Gene Symbol: gammaTub23C
Description: gamma-Tubulin at 23C
Alias: CG 3157, CG3157, D.m.GAMMA-23C, Dmel\CG3157, GAMMA23C, GTU88*, GTUB, Tub23, Tub3A, g-Tubulin, gamma tubulin, gamma-Tub, gamma-Tub23C, gamma-tub, gamma-tub 23C, gamma-tub23, gamma-tub23C, gamma-tubulin, gammaTUB, gammaTUB23C, gammaTub, gammaTub23CD, gamma[zy], gammatub, gammatub23C, l(2)23Ce, gamma-Tubulin at 23C, &ggr-tubulin, 23C gamma-tubulin, 23C-gamma-tubulin, CG3157-PA, gama-tubulin, gamma tubulin, gamma tubulin 23C, gamma-Tubulin, gamma-tubulin (23C), gamma-tubulin 23C, gamma-tubulin(23C), gamma-tubulin-1, gamma-tubulin23C, gammaTub23C-PA, gammatubulin, lethal (2) 23Ce, tubulin
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Gopalakrishnan J, Mennella V, Blachon S, Zhai B, Smith A, Megraw T, et al. Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes and tethers them in a centrosome. Nat Commun. 2011;2:359 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, PCM assembly begins in the cytosol where Sas-4 provides a scaffold for pre-assembled cytoplasmic complexes before tethering of the complexes in a centrosome. ..
  2. Wilson P, Zheng Y, Oakley C, Oakley B, Borisy G, Fuller M. Differential expression of two gamma-tubulin isoforms during gametogenesis and development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1997;184:207-21 pubmed
    Previous work identified a gamma-tubulin gene, gamma Tub23C, in Drosophila (Zheng et al., 1991). We now report identification of a second gamma-tubulin gene, gamma Tub37CD...
  3. Blachon S, Gopalakrishnan J, Omori Y, Polyanovsky A, Church A, Nicastro D, et al. Drosophila asterless and vertebrate Cep152 Are orthologs essential for centriole duplication. Genetics. 2008;180:2081-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The clear absence of several centriolar markers in mecD mutants suggests that Asl is critical early in centriole duplication...
  4. Martinez Campos M, Basto R, Baker J, Kernan M, Raff J. The Drosophila pericentrin-like protein is essential for cilia/flagella function, but appears to be dispensable for mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:673-83 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the flagella in mutant sperm are nonmotile. Thus, D-PLP is essential for the formation of functional cilia and flagella in flies. ..
  5. Riparbelli M, Callaini G, Glover D, Avides M. A requirement for the Abnormal Spindle protein to organise microtubules of the central spindle for cytokinesis in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:913-22 pubmed
    ..Upon fertilisation, Asp is also recruited to the MTOC that nucleates the sperm aster. Asp is required for growth of the microtubules of the sperm aster, which in asp mutants remains diminutive and so prevents migration of the pronuclei. ..
  6. Barbosa V, Yamamoto R, Henderson D, Glover D. Mutation of a Drosophila gamma tubulin ring complex subunit encoded by discs degenerate-4 differentially disrupts centrosomal protein localization. Genes Dev. 2000;14:3126-39 pubmed
    We have cloned the Drosophila gene discs degenerate-4 (dd4) and find that it encodes a component of the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC) homologous to Spc98 of budding yeast...
  7. Debec A, Detraves C, Montmory C, Geraud G, Wright M. Polar organization of gamma-tubulin in acentriolar mitotic spindles of Drosophila melanogaster cells. J Cell Sci. 1995;108 ( Pt 7):2645-53 pubmed
    The spindle pole localization of gamma-tubulin was compared in wild type and acentriolar cultured Drosophila cells using polyclonal antibodies specifically raised against the carboxy terminal amino acid sequence of Drosophila gamma-..
  8. Moritz M, Braunfeld M, Fung J, Sedat J, Alberts B, Agard D. Three-dimensional structural characterization of centrosomes from early Drosophila embryos. J Cell Biol. 1995;130:1149-59 pubmed
  9. Castellanos E, Dominguez P, Gonzalez C. Centrosome dysfunction in Drosophila neural stem cells causes tumors that are not due to genome instability. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that such tumors might be caused by impaired asymmetric division of neural stem cells [4]. These results show that centrosome loss, far from being innocuous, is a potentially dangerous condition in flies...

