Gene Symbol: Galphas
Description: G protein alpha s subunit
Alias: CG2835, DGs, DGsalpha, Dmel\CG2835, G-5alpha, G-alpha-60A, G-salpha 60A, G-salpha60A, GNAS/L, GSalpha, G[[S]]alpha, G[[alphas]], G[[s]]-alpha-60A, G[[s]]alpha, Gaalpha, Galpha60A, GalphaS, Galpha[[s]], Galpha[[s]]60A, Galphas60A, Gs-alpha, Gs-alpha60A, Gsalpha, Gsalpha60A, dG[[alphas]], dgs, dgsalpha, galphas, G protein alpha s subunit, CG2835-PA, CG2835-PB, CG2835-PC, CG2835-PD, CG2835-PE, G protein salpha 60A, G-alpha s, Galphas-PA, Galphas-PB, Galphas-PC, Galphas-PD, Galphas-PE, stimulatory alpha subunit of G protein
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Yao C, Carlson J. Role of G-proteins in odor-sensing and CO2-sensing neurons in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4562-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Ggamma30A is also required for normal CO2 response. The simplest interpretation of these results is that Galpha(q) and Ggamma30A play a role in the response of CO2-sensing neurons, but are not required for Or-mediated odor signaling. ..
  2. Wolfgang W, Clay C, Parker J, Delgado R, Labarca P, Kidokoro Y, et al. Signaling through Gs alpha is required for the growth and function of neuromuscular synapses in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2004;268:295-311 pubmed
    ..In larvae containing a hypomorphic mutation in the dgs gene encoding the Drosophila Gs alpha protein, there is a significant decrease in the number of synaptic boutons and extent of synaptic arborization, ..
  3. Boto T, Gomez Diaz C, Alcorta E. Expression analysis of the 3 G-protein subunits, Galpha, Gbeta, and Ggamma, in the olfactory receptor organs of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Chem Senses. 2010;35:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, complete coexpression was found between Gi and Gq, which are mediators of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate and IP3 transduction cascades, respectively. ..
  4. Wolfgang W, Quan F, Goldsmith P, Unson C, Spiegel A, Forte M. Immunolocalization of G protein alpha-subunits in the Drosophila CNS. J Neurosci. 1990;10:1014-24 pubmed
    ..of membranes prepared from Drosophila heads indicates that antibodies specific for the Drosophila Go alpha and Gs alpha homologs recognize the appropriate protein species predicted by molecular cloning (Quan et al...
  5. Connolly J, Roberts I, Armstrong J, Kaiser K, Forte M, Tully T, et al. Associative learning disrupted by impaired Gs signaling in Drosophila mushroom bodies. Science. 1996;274:2104-7 pubmed
    ..of a constitutively activated stimulatory heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein alpha subunit (Galphas*) was targeted to these brain structures...
  6. Dubnau J, Tully T. Gene discovery in Drosophila: new insights for learning and memory. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1998;21:407-44 pubmed
    ..Second, because core cellular mechanisms of simple forms of learning are evolutionarily conserved, biological pathways discovered in invertebrates are likely to be conserved in vertebrate systems as well. ..
  7. Renden R, Broadie K. Mutation and activation of Galpha s similarly alters pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms modulating neurotransmission. J Neurophysiol. 2003;89:2620-38 pubmed
    Constitutive activation of Galphas in the Drosophila brain abolishes associative learning, a behavioral disruption far worse than that observed in any single cAMP metabolic mutant, suggesting that Galphas is essential for synaptic ..
  8. Wolfgang W, Hoskote A, Roberts I, Jackson S, Forte M. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene. Genetics. 2001;158:1189-201 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the identification of "loss-of-function" mutations in the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene (dgs)...
  9. Chen X, Ganetzky B. A neuropeptide signaling pathway regulates synaptic growth in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:529-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, because the cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway is required for structural synaptic plasticity in learning and memory, DSK/CCKLR signaling may also contribute to these mechanisms. ..

