Gene Symbol: Gad1
Description: Glutamic acid decarboxylase 1
Alias: CG14994, DGAD1, DGad1, Dmel\CG14994, GAD, GAD-1, GAD1, GAD[[1]], Gad, Glb, dGad1, dgad1, gad, gad1, l(3)64An, l(3)SH10, glutamic acid decarboxylase 1, CG14994-PA, CG14994-PB, CG14994-PC, CG14994-PD, GABA synthetase, Gad1-PA, Gad1-PB, Gad1-PC, Gad1-PD, glutamatic acid decarboxylase, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glutamic acid decarboxylase-1, vesicular glutamic acid decarboxylase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Jackson F, Newby L, Kulkarni S. Drosophila GABAergic systems: sequence and expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase. J Neurochem. 1990;54:1068-78 pubmed
    A mammalian glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) cDNA probe has been utilized to isolate Drosophila cDNA clones that represent a genomic locus in chromosome region 64A...
  2. Liang L, Li Y, Potter C, Yizhar O, Deisseroth K, Tsien R, et al. GABAergic projection neurons route selective olfactory inputs to specific higher-order neurons. Neuron. 2013;79:917-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The parallel inhibition motif may provide specificity in inhibition to funnel specific olfactory information, such as food and pheromone, into distinct downstream circuits. ..
  3. Chou Y, Spletter M, Yaksi E, Leong J, Wilson R, Luo L. Diversity and wiring variability of olfactory local interneurons in the Drosophila antennal lobe. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal an unexpected degree of complexity and individual variation in an invertebrate neural circuit, a result that creates challenges for solving the Drosophila connectome. ..
  4. Jefferis G, Vyas R, Berdnik D, Ramaekers A, Stocker R, Tanaka N, et al. Developmental origin of wiring specificity in the olfactory system of Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:117-30 pubmed
    ..We propose instead that this prototypic map might originate from both patterning information external to the developing antennal lobe and interactions among PN dendrites. ..
  5. Enell L, Hamasaka Y, Kolodziejczyk A, Nassel D. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling components in Drosophila: immunocytochemical localization of GABA(B) receptors in relation to the GABA(A) receptor subunit RDL and a vesicular GABA transporter. J Comp Neurol. 2007;505:18-31 pubmed
    ..For general GABA distribution, we utilized an antiserum to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD1) and a gad1-GAL4 to drive green fluorescent protein...
  6. Yu D, Ponomarev A, Davis R. Altered representation of the spatial code for odors after olfactory classical conditioning; memory trace formation by synaptic recruitment. Neuron. 2004;42:437-49 pubmed
    ..The rapid recruitment by conditioning of new synapses into the representation of sensory information may be a general mechanism underlying many forms of short-term memory. ..
  7. Küppers B, Sanchez Soriano N, Letzkus J, Technau G, Prokop A. In developing Drosophila neurones the production of gamma-amino butyric acid is tightly regulated downstream of glutamate decarboxylase translation and can be influenced by calcium. J Neurochem. 2003;84:939-51 pubmed
    ..This timeline is almost unchanged when the GABA synthetase glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is strongly misexpressed throughout the nervous system suggesting a tight post-..
  8. Ng M, Roorda R, Lima S, Zemelman B, Morcillo P, Miesenbock G. Transmission of olfactory information between three populations of neurons in the antennal lobe of the fly. Neuron. 2002;36:463-74 pubmed
    ..These circuits may serve as dynamic templates that extract higher order features from afferent activity patterns. ..
  9. Kolodziejczyk A, Sun X, Meinertzhagen I, Nassel D. Glutamate, GABA and acetylcholine signaling components in the lamina of the Drosophila visual system. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2110 pubmed publisher fluorescent protein in specific lamina neurons with antisera to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid decarboxylase, a GABA(B) type of receptor, L-glutamate, a vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT), ionotropic and ..

More Information


  1. Chiang A, Lin C, Chuang C, Chang H, Hsieh C, Yeh C, et al. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain-wide wiring networks in Drosophila at single-cell resolution. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the Drosophila brain is assembled from families of multiple LPUs and their interconnections. This provides an essential first step in the analysis of information processing within and between neurons in a complete brain. ..
  2. Johard H, Enell L, Gustafsson E, Trifilieff P, Veenstra J, Nassel D. Intrinsic neurons of Drosophila mushroom bodies express short neuropeptide F: relations to extrinsic neurons expressing different neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1479-96 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is likely that the Kenyon cells utilize an additional neurotransmitter, yet to be identified, and that the neuropeptides described here may represent cotransmitters. ..
  3. Hamasaka Y, Wegener C, Nassel D. GABA modulates Drosophila circadian clock neurons via GABAB receptors and decreases in calcium. J Neurobiol. 2005;65:225-40 pubmed
    ..terminate at the dendrites of the LN(v)s, as revealed by GABA immunostaining and a GABA-specific GAL4 line (GAD1-gal4)...
  4. Okada R, Awasaki T, Ito K. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated neural connections in the Drosophila antennal lobe. J Comp Neurol. 2009;514:74-91 pubmed publisher
    ..small numbers of the cells, which form clusters in several areas of the brain, express the GABA synthesis enzyme Gad1. On the other hand, many cells scattered across the brain express ionotropic GABA(A) receptor subunits (Lcch3 and ..
  5. Featherstone D, Rushton E, Hilderbrand Chae M, Phillips A, Jackson F, Broadie K. Presynaptic glutamic acid decarboxylase is required for induction of the postsynaptic receptor field at a glutamatergic synapse. Neuron. 2000;27:71-84 pubmed
    ..this screen led to the identification of several alleles with missense mutations in highly conserved regions of Dgad1. Analysis of these gad mutants reveals that they are paralyzed owing to defects in glutamatergic transmission at ..