More Information


  1. Rebollo E, Llamazares S, Reina J, Gonzalez C. Contribution of noncentrosomal microtubules to spindle assembly in Drosophila spermatocytes. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E8 pubmed
    ..These observations are consistent with a model in which centrosomal and noncentrosomal microtubules contribute to the assembly and are required for the robustness of the cell division spindle in cells that contain centrosomes. ..
  2. Gonzalez C, Tavosanis G, Mollinari C. Centrosomes and microtubule organisation during Drosophila development. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 18):2697-706 pubmed
    ..In this review we present some of the many examples which illustrate how centrosomes and microtubule organisation changes through development in Drosophila and discuss some of its implications. ..
  3. Cha B, Serbus L, Koppetsch B, Theurkauf W. Kinesin I-dependent cortical exclusion restricts pole plasm to the oocyte posterior. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:592-8 pubmed
  4. Sunkel C, Gomes R, Sampaio P, Perdigao J, Gonzalez C. Gamma-tubulin is required for the structure and function of the microtubule organizing centre in Drosophila neuroblasts. EMBO J. 1995;14:28-36 pubmed
    We report that in Drosophila, gamma-tubulin is required for the structure as well as the function of microtubule organizing centres (MTOCs)...
  5. Ori McKenney K, Jan L, Jan Y. Golgi outposts shape dendrite morphology by functioning as sites of acentrosomal microtubule nucleation in neurons. Neuron. 2012;76:921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This acentrosomal nucleation requires gamma-tubulin and CP309, the Drosophila homolog of AKAP450, and contributes to the complex microtubule organization within the ..
  6. Baker J, Adhikarakunnathu S, Kernan M. Mechanosensory-defective, male-sterile unc mutants identify a novel basal body protein required for ciliogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:3411-22 pubmed
    ..UNC is thus specifically required for normal ciliogenesis. Its localization is an early marker for the centriole-basal body transition, a central but enigmatic event in eukaryotic cell differentiation. ..
  7. Moritz M, Zheng Y, Alberts B, Oegema K. Recruitment of the gamma-tubulin ring complex to Drosophila salt-stripped centrosome scaffolds. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:775-86 pubmed
    ..2 M KI generates salt-resistant scaffolds that lack the centrosomal proteins CP190, CP60, centrosomin, and gamma-tubulin. To clarify the role of these proteins in microtubule nucleation by centrosomes and to identify additional ..
  8. Wakefield J, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. The drosophila protein asp is involved in microtubule organization during spindle formation and cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:637-48 pubmed
    ..both meiotic and mitotic divisions of asp mutants, microtubule nucleation occurs from the centrosome, and gamma-tubulin localizes correctly. However, spindle pole focusing and organization are severely affected...
  9. Bolivar J, Huynh J, Lopez Schier H, Gonzalez C, St Johnston D, González Reyes A. Centrosome migration into the Drosophila oocyte is independent of BicD and egl, and of the organisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Development. 2001;128:1889-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, centrosome migration is independent of the organisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton, and seems to depend instead on the polarity of the fusome. ..
  10. Zhang D, Rogers G, Buster D, Sharp D. Three microtubule severing enzymes contribute to the "Pacman-flux" machinery that moves chromosomes. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:231-42 pubmed
    ..attached microtubule plus ends (Pacman) while being reeled in to spindle poles by the continual poleward flow of tubulin subunits driven by minus-end depolymerization (flux)...
  11. Riparbelli M, Callaini G, Glover D. Failure of pronuclear migration and repeated divisions of polar body nuclei associated with MTOC defects in polo eggs of Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 18):3341-50 pubmed
    ..Migration of the female pronucleus did not take place and so a gonomeric spindle could not form. We discuss these findings in relation to the known roles of polo like kinases in regulating the behaviour of MTOCs. ..
  12. Bucciarelli E, Giansanti M, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. Spindle assembly and cytokinesis in the absence of chromosomes during Drosophila male meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:993-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the association of Aurora B with chromosomes is not a prerequisite for its accumulation at the central spindle, or for its function during cytokinesis. ..
  13. Vaizel Ohayon D, Schejter E. Mutations in centrosomin reveal requirements for centrosomal function during early Drosophila embryogenesis. Curr Biol. 1999;9:889-98 pubmed
    ..Centrosomin is an essential core component of early embryonic centrosomes in Drosophila. Microtubule-dependent events of early embryogenesis display differential requirements for centrosomal function. ..