More Information


  1. Kimura K, Kodama A, Hayasaka Y, Ohta T. Activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for post-ecdysial cell death in wing epidermal cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2004;131:1597-606 pubmed
    ..Thus, activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for transduction of the hormonal signal that induces wing epidermal cell death after eclosion. ..
  2. Wolfgang W, Roberts I, Quan F, O Kane C, Forte M. Activation of protein kinase A-independent pathways by Gs alpha in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:14542-7 pubmed
    ..that reduction or elimination of protein kinase A activity had no effect on phenotypes generated by activation of Gs alpha pathways in Drosophila wing epithelial cells...
  3. Dahdal D, Reeves D, Ruben M, Akabas M, Blau J. Drosophila pacemaker neurons require g protein signaling and GABAergic inputs to generate twenty-four hour behavioral rhythms. Neuron. 2010;68:964-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Although no clock neurons produce GABA, hyperexciting GABAergic neurons disrupts behavioral rhythms and s-LN(v) molecular clocks. Therefore, s-LN(v)s require GABAergic inputs for 24 hr rhythms. ..
  4. Ueno K, Kidokoro Y. Adenylyl cyclase encoded by AC78C participates in sugar perception in Drosophila melanogaster. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1956-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we have shown that the responses to various sugars are depressed in DGsalpha mutant flies (Ueno et al., 2006)...
  5. Ueno K, Kohatsu S, Clay C, Forte M, Isono K, Kidokoro Y. Gsalpha is involved in sugar perception in Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6143-52 pubmed
    ..Second, trehalose-intake is reduced in flies heterozygous for null mutations in DGsalpha, a homolog of mammalian Gs, and trehalose-induced electrical activities in sugar-sensitive GRNs were depressed in ..
  6. Cheng S, Maier D, Hipfner D. Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 regulates cAMP-dependent Hedgehog signaling. Development. 2012;139:85-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Gprk2 is important for normal cAMP regulation, and thus has an indirect effect on the activity of Pka-regulated components of the Hh pathway, including Smo itself. ..
  7. Waddell S, Quinn W. What can we teach Drosophila? What can they teach us?. Trends Genet. 2001;17:719-26 pubmed
  8. Quan F, Thomas L, Forte M. Drosophila stimulatory G protein alpha subunit activates mammalian adenylyl cyclase but interacts poorly with mammalian receptors: implications for receptor-G protein interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:1898-902 pubmed
    ..we have used vaccinia virus vectors to express both proteins in cyc- cells, a murine S49 cell line deficient for Gs alpha activity...
  9. Heisenberg M. Genetic approaches to neuroethology. Bioessays. 1997;19:1065-73 pubmed
    ..The 'graininess' of a functional model of the brain, therefore, is defined by the independent regulatory units of the genes rather than by the genes themselves. ..
  10. Horgan A, Lagrange M, Copenhaver P. A developmental role for the heterotrimeric G protein Go alpha in a migratory population of embryonic neurons. Dev Biol. 1995;172:640-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Go(alpha)-coupled signaling events within the EP cells may down-regulate their migratory behavior, possibly in response to inhibitory cues that normally guide migration in the developing embryo. ..
  11. Duvall L, Taghert P. The circadian neuropeptide PDF signals preferentially through a specific adenylate cyclase isoform AC3 in M pacemakers of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001337 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a hypothesis that PDF signaling components within target cells are sequestered into "circadian signalosomes," whose compositions differ between E and M pacemaker cell types. ..
  12. Dubnau J, Chiang A, Tully T. Neural substrates of memory: from synapse to system. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:238-53 pubmed
    ..Our objective here is to offer a conceptually unifying perspective and to discuss this perspective in relation to an experiment analysis of memory in Drosophila. ..
  13. Aravamudan B, Broadie K. Synaptic Drosophila UNC-13 is regulated by antagonistic G-protein pathways via a proteasome-dependent degradation mechanism. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:417-38 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the abundance of DUNC-13 in NMJ synaptic boutons is regulated downstream of GalphaS and Galphaq pathways, which have inhibitory and facilitatory roles, respectively...
