mitosis. Curr Biol. 2002;12:640-7 pubmed
    ..aurA(37) mutant cells also fail to recruit Centrosomin (Cnn) and gamma-Tubulin to centrosomes during mitosis, leading to spindle morphology defects...
  62. Gunawardane R, Martin O, Zheng Y. Characterization of a new gammaTuRC subunit with WD repeats. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1017-26 pubmed
    The gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC), consisting of multiple protein subunits, can nucleate microtubule assembly. Although many subunits of the gammaTuRC have been identified, a complete set remains to be defined in any organism...