  14. Wilson P, Borisy G. Maternally expressed gamma Tub37CD in Drosophila is differentially required for female meiosis and embryonic mitosis. Dev Biol. 1998;199:273-90 pubmed
    We report functional analysis of gamma Tub37CD, a maternally synthesized gamma-tubulin that is highly expressed during oogenesis and utilized at centrosomes in precellular embryos...
  15. do Carmo Avides M, Glover D. Abnormal spindle protein, Asp, and the integrity of mitotic centrosomal microtubule organizing centers. Science. 1999;283:1733-5 pubmed
    ..This was corrected by addition of purified Asp protein. Thus, Asp appears to hold together the microtubule-nucleating gamma-tubulin ring complexes that organize the mitotic centrosome.
  16. Kawaguchi S, Zheng Y. Characterization of a Drosophila centrosome protein CP309 that shares homology with Kendrin and CG-NAP. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:37-45 pubmed
    ..this novel Drosophila centrosome protein, centrosome protein of 309 kDa (CP309), cofractionates with the gamma-tubulin ring complex and the centrosome-complementing activity...
  17. Megraw T, Li K, Kao L, Kaufman T. The centrosomin protein is required for centrosome assembly and function during cleavage in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:2829-39 pubmed
    ..poles in the mutants contain little or no detectable amounts of the centrosomal proteins CP60, CP190 and (gamma)-tubulin and late stage embryos often do not have astral microtubules at their spindle poles...
  18. Fu J, Glover D. Structured illumination of the interface between centriole and peri-centriolar material. Open Biol. 2012;2:120104 pubmed publisher
    ..Centrosomin (Cnn) and ?-tubulin associate with this outer tube in G2 cells and, upon mitotic entry, Polo activity is required to recruit them ..
  19. Barbosa V, Gatt M, Rebollo E, Gonzalez C, Glover D. Drosophila dd4 mutants reveal that gammaTuRC is required to maintain juxtaposed half spindles in spermatocytes. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:929-41 pubmed
    The weak spindle integrity checkpoint in Drosophila spermatocytes has revealed a novel function of the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC) in maintaining spindle bipolarity throughout meiosis...
  20. Lajoie Mazenc I, Tollon Y, Detraves C, Julian M, Moisand A, Gueth Hallonet C, et al. Recruitment of antigenic gamma-tubulin during mitosis in animal cells: presence of gamma-tubulin in the mitotic spindle. J Cell Sci. 1994;107 ( Pt 10):2825-37 pubmed
    It has been claimed repeatedly that gamma-tubulin is exclusively localized at the spindle poles in mitotic animal cells, where it plays a role in microtubule nucleation...
  21. Basto R, Lau J, Vinogradova T, Gardiol A, Woods C, Khodjakov A, et al. Flies without centrioles. Cell. 2006;125:1375-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development. ..
  22. Yamashita Y, Mahowald A, Perlin J, Fuller M. Asymmetric inheritance of mother versus daughter centrosome in stem cell division. Science. 2007;315:518-21 pubmed
    ..The mother centrosome remains anchored near the niche while the daughter centrosome migrates to the opposite side of the cell before spindle formation. ..
  23. Lee M, Gergely F, Jeffers K, Peak Chew S, Raff J. Msps/XMAP215 interacts with the centrosomal protein D-TACC to regulate microtubule behaviour. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:643-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that D-TACC and Msps normally cooperate to stabilize centrosomal microtubules by binding to their minus ends and binding to their plus ends as they grow out from the centrosome. ..
  24. Barros T, Kinoshita K, Hyman A, Raff J. Aurora A activates D-TACC-Msps complexes exclusively at centrosomes to stabilize centrosomal microtubules. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:1039-46 pubmed
    ..This may explain why centrosomes are such dominant sites of MT assembly during mitosis. ..
  25. Herrmann S, Amorim I, Sunkel C. The POLO kinase is required at multiple stages during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1998;107:440-51 pubmed
    ..Immunostaining of polo mutant cells with alpha-tubulin shows several abnormalities of the meiotic spindle, including a significantly reduced central spindle...
  26. Raff J, Kellogg D, Alberts B. Drosophila gamma-tubulin is part of a complex containing two previously identified centrosomal MAPs. J Cell Biol. 1993;121:823-35 pubmed
    gamma-tubulin is a minor tubulin that is localized to the microtubule organizing center of many fungi and higher eucaryotic cells (Oakley, B. R., C. E. Oakley, Y. Yoon, and M. C. Jung. 1990. Cell. 61: 1289-1301; Stearns, T., L...
