Gene Symbol: Galphao
Description: G protein alpha o subunit
Alias: Bkh, CG2204, DG[[o]], DGalpha0, DGalpha[[o]], DROGPAD, Dmel\CG2204, G(o)alpha47A, G-alpha-47A, G-oalpha, G-oalpha47A, G-oalpha47a, G[[o]]alpha, G[[oalpha]], Galpha47A, Galpha[[047A]], Galpha[[0]], Galpha[[o]], Galpha[[o]]47A, Galphai/o, Galphao47A, Go-alpha, Goa, Goalpha, Goalpha47a, alpha(o), bkh, dgo, dgoalpha, drogpad, goalpha, like GNAO, G protein alpha o subunit, CG2204-PA, CG2204-PB, CG2204-PC, CG2204-PD, CG2204-PE, CG2204-PF, CG2204-PG, CG2204-PH, CG2204-PI, CG2204-PJ, G protein o alpha 47A, G protein oalpha 47A, Galphao-PA, Galphao-PB, Galphao-PC, Galphao-PD, Galphao-PE, Galphao-PF, Galphao-PG, Galphao-PH, Galphao-PI, Galphao-PJ, brokenheart, brokenhearted, drogpad
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Thambi N, Quan F, Wolfgang W, Spiegel A, Forte M. Immunological and molecular characterization of Go alpha-like proteins in the Drosophila central nervous system. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:18552-60 pubmed
    ..In the nervous system of vertebrates, high levels of a specific class of G protein (Go alpha) are expressed. The alpha subunit of Go serves as a substrate for modification by pertussis toxin (PTX)...
  2. Katanaev V, Ponzielli R, Semeriva M, Tomlinson A. Trimeric G protein-dependent frizzled signaling in Drosophila. Cell. 2005;120:111-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, Go is likely part of a trimeric G protein complex that directly transduces Fz signals from the membrane to downstream components. ..
  3. Ferris J, Ge H, Liu L, Roman G. G(o) signaling is required for Drosophila associative learning. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:1036-40 pubmed
    ..PTX expression also does not interact genetically with a rutabaga adenylyl cyclase loss-of-function mutation. Thus, G(o) defines a new signaling pathway required in mushroom body neurons for the formation of associative memory. ..
  4. Yoshiura S, Ohta N, Matsuzaki F. Tre1 GPCR signaling orients stem cell divisions in the Drosophila central nervous system. Dev Cell. 2012;22:79-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the universal role of the Par complex in cellular polarization, we propose that the GPCR-Pins system is a comprehensive mechanism controlling tissue polarity by orienting polarized stem cells and their divisions. ..
  5. Schwabe T, Bainton R, Fetter R, Heberlein U, Gaul U. GPCR signaling is required for blood-brain barrier formation in drosophila. Cell. 2005;123:133-44 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates the importance of morphogenetic regulation in blood-brain barrier development and places GPCR signaling at its core. ..
  6. Katanayeva N, Kopein D, Portmann R, Hess D, Katanaev V. Competing activities of heterotrimeric G proteins in Drosophila wing maturation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12331 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that another alpha-subunit Galphao can specifically antagonize the Galphas activities by competing for the Gbeta13F/Ggamma1 subunits of the ..
  7. Yoon J, Shortridge R, Bloomquist B, Schneuwly S, Perdew M, Pak W. Molecular characterization of Drosophila gene encoding G0 alpha subunit homolog. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:18536-43 pubmed
    ..The deduced amino acid sequences of the two proteins are 81% identical to that of a rat Go alpha subunit...
  8. de Sousa S, Hoveland L, Yarfitz S, Hurley J. The Drosophila Go alpha-like G protein gene produces multiple transcripts and is expressed in the nervous system and in ovaries. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:18544-51 pubmed
    ..Transcripts corresponding to both cDNAs are present in the central nervous system, but only one of them is found in detectable levels in the ovaries. The gene maps to 47A on the Drosophila second chromosome. ..