  14. Krishnan A, Mustafa A, Almén M, Fredriksson R, Williams M, Schiöth H. Evolutionary hierarchy of vertebrate-like heterotrimeric G protein families. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2015;91:27-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our robust classification/hierarchy is essential to further understand the differential roles of GPCR/G protein mediated intracellular signaling system across various metazoan lineages. ..
  15. Katanayeva N, Kopein D, Portmann R, Hess D, Katanaev V. Competing activities of heterotrimeric G proteins in Drosophila wing maturation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12331 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila genome encodes six alpha-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. The Galphas alpha-subunit is involved in the post-eclosion wing maturation, which consists of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell death, accompanied by ..
  16. Guo F, Yi W, Zhou M, Guo A. Go signaling in mushroom bodies regulates sleep in Drosophila. Sleep. 2011;34:273-81 pubmed
    ..Genetic interaction results showed that Go signaling serves as a neuronal transmission inhibitor in a cAMP-independent pathway. Go signaling is a novel signaling pathway in MBs that regulates sleep in Drosophila. ..
  17. Pavot P, Carbognin E, Martin J. PKA and cAMP/CNG Channels Independently Regulate the Cholinergic Ca(2+)-Response of Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons(1,2,3). Eneuro. 2015;2: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide insights into the complex Ca(2+)-response in the MBs, leading to the conclusion that cAMP modulates the Ca(2+)-responses through both PKA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, the latter through CNG-channels. ..
  18. Guichard A, Cruz Moreno B, Cruz Moreno B, Aguilar B, van Sorge N, Kuang J, et al. Cholera toxin disrupts barrier function by inhibiting exocyst-mediated trafficking of host proteins to intestinal cell junctions. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:294-305 pubmed publisher
    ..cholerae infection, all of which can be rescued by Rab11 overexpression. These barrier-disrupting effects of CtxA may act in parallel with Cl(-) secretion to drive the pathophysiology of cholera. ..
  19. Heisenberg M. Mushroom body memoir: from maps to models. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003;4:266-75 pubmed
  20. Bredendiek N, Hütte J, Steingräber A, Hatt H, Gisselmann G, Neuhaus E. Go ? is involved in sugar perception in Drosophila. Chem Senses. 2011;36:69-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the perception of other sweet stimuli was not affected by mutations in Go?, we also found strong indication for the existence of multiple signaling pathways in the insect gustatory system. ..
  21. Zhang Y, Emery P. GW182 controls Drosophila circadian behavior and PDF-receptor signaling. Neuron. 2013;78:152-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that GW182's gene silencing activity functions as a rheostat for PDFR signaling and thus profoundly impacts the circadian neural network and its response to environmental inputs. ..
  22. Wolfgang W, Quan F, Thambi N, Forte M. Restricted spatial and temporal expression of G-protein alpha subunits during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1991;113:527-38 pubmed
  23. Bendena W, Campbell J, Zara L, Tobe S, Chin Sang I. Select Neuropeptides and their G-Protein Coupled Receptors in Caenorhabditis Elegans and Drosophila Melanogaster. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2012;3:93 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster and C. elegans and the behaviors that have been uncovered through genetic manipulation. ..
  24. Naganos S, Ueno K, Horiuchi J, Saitoe M. Learning defects in Drosophila growth restricted chico mutants are caused by attenuated adenylyl cyclase activity. Mol Brain. 2016;9:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that some cognitive defects associated with reduced IIS may occur, independently of developmental defects, from acute reductions in cAMP signaling. ..
  25. Ogden S, Fei D, Schilling N, Ahmed Y, Hwa J, Robbins D. G protein Galphai functions immediately downstream of Smoothened in Hedgehog signalling. Nature. 2008;456:967-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Smo functions as a canonical GPCR, which signals through Galphai to regulate Hh pathway activation. ..