  27. Mottier Pavie V, Megraw T. Drosophila bld10 is a centriolar protein that regulates centriole, basal body, and motile cilium assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that Drosophila Bld10 is required for centriole and axoneme assembly to confer cilium motility. ..
  28. Nguyen M, Stone M, Rolls M. Microtubules are organized independently of the centrosome in Drosophila neurons. Neural Dev. 2011;6:38 pubmed publisher
    ..In developing and mature neurons, centrioles were not surrounded by the core nucleation protein ?-tubulin. This suggests that the centrioles do not organize functional centrosomes in Drosophila neurons in vivo...
  29. Oegema K, Wiese C, Martin O, Milligan R, Iwamatsu A, Mitchison T, et al. Characterization of two related Drosophila gamma-tubulin complexes that differ in their ability to nucleate microtubules. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:721-33 pubmed
    gamma-tubulin exists in two related complexes in Drosophila embryo extracts (Moritz, M., Y. Zheng, B.M. Alberts, and K. Oegema. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 142:1- 12)...
  30. Goshima G, Nedelec F, Vale R. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:229-40 pubmed
    ..From these results and simulations, we propose a model on how two minus end-directed motors cooperate to ensure spindle pole coalescence during mitosis. ..
  31. Berdnik D, Knoblich J. Drosophila Aurora-A is required for centrosome maturation and actin-dependent asymmetric protein localization during mitosis. Curr Biol. 2002;12:640-7 pubmed
    ..aurA(37) mutant cells also fail to recruit Centrosomin (Cnn) and gamma-Tubulin to centrosomes during mitosis, leading to spindle morphology defects...
  32. Bettencourt Dias M, Rodrigues Martins A, Carpenter L, Riparbelli M, Lehmann L, Gatt M, et al. SAK/PLK4 is required for centriole duplication and flagella development. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2199-207 pubmed
    ..Drosophila cells tolerate the lack of centrioles and undertake mitosis but cannot form basal bodies and hence flagella. Human cells depleted of SAK show error-prone mitosis, likely to underlie its tumor-suppressor role. ..
  33. Terada Y, Uetake Y, Kuriyama R. Interaction of Aurora-A and centrosomin at the microtubule-nucleating site in Drosophila and mammalian cells. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:757-63 pubmed
    ..and CNN are mutually dependent for localization at spindle poles, which is required for proper targeting of gamma-tubulin and other centrosomal components to the centrosome...
  34. Carmena M, Riparbelli M, Minestrini G, Tavares A, Adams R, Callaini G, et al. Drosophila polo kinase is required for cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:659-71 pubmed
    ..We discuss these findings in respect to conserved functions for the Polo-like kinases in regulating progression through M phase, including the earliest events of cytokinesis. ..
  35. Colombié N, Verollet C, Sampaio P, Moisand A, Sunkel C, Bourbon H, et al. The Drosophila gamma-tubulin small complex subunit Dgrip84 is required for structural and functional integrity of the spindle apparatus. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:272-82 pubmed
    Gamma-tubulin, a protein critical for microtubule assembly, functions within multiprotein complexes. However, little is known about the respective role of gamma-tubulin partners in metazoans...
  36. Varmark H, Llamazares S, Rebollo E, Lange B, Reina J, Schwarz H, et al. Asterless is a centriolar protein required for centrosome function and embryo development in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1735-45 pubmed
    ..In addition, the phenotype of asl-deficient flies reveals that a functional centrosome is required for Drosophila embryo development. ..
  37. Goshima G, Mayer M, Zhang N, Stuurman N, Vale R. Augmin: a protein complex required for centrosome-independent microtubule generation within the spindle. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:421-9 pubmed publisher
    Since the discovery of gamma-tubulin, attention has focused on its involvement as a microtubule nucleator at the centrosome...
  38. Verollet C, Colombié N, Daubon T, Bourbon H, Wright M, Raynaud Messina B. Drosophila melanogaster gamma-TuRC is dispensable for targeting gamma-tubulin to the centrosome and microtubule nucleation. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:517-28 pubmed
    In metazoans, gamma-tubulin acts within two main complexes, gamma-tubulin small complexes (gamma-TuSCs) and gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRCs)...