  9. Wolfgang W, Quan F, Thambi N, Forte M. Restricted spatial and temporal expression of G-protein alpha subunits during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1991;113:527-38 pubmed

More Information


  1. Hampoelz B, Hoeller O, Bowman S, Dunican D, Knoblich J. Drosophila Ric-8 is essential for plasma-membrane localization of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:1099-105 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate a model in which both receptor-dependent and receptor-independent G-protein functions are executed at the plasma membrane and require the Ric-8 protein. ..
  2. Kopein D, Katanaev V. Drosophila GoLoco-protein Pins is a target of Galpha(o)-mediated G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3865-77 pubmed publisher
    ..g., in the context of the nervous system development, where Galpha(o) acts downstream from Frizzled and redundantly with Galpha(i) to control the asymmetry of cell divisions. ..
  3. Bredendiek N, Hütte J, Steingräber A, Hatt H, Gisselmann G, Neuhaus E. Go ? is involved in sugar perception in Drosophila. Chem Senses. 2011;36:69-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the perception of other sweet stimuli was not affected by mutations in Go?, we also found strong indication for the existence of multiple signaling pathways in the insect gustatory system. ..
  4. Lee Y, Dobbs M, Verardi M, Hyde D. dgq: a drosophila gene encoding a visual system-specific G alpha molecule. Neuron. 1990;5:889-98 pubmed
    ..Tissue in situ hybridization detects dgq expression only in the retina and ocellus of the adult head, making it a prime candidate for encoding the Drosophila transducin analog, the G protein required for phototransduction. ..
  5. Koon A, Budnik V. Inhibitory control of synaptic and behavioral plasticity by octopaminergic signaling. J Neurosci. 2012;32:6312-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the dual action of octopamine on synaptic growth and behavioral plasticity, and highlight the important role of inhibitory influences for normal responses to physiological stimuli. ..
  6. Frémion F, Astier M, Zaffran S, Guillèn A, Homburger V, Sémériva M. The heterotrimeric protein Go is required for the formation of heart epithelium in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:1063-76 pubmed
    ..heart does not form properly and interruptions in the heart epithelium are repeatedly observed, henceforth the brokenheart (bkh) name...
  7. Egger Adam D, Katanaev V. The trimeric G protein Go inflicts a double impact on axin in the Wnt/frizzled signaling pathway. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:168-83 pubmed publisher
    ..G alpha o physically binds Axin and re-localizes it to the plasma membrane...
  8. Schmidt C, Garen Fazio S, Chow Y, Neer E. Neuronal expression of a newly identified Drosophila melanogaster G protein alpha 0 subunit. Cell Regul. 1989;1:125-34 pubmed
    ..DG alpha 0 message and protein were also detected in the antennae, oocytes, and ovarian nurse cells. The neuronal expression of this gene is similar to mammalian alpha 0, which is most abundantly expressed in the brain. ..
  9. Boto T, Gomez Diaz C, Alcorta E. Expression analysis of the 3 G-protein subunits, Galpha, Gbeta, and Ggamma, in the olfactory receptor organs of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Chem Senses. 2010;35:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, complete coexpression was found between Gi and Gq, which are mediators of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate and IP3 transduction cascades, respectively. ..
  10. Schaefer M, Petronczki M, Dorner D, Forte M, Knoblich J. Heterotrimeric G proteins direct two modes of asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila nervous system. Cell. 2001;107:183-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, asymmetric activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by a receptor-independent mechanism may orient asymmetric cell divisions in different cell types. ..
  11. Lin C, Katanaev V. Kermit interacts with G?o, Vang, and motor proteins in Drosophila planar cell polarity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76885 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results place Kermit as a potential transducer of Go, linking Vang with motor proteins for its delivery to dedicated cellular compartments during PCP establishment. ..
  12. Katanaev V, Tomlinson A. Dual roles for the trimeric G protein Go in asymmetric cell division in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6524-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, Go likely integrates the signaling that directs the formation of the complex with the signaling that directs where the complex forms. ..
  13. Chatterjee A, Roman G, Hardin P. Go contributes to olfactory reception in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Physiol. 2009;9:22 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the heterotrimeric Goalpha subunit is expressed in Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons, we reasoned that Go acts together with insect ..