  26. Burke T, Kadonaga J. Drosophila TFIID binds to a conserved downstream basal promoter element that is present in many TATA-box-deficient promoters. Genes Dev. 1996;10:711-24 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the DPE acts in conjunction with the initiation site sequence to provide a binding site for TFIID in the absence of a TATA box to mediate transcription of TATA-less promoters. ..
  27. Belvin M, Yin J. Drosophila learning and memory: recent progress and new approaches. Bioessays. 1997;19:1083-9 pubmed
  28. Xia S, Tully T. Segregation of odor identity and intensity during odor discrimination in Drosophila mushroom body. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e264 pubmed
    ..experience-dependent modification (conditioning) of both odor identity and intensity occurs in MB exclusively via Galphas-mediated signaling...
  29. Nichols A, Floyd D, Bruinsma S, Narzinski K, Baranski T. Frizzled receptors signal through G proteins. Cell Signal. 2013;25:1468-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data point to an important role for Frizzled as a nontraditional GPCR that preferentially couples to G?s heterotrimeric G proteins. ..
  30. Choi C, Cao G, Tanenhaus A, McCarthy E, Jung M, Schleyer W, et al. Autoreceptor control of peptide/neurotransmitter corelease from PDF neurons determines allocation of circadian activity in drosophila. Cell Rep. 2012;2:332-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest another mechanism for environmental control of the allocation of circadian activity and provide new general insight into the role of neuropeptide autoreceptors in behavioral control circuits. ..
  31. Dolezelova E, Nothacker H, Civelli O, Bryant P, Zurovec M. A Drosophila adenosine receptor activates cAMP and calcium signaling. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:318-29 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that AdoR is an essential part of the adenosine signaling pathway and Drosophila offers a unique opportunity to use genetic analysis to study conserved aspects of the adenosine signaling pathway. ..
  32. Vecsey C, P rez N, Griffith L. The Drosophila neuropeptides PDF and sNPF have opposing electrophysiological and molecular effects on central neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2014;111:1033-45 pubmed publisher
  33. Im S, Takle K, Jo J, Babcock D, Ma Z, Xiang Y, et al. Tachykinin acts upstream of autocrine Hedgehog signaling during nociceptive sensitization in Drosophila. elife. 2015;4:e10735 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight a conserved role for Tachykinin signaling in regulating nociception and the power of Drosophila for genetic dissection of nociception. ..
  34. Quan F, Forte M. Two forms of Drosophila melanogaster Gs alpha are produced by alternate splicing involving an unusual splice site. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:910-7 pubmed
    ..The exon-intron structure of the Drosophila gene shows substantial similarity to that of the human gene for Gs alpha. Alternate splicing of intron 7, involving either use of an unusual TG or consensus AG 3' splice site, results in ..
  35. Seugnet L, Suzuki Y, Vine L, Gottschalk L, Shaw P. D1 receptor activation in the mushroom bodies rescues sleep-loss-induced learning impairments in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the underlying molecular mechanisms triggered by extended waking and restored by sleep are unknown. Moreover, the neuronal circuits that depend on sleep for optimal learning remain unidentified...
  36. Shafer O, Yao Z. Pigment-Dispersing Factor Signaling and Circadian Rhythms in Insect Locomotor Activity. Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2014;1:73-80 pubmed
  37. Moon S, Cho B, Min S, Lee D, Chung Y. The THO complex is required for nucleolar integrity in Drosophila spermatocytes. Development. 2011;138:3835-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study suggests that the Drosophila THO complex is necessary for proper spermatogenesis by contribution to the establishment or maintenance of nucleolar integrity rather than by nuclear mRNA export in spermatocytes...
  38. Deng Y, Zhang W, Farhat K, Oberland S, Gisselmann G, Neuhaus E. The stimulatory G?(s) protein is involved in olfactory signal transduction in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18605 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, we provide evidence that G?(s) plays a role in the OR mediated signaling cascade in Drosophila. ..