  39. Goshima G, Wollman R, Stuurman N, Scholey J, Vale R. Length control of the metaphase spindle. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1979-88 pubmed
  40. Bousbaa H, Correia L, Gorbsky G, Sunkel C. Mitotic phosphoepitopes are expressed in Kc cells, neuroblasts and isolated chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 17):1979-88 pubmed
    ..Incubation of these chromosomes with ATP causes the rephosphorylation of the phosphoepitopes at the centromere. ..
  41. Morales Mulia S, Scholey J. Spindle pole organization in Drosophila S2 cells by dynein, abnormal spindle protein (Asp), and KLP10A. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3176-86 pubmed
    ..These results extend recent findings from Xenopus extracts to Drosophila cultured cells and suggest that common pathways contribute to spindle pole organization and length determination. ..
  42. Blagden S, Glover D. Polar expeditions--provisioning the centrosome for mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:505-11 pubmed
    ..Centrosomes enlarge dramatically after mitotic entry, when both Aurora A and Polo-like kinases cooperate to recruit additional gamma-tubulin ring complexes and microtubule-associated proteins to assist spindle formation.
  43. Gunawardane R, Martin O, Zheng Y. Characterization of a new gammaTuRC subunit with WD repeats. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1017-26 pubmed
    The gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC), consisting of multiple protein subunits, can nucleate microtubule assembly. Although many subunits of the gammaTuRC have been identified, a complete set remains to be defined in any organism...
  44. Bonaccorsi S, Giansanti M, Gatti M. Spindle self-organization and cytokinesis during male meiosis in asterless mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:751-61 pubmed
    ..However, immunostaining with antibodies directed either to gamma tubulin or centrosomin revealed that these proteins do not accumulate in the centrosomes, as occurs in wild-type...
  45. Moritz M, Braunfeld M, Guenebaut V, Heuser J, Agard D. Structure of the gamma-tubulin ring complex: a template for microtubule nucleation. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:365-70 pubmed
    The gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC) is a protein complex of relative molecular mass approximately 2.2 x 10(6) that nucleates microtubules at the centrosome...
  46. Dix C, Raff J. Drosophila Spd-2 recruits PCM to the sperm centriole, but is dispensable for centriole duplication. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1759-64 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the SPD-2 family of proteins might only be absolutely essential for the recruitment of centriole duplication factors and PCM to the centriole(s) that enter the egg with the fertilizing sperm...
  47. Rodrigues Martins A, Riparbelli M, Callaini G, Glover D, Bettencourt Dias M. Revisiting the role of the mother centriole in centriole biogenesis. Science. 2007;316:1046-50 pubmed
    ..The mother centriole is not a bona fide template but a platform for a set of regulatory molecules that catalyzes and regulates daughter centriole assembly...
  48. Riparbelli M, Callaini G. gamma-Tubulin is transiently associated with the Drosophila oocyte meiotic apparatus. Eur J Cell Biol. 1998;75:21-8 pubmed
    ..This center contained gamma-tubulin and CP190 antigens and nucleated a transient array of radial microtubules...
  49. Moutinho Santos T, Sampaio P, Amorim I, Costa M, Sunkel C. In vivo localisation of the mitotic POLO kinase shows a highly dynamic association with the mitotic apparatus during early embryogenesis in Drosophila. Biol Cell. 1999;91:585-96 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the wide distribution of the GFP-POLO protein to all compartments of the mitotic apparatus provides a valuable tool for future studies on cell cycle during development. ..
  50. Sampaio P, Rebollo E, Varmark H, Sunkel C, Gonzalez C. Organized microtubule arrays in gamma-tubulin-depleted Drosophila spermatocytes. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1788-93 pubmed
    ..assembly in vivo, we have followed meiosis progression by immunofluorescence and time-lapse video microscopy in gammaTub23C(PI) mutant spermatocytes...
  51. Afshar K, Stuart B, Wasserman S. Functional analysis of the Drosophila diaphanous FH protein in early embryonic development. Development. 2000;127:1887-97 pubmed
    ..Based on known biochemical functions of FH proteins, we propose that Diaphanous serves as a mediator between signaling molecules and actin organizers at specific phases of the cell cycle. ..
  52. Megraw T, Kao L, Kaufman T. Zygotic development without functional mitotic centrosomes. Curr Biol. 2001;11:116-20 pubmed
    ..These results challenge long-held assumptions that the centrosome and the astral microtubules emanating from it are essential for development and are required specifically for spindle orientation during asymmetric cell divisions. ..