  14. Djiane A, Mlodzik M. The Drosophila GIPC homologue can modulate myosin based processes and planar cell polarity but is not essential for development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11228 pubmed publisher
  15. Lin C, Koval A, Tishchenko S, Gabdulkhakov A, Tin U, Solis G, et al. Double suppression of the G? protein activity by RGS proteins. Mol Cell. 2014;53:663-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies identify Dhit and its homologs as double-action regulators, inhibiting G?o/i proteins both through suppression of their activation and acceleration of their inactivation through the single RGS domain. ..
  16. Guillen A, Jallon J, Fehrentz J, Pantaloni C, Bockaert J, Homburger V. A Go-like protein in Drosophila melanogaster and its expression in memory mutants. EMBO J. 1990;9:1449-55 pubmed part to an increase in the alpha subunit of the Go-like protein, as revealed by immunoblotting with anti-Go alpha polyclonal antibody...
  17. Purvanov V, Koval A, Katanaev V. A direct and functional interaction between Go and Rab5 during G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra65 pubmed publisher
    ..The interplay between heterotrimeric G proteins and Rab GTPases controlled receptor internalization, revealing a previously uncharacterized regulatory mechanism in GPCR signaling. ..
  18. Yao C, Carlson J. Role of G-proteins in odor-sensing and CO2-sensing neurons in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4562-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Ggamma30A is also required for normal CO2 response. The simplest interpretation of these results is that Galpha(q) and Ggamma30A play a role in the response of CO2-sensing neurons, but are not required for Or-mediated odor signaling. ..
  19. Wolfgang W, Quan F, Goldsmith P, Unson C, Spiegel A, Forte M. Immunolocalization of G protein alpha-subunits in the Drosophila CNS. J Neurosci. 1990;10:1014-24 pubmed
    ..blot analysis of membranes prepared from Drosophila heads indicates that antibodies specific for the Drosophila Go alpha and Gs alpha homologs recognize the appropriate protein species predicted by molecular cloning (Quan et al...
  20. Deng Y, Zhang W, Farhat K, Oberland S, Gisselmann G, Neuhaus E. The stimulatory G?(s) protein is involved in olfactory signal transduction in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18605 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, we provide evidence that G?(s) plays a role in the OR mediated signaling cascade in Drosophila. ..
  21. Guillen A, Semeriva M, Bockaert J, Homburger V. The transduction signalling protein Go during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Signal. 1991;3:341-52 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila Go alpha protein was present at all stages of embryonic development; however, its expression markedly increased after 10 h ..
  22. Tishchenko S, Gabdulkhakov A, Tin U, Kostareva O, Lin C, Katanaev V. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Drosophila melanogaster G?o-subunit of heterotrimeric G protein in complex with the RGS domain of CG5036. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2013;69:61-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Diffraction data were collected to 2.0?Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. ..
  23. David N, Martin C, Segalen M, Rosenfeld F, Schweisguth F, Bellaiche Y. Drosophila Ric-8 regulates Galphai cortical localization to promote Galphai-dependent planar orientation of the mitotic spindle during asymmetric cell division. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:1083-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, Frizzled and heterotrimeric G-protein signalling act in opposition to ensure that the spindle aligns both in the plane of the epithelium and along the tissue polarity axis. ..
  24. Schaefer M, Shevchenko A, Knoblich J. A protein complex containing Inscuteable and the Galpha-binding protein Pins orients asymmetric cell divisions in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2000;10:353-62 pubmed
  25. Krishnan A, Mustafa A, Almén M, Fredriksson R, Williams M, Schiöth H. Evolutionary hierarchy of vertebrate-like heterotrimeric G protein families. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2015;91:27-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our robust classification/hierarchy is essential to further understand the differential roles of GPCR/G protein mediated intracellular signaling system across various metazoan lineages. ..