  39. Mistry H, Wilson B, Roberts I, O Kane C, Skeath J. Cullin-3 regulates pattern formation, external sensory organ development and cell survival during Drosophila development. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1495-507 pubmed
    ..The diverse nature of Cullin-3 phenotypes highlights the importance of targeted proteolysis during Drosophila development. ..
  40. Chyb S, Hevers W, Forte M, Wolfgang W, Selinger Z, Hardie R. Modulation of the light response by cAMP in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 1999;19:8799-807 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the existence of a G-protein-coupled adenylyl cyclase pathway in Drosophila photoreceptors, which modulates the phospholipase C-based phototransduction cascade. ..
  41. Davis T, Lineruth K. The characterization of a P-element insert into the Gs alpha G protein gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Soc Trans. 1994;22:134S pubmed
  42. Quan F, Wolfgang W, Forte M. The Drosophila gene coding for the alpha subunit of a stimulatory G protein is preferentially expressed in the nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:4321-5 pubmed
    In mammals, the alpha subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Gs alpha) functions to couple a variety of extracellular membrane receptors to adenylate cyclase...
  43. Li H, Chaney S, Roberts I, Forte M, Hirsh J. Ectopic G-protein expression in dopamine and serotonin neurons blocks cocaine sensitization in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2000;10:211-4 pubmed
    ..Finally, repeated drug stimulation of a nerve cord preparation that is postsynaptic to the brain amine cells failed to induce sensitization, further showing the importance of presynaptic modulation in sensitization. ..
  44. Hong S, Lee K, Kwak S, Kim A, Bai H, Jung M, et al. Minibrain/Dyrk1a regulates food intake through the Sir2-FOXO-sNPF/NPY pathway in Drosophila and mammals. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002857 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that Mnb/Dyrk1a regulates food intake through the evolutionary conserved Sir2-FOXO-sNPF/NPY pathway in Drosophila melanogaster and mammals...
  45. Hou D, Suzuki K, Wolfgang W, Clay C, Forte M, Kidokoro Y. Presynaptic impairment of synaptic transmission in Drosophila embryos lacking Gs(alpha). J Neurosci. 2003;23:5897-905 pubmed
  46. Tully T, Bolwig G, Christensen J, Connolly J, Delvecchio M, DeZazzo J, et al. A return to genetic dissection of memory in Drosophila. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1996;61:207-18 pubmed
  47. Cong F, Schweizer L, Varmus H. Wnt signals across the plasma membrane to activate the beta-catenin pathway by forming oligomers containing its receptors, Frizzled and LRP. Development. 2004;131:5103-15 pubmed
    ..In addition, the beta-catenin signaling mediated by ectopic expression of LRP is not dependent on Disheveled or Wnt, but can also be augmented by oligomerization of LRP receptors. ..
  48. Liu G, Seiler H, Wen A, Zars T, Ito K, Wolf R, et al. Distinct memory traces for two visual features in the Drosophila brain. Nature. 2006;439:551-6 pubmed
    ..These can be localized to two groups of neurons extending branches as parallel, horizontal strata in the fan-shaped body. The central location of this memory store is well suited to mediate translational invariance. ..
  49. Hannan F, Ho I, Tong J, Zhu Y, Nurnberg P, Zhong Y. Effect of neurofibromatosis type I mutations on a novel pathway for adenylyl cyclase activation requiring neurofibromin and Ras. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1087-98 pubmed
    ..Further, we demonstrate that sequences in the C-terminal region of hNF1 are sufficient for NF1/Galpha(s)-dependent neurotransmitter stimulated AC activity, and for rescue of body size defects in Nf1 mutant flies. ..
  50. Blow N, Salomon R, GARRITY K, Reveillaud I, Kopin A, Jackson F, et al. Vibrio cholerae infection of Drosophila melanogaster mimics the human disease cholera. PLoS Pathog. 2005;1:e8 pubmed
    ..toxin and is preceded by rapid weight loss; (ii) flies harboring mutant alleles of either adenylyl cyclase, Gsalpha, or the Gardos K channel homolog SK are resistant to V...