  53. Januschke J, Gervais L, Gillet L, Keryer G, Bornens M, Guichet A. The centrosome-nucleus complex and microtubule organization in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2006;133:129-39 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, the centrosomal components, gamma-tubulin and Drosophila pericentrin-like protein also strongly accumulate at the periphery of this nucleus...
  54. Peel N, Stevens N, Basto R, Raff J. Overexpressing centriole-replication proteins in vivo induces centriole overduplication and de novo formation. Curr Biol. 2007;17:834-43 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigate the effects of overexpressing the three proteins known to be required for centriole replication in Drosophila-DSas-6, DSas-4, and Sak...
  55. Gunawardane R, Martin O, Cao K, Zhang L, Dej K, Iwamatsu A, et al. Characterization and reconstitution of Drosophila gamma-tubulin ring complex subunits. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:1513-24 pubmed
    The gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC) is important for microtubule nucleation from the centrosome...
  56. Jeng R, Stearns T. Gamma-tubulin complexes: size does matter. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:339-42 pubmed
    gamma-Tubulin is a conserved component of all microtubule-organizing centres and is required for these organelles to nucleate microtubule polymerization. However, the mechanism of nucleation is not known...
  57. Li K, Kaufman T. The homeotic target gene centrosomin encodes an essential centrosomal component. Cell. 1996;85:585-96 pubmed
    ..We propose that cnn provides an example of homeotic genes directly regulating the accumulation of essential cellular proteins to carry out segment-specific morphogenetic functions. ..
  58. Zheng Y, Jung M, Oakley B. Gamma-tubulin is present in Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens and is associated with the centrosome. Cell. 1991;65:817-23 pubmed
    The mipA gene of A. nidulans encodes a newly discovered member of the tubulin superfamily of proteins, gamma-tubulin. In A...
  59. Rogers G, Rusan N, Peifer M, Rogers S. A multicomponent assembly pathway contributes to the formation of acentrosomal microtubule arrays in interphase Drosophila cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3163-78 pubmed publisher
    ..However, gamma-tubulin RNAi delays microtubule regrowth after depolymerization, suggesting that it may function partially redundantly ..
  60. Wiese C. Distinct Dgrip84 isoforms correlate with distinct gamma-tubulins in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:368-77 pubmed
    ..The second gamma-tubulin isotype (gammaTub23C) is ubiquitously expressed and persists in most of the cells of the adult fly...
  61. Raynaud Messina B, Debec A, Tollon Y, Gares M, Wright M. Differential properties of the two Drosophila gamma-tubulin isotypes. Eur J Cell Biol. 2001;80:643-9 pubmed
    ..The two gamma-tubulins exhibit distinct biochemical properties. Gamma-tub23C is present in the soluble gamma-tubulin small complexes (10S) and gamma-tubulin big complexes (35S) and is loosely associated to the cytoskeleton...
  62. Callaini G, Whitfield W, Riparbelli M. Centriole and centrosome dynamics during the embryonic cell cycles that follow the formation of the cellular blastoderm in Drosophila. Exp Cell Res. 1997;234:183-90 pubmed
    ..The centrosomal material, as recognized by antibodies against CP190 and gamma-tubulin, does not show the typical shape changes observed in syncytial embryos, but remains compact throughout mitosis...
  63. Raynaud Messina B, Mazzolini L, Moisand A, Cirinesi A, Wright M. Elongation of centriolar microtubule triplets contributes to the formation of the mitotic spindle in gamma-tubulin-depleted cells. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5497-507 pubmed
    The assembly of the mitotic spindle after depletion of the major gamma-tubulin isotype by RNA-mediated interference was assessed in the Drosophila S2 cell line...
  64. Giansanti M, Bucciarelli E, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. Drosophila SPD-2 is an essential centriole component required for PCM recruitment and astral-microtubule nucleation. Curr Biol. 2008;18:303-9 pubmed publisher the centrosome requires the wild-type activity of Asl but is independent of the function of D-PLP, Cnn, gamma-tubulin, DGrip91, and D-TACC...
  65. Bonaccorsi S, Giansanti M, Gatti M. Spindle assembly in Drosophila neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:54-6 pubmed
  66. Tavosanis G, Llamazares S, Goulielmos G, Gonzalez C. Essential role for gamma-tubulin in the acentriolar female meiotic spindle of Drosophila. EMBO J. 1997;16:1809-19 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster there are two gamma-tubulin genes, gammaTUB23C and gammaTUB37C. Here we report the cytological and molecular characterization of the 37C isoform...