  26. Zaffran S, Reim I, Qian L, Lo P, Bodmer R, Frasch M. Cardioblast-intrinsic Tinman activity controls proper diversification and differentiation of myocardial cells in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4073-83 pubmed
  27. Zaffran S, Astier M, Gratecos D, Guillen A, Semeriva M. Cellular interactions during heart morphogenesis in the Drosophila embryo. Biol Cell. 1995;84:13-24 pubmed
    ..Indeed, mutants in the Go alpha gene are affected in the formation of the cardiac endothelium; and iii) the last step consists of the migration ..
  28. Guo F, Yi W, Zhou M, Guo A. Go signaling in mushroom bodies regulates sleep in Drosophila. Sleep. 2011;34:273-81 pubmed
    ..Genetic interaction results showed that Go signaling serves as a neuronal transmission inhibitor in a cAMP-independent pathway. Go signaling is a novel signaling pathway in MBs that regulates sleep in Drosophila. ..
  29. Huang Y, Genova G, Roberts M, Jackson F. The LARK RNA-binding protein selectively regulates the circadian eclosion rhythm by controlling E74 protein expression. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1107 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a model wherein LARK mediates the transfer of temporal information from the molecular oscillator to different output pathways by interacting with distinct RNA targets. ..
  30. Zhang S, Roman G. Presynaptic inhibition of gamma lobe neurons is required for olfactory learning in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2013;23:2519-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This newly uncovered requirement for inhibition of odor-elicited activity within the ? lobes is consistent with these neurons serving as comparators during learning, perhaps as part of an odor salience modification mechanism. ..
  31. Lüchtenborg A, Purvanov V, Melnik B, Becker S, Katanaev V. Mode of interaction of the Gαo subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins with the GoLoco1 motif of Drosophila Pins is determined by guanine nucleotides. Biosci Rep. 2015;35: pubmed publisher
    ..Our data have important implications for the mechanisms of Pins regulation in the process of asymmetric cell divisions. ..
  32. Madalan A, Yang X, Ferris J, Zhang S, Roman G. G(o) activation is required for both appetitive and aversive memory acquisition in Drosophila. Learn Mem. 2012;19:26-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Since this mutation renders the G(o) molecule insensitive to PTX, the results isolate the effect of PTX on both forms of olfactory associative learning to the inhibition of the G(o) activation. ..
  33. Garen Fazio S, Neer E, Schmidt C. Identification of a retinal protein in Drosophila with antibody to the alpha subunit of bovine brain G(o) protein. J Comp Neurol. 1991;309:17-26 pubmed
    ..The identification of regions common to mammalian alpha(o) and Drosophila transducin may then provide clues to the structural requirements for PLC activation. ..
  34. Hoxha V, Lama C, Chang P, Saurabh S, Patel N, Olate N, et al. Sex-specific signaling in the blood-brain barrier is required for male courtship in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003217 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify sex-specific factors and signaling processes in the bbb as important regulators of male mating behavior. ..
  35. Muliyil S, Narasimha M. Mitochondrial ROS regulates cytoskeletal and mitochondrial remodeling to tune cell and tissue dynamics in a model for wound healing. Dev Cell. 2014;28:239-52 pubmed publisher
    ..They identify a pathway triggered by ROS and mediated by the Rho effector ROCK and its substrates that influences tissue patterning and homeostasis through the coordinate regulation of both mitochondrial morphology and tissue tension. ..
  36. Lüchtenborg A, Solis G, Egger Adam D, Koval A, Lin C, Blanchard M, et al. Heterotrimeric Go protein links Wnt-Frizzled signaling with ankyrins to regulate the neuronal microtubule cytoskeleton. Development. 2014;141:3399-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work in Drosophila and mammalian cells suggests that this mechanism might be generally applicable in nervous system development and function. ..
  37. Patel M, Zhu J, Jiang Z, Richman A, VanBerkum M, Han Z. Gia/Mthl5 is an aorta specific GPCR required for Drosophila heart tube morphology and normal pericardial cell positioning. Dev Biol. 2016;414:100-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies lead to a redefinition of the bro phenotype, to encompass morphological integrity of the heart tube as well as cardioblast-pericardial cell spatial interactions. ..
  38. Betschinger J, Knoblich J. Dare to be different: asymmetric cell division in Drosophila, C. elegans and vertebrates. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R674-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we outline the steps and factors that are involved in this process in Drosophila and C. elegans and discuss their potential conservation in vertebrates. ..
  39. GONCZY P. Mechanisms of spindle positioning: focus on flies and worms. Trends Cell Biol. 2002;12:332-9 pubmed
    ..This article discusses recent findings that indicate how this mechanism might be used for spindle positioning during Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans development. ..
  40. Schlotterer C, Agis M. Microsatellite analysis of Drosophila melanogaster populations along a microclimatic contrast at lower Nahel Oren canyon, Mount Carmel, Israel. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:563-8 pubmed
    ..melanogaster populations was low (F(ST) = 0.0012). Also a tree of individuals based on the proportion of shared alleles and a model-based clustering method provided no evidence for population substructuring. ..
  41. Kaltschmidt J, Brand A. Asymmetric cell division: microtubule dynamics and spindle asymmetry. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:2257-64 pubmed
    ..In this commentary we discuss recent findings on how the mitotic spindle is positioned and on cleavage site induction and place them in the context of cell size asymmetry in different model organisms. ..
  42. Devambez I, Ali Agha M, Mitri C, Bockaert J, Parmentier M, Marion Poll F, et al. G?o is required for L-canavanine detection in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63484 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study revealed that G?o47A plays a crucial role in L-canavanine detection. ..
  43. Nagibina G, Tin U, Glukhov A, Melnik T, Melnik B. Intrinsic Disorder-Based Design of Stabilizing Disulphide Bridge in Gαo Protein. Protein Pept Lett. 2016;23:176-84 pubmed
    ..We have taken advantage of this approach to stabilize protein Gαo from Drosophila melanogaster. The designed SS-bridge increased by 4 degrees the melting temperature of one domain of protein Gαo. ..
  44. Yi W, Zhang Y, Tian Y, Guo J, Li Y, Guo A. A subset of cholinergic mushroom body neurons requires Go signaling to regulate sleep in Drosophila. Sleep. 2013;36:1809-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings in fruit flies characterized a group of sleep-promoting neurons surrounded by a group of wake-promoting neurons. The two groups of neurons are both cholinergic and use Go inhibitory signal to regulate sleep. ..
  45. Horgan A, Lagrange M, Copenhaver P. A developmental role for the heterotrimeric G protein Go alpha in a migratory population of embryonic neurons. Dev Biol. 1995;172:640-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Go(alpha)-coupled signaling events within the EP cells may down-regulate their migratory behavior, possibly in response to inhibitory cues that normally guide migration in the developing embryo. ..
  46. Im S, Takle K, Jo J, Babcock D, Ma Z, Xiang Y, et al. Tachykinin acts upstream of autocrine Hedgehog signaling during nociceptive sensitization in Drosophila. elife. 2015;4:e10735 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight a conserved role for Tachykinin signaling in regulating nociception and the power of Drosophila for genetic dissection of nociception. ..
  47. Schug M, Mackay T, Aquadro C. Low mutation rates of microsatellite loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 1997;15:99-102 pubmed
    ..3 x 10(-6), a mutation rate considerably lower than reported for various mammals. We propose that the comparatively low mutation rate is primarily a function of short microsatellite repeat lengths in the D. melanogaster genome. ..
  48. Lüchtenborg A, Katanaev V. Lack of evidence of the interaction of the Aβ peptide with the Wnt signaling cascade in Drosophila models of Alzheimer's disease. Mol Brain. 2014;7:81 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, our results challenge the hypothesis that Wnt signaling might be implicated in Aβ42 toxicity and might serve as a drug target against AD. ..
  49. Singh K, Ju J, Walsh M, Diiorio M, Hart A. Deep conservation of genes required for both Drosphila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans sleep includes a role for dopaminergic signaling. Sleep. 2014;37:1439-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative analysis of various components of quiescence suggests that interdependent or identical cellular and molecular mechanisms are likely to regulate both arousal and sleep entry. ..
  50. Schlotterer C, Ritter R, Harr B, Brem G. High mutation rate of a long microsatellite allele in Drosophila melanogaster provides evidence for allele-specific mutation rates. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:1269-74 pubmed
    ..The allele-specific mutation rate of 3.0 x 10(-4) per generation is within the range of mammalian mutation rates. Future microsatellite analyses will have to account for the dramatic differences in allele-specific mutation rates. ..
  51. Schweisguth F. Cell polarity: fixing cell polarity with Pins. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R265-7 pubmed
    ..A protein complex is assembled in a step-wise manner at the apical pole of Drosophila neuroblasts. This complex organizes the apical-basal polarity of asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts, and may act via G-protein signalling. ..
  52. Vecsey C, P rez N, Griffith L. The Drosophila neuropeptides PDF and sNPF have opposing electrophysiological and molecular effects on central neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2014;111:1033-45 pubmed publisher
  53. Tauc H, Mann T, Werner K, Pandur P. A role for Drosophila Wnt-4 in heart development. Genesis. 2012;50:466-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a role for DWnt4 in cardiogenesis; however, integration of DWnt4 with other known signaling pathways that function in heart development still awaits further investigation. ..
  54. McGurk L, Pathirana S, Rothwell K, Trimbuch T, Colombini P, Yu F, et al. The RGS gene loco is essential for male reproductive system differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we conclude that specific isoforms of loco are required for the differentiation of the male gonad and genital disc. ..
  55. Shortridge R, Yoon J, Lending C, Bloomquist B, Perdew M, Pak W. A Drosophila phospholipase C gene that is expressed in the central nervous system. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:12474-80 pubmed
    ..This tissue distribution of plc-21 transcripts is identical to the distribution of transcripts from a Drosophila Go alpha-subunit gene that we reported previously.
  56. Cooper T, Bailey Hill K, Leifert W, McMurchie E, Asgari S, Glatz R. Identification of an in vitro interaction between an insect immune suppressor protein (CrV2) and G alpha proteins. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10466-75 pubmed publisher
  57. Li X, Wang Y, Wang H, Liu T, Guo J, Yi W, et al. Epithelia-derived wingless regulates dendrite directional growth of drosophila ddaE neuron through the Fz-Fmi-Dsh-Rac1 pathway. Mol Brain. 2016;9:46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings provide strong in vivo evidence on how environmental signals serve as spatial cues for dendrite patterning. ..
  58. Harr B, Schlotterer C. Long microsatellite alleles in Drosophila melanogaster have a downward mutation bias and short persistence times, which cause their genome-wide underrepresentation. Genetics. 2000;155:1213-20 pubmed
    ..We propose that species-specific, size-dependent mutation spectra of microsatellite alleles may provide a general mechanism to account for the observed differences in microsatellite length between species. ..
  59. Zaffran S, Kuchler A, Lee H, Frasch M. biniou (FoxF), a central component in a regulatory network controlling visceral mesoderm development and midgut morphogenesis in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2900-15 pubmed
  60. Ogden S, Fei D, Schilling N, Ahmed Y, Hwa J, Robbins D. G protein Galphai functions immediately downstream of Smoothened in Hedgehog signalling. Nature. 2008;456:967-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Smo functions as a canonical GPCR, which signals through Galphai to regulate Hh pathway activation. ..
  61. Dahdal D, Reeves D, Ruben M, Akabas M, Blau J. Drosophila pacemaker neurons require g protein signaling and GABAergic inputs to generate twenty-four hour behavioral rhythms. Neuron. 2010;68:964-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Although no clock neurons produce GABA, hyperexciting GABAergic neurons disrupts behavioral rhythms and s-LN(v) molecular clocks. Therefore, s-LN(v)s require GABAergic inputs for 24 hr rhythms. ..
  62. Ignatious Raja J, Katanayeva N, Katanaev V, Galizia C. Role of Go/i subgroup of G proteins in olfactory signaling of Drosophila melanogaster. Eur J Neurosci. 2014;39:1245-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a transduction cascade model involving several parallel processes, in which the metabotropic component is activated by Go and Gi , and uses G??. ..