  6. Broadie K, Richmond J. Establishing and sculpting the synapse in Drosophila and C. elegans. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:491-8 pubmed
    ..Glutamate acts as a negative regulator of its cognate postsynaptic receptor to sculpt receptor field size. Finally, protein translation and degradation regulation emerge as possible key regulators of synaptic efficacy. ..
  7. Featherstone D, Rushton E, Rohrbough J, Liebl F, Karr J, Sheng Q, et al. An essential Drosophila glutamate receptor subunit that functions in both central neuropil and neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3199-208 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal GluRIID as a newly identified glutamate receptor subunit that is essential for glutamate receptor assembly/stabilization in the peripheral NMJ and required for properly patterned motor output in the CNS. ..
  8. Chen C, Wu J, Lin H, Pai T, Fu T, Wu C, et al. Visualizing long-term memory formation in two neurons of the Drosophila brain. Science. 2012;335:678-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest an extra-MB memory circuit in Drosophila: LTM consolidation (MB to DAL), storage (DAL), and retrieval (DAL to MB)...
  9. Hekmat Scafe D, Mercado A, Fajilan A, Lee A, Hsu R, Mount D, et al. Seizure sensitivity is ameliorated by targeted expression of K+-Cl- cotransporter function in the mushroom body of the Drosophila brain. Genetics. 2010;184:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that kcc(DHS1) seizure sensitivity in MB neurons acts via a weakening of chemical synaptic inhibition by GABAergic transmission and suggest that this is due to disruption of intracellular Cl(-) gradients in MB neurons. ..
  10. Séjourné J, Plaçais P, Aso Y, Siwanowicz I, Trannoy S, Thoma V, et al. Mushroom body efferent neurons responsible for aversive olfactory memory retrieval in Drosophila. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:903-10 pubmed publisher
    ..As the lateral horn has been implicated in innate responses to repellent odorants, we propose that MB-V2 neurons recruit the olfactory pathway involved in innate odor avoidance during memory retrieval. ..
  11. Passador Gurgel G, Hsieh W, Hunt P, Deighton N, Gibson G. Quantitative trait transcripts for nicotine resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2007;39:264-8 pubmed
    ..Differences between populations from North Carolina and California suggest that the resistance mechanism may be an evolved response to environmental exposure. ..
  12. Kahsai L, Winther A. Chemical neuroanatomy of the Drosophila central complex: distribution of multiple neuropeptides in relation to neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:290-315 pubmed publisher
  13. Strutz A, Soelter J, Baschwitz A, Farhan A, Grabe V, Rybak J, et al. Decoding odor quality and intensity in the Drosophila brain. elife. 2014;3:e04147 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence for a feature-based map in the LH, and elucidate its role as the center for integrating behaviorally relevant olfactory information. ..
  14. Fushiki A, Zwart M, Kohsaka H, Fetter R, Cardona A, Nose A. A circuit mechanism for the propagation of waves of muscle contraction in Drosophila. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..The circuit structure and functional imaging indicated that the commands to contract one segment promote the relaxation of the next segment, revealing a mechanism for wave propagation in peristaltic locomotion. ..
  15. Phillips A, Smart R, Strauss R, Brembs B, Kelly L. The Drosophila black enigma: the molecular and behavioural characterization of the black1 mutant allele. Gene. 2005;351:131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..No ERG, or target recognition defects can be demonstrated suggesting a problem with higher order visual functions in black mutants...
  16. Aberle H, Haghighi A, Fetter R, McCabe B, Magalhaes T, Goodman C. wishful thinking encodes a BMP type II receptor that regulates synaptic growth in Drosophila. Neuron. 2002;33:545-58 pubmed
    ..The NMJ phenotype is specifically rescued by transgenic expression of Wit only in motoneurons. Thus, Wit appears to function as a presynaptic receptor that regulates synaptic size at the Drosophila NMJ. ..
  17. Hekmat Scafe D, Lundy M, Ranga R, Tanouye M. Mutations in the K+/Cl- cotransporter gene kazachoc (kcc) increase seizure susceptibility in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8943-54 pubmed
    ..The kcc mutants provide an excellent model system in which to investigate how modulation of GABAergic signaling influences neuronal excitability and epileptogenesis. ..
  18. Haynes P, Christmann B, Griffith L. A single pair of neurons links sleep to memory consolidation in Drosophila melanogaster. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for the mechanistic relationship between sleep and memory consolidation, arguing for a significant role of inhibitory neurotransmission in regulating these processes. ..
  19. Kahsai L, Carlsson M, Winther A, Nässel D. Distribution of metabotropic receptors of serotonin, dopamine, GABA, glutamate, and short neuropeptide F in the central complex of Drosophila. Neuroscience. 2012;208:11-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The information provided here, on receptor distribution, will be very useful for future analysis of functional circuits in the central complex, based on targeted interference with receptor expression. ..
  20. Xun Z, Kaufman T, Clemmer D. Proteome response to the panneural expression of human wild-type alpha-synuclein: a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:3911-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed alterations in both pathology-associated and novel proteins may shed light on the pathological roles of alpha-synuclein that may lead to the development of diagnostic strategies at the presymptomatic stage. ..
  21. Crickmore M, Vosshall L. Opposing dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons control the duration and persistence of copulation in Drosophila. Cell. 2013;155:881-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, copulation duration in Drosophila is a product of gradually declining persistence controlled by opposing neuronal populations using conserved neurotransmission systems. ..
  22. Featherstone D, Rushton E, Broadie K. Developmental regulation of glutamate receptor field size by nonvesicular glutamate release. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:141-6 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal an elegant mechanism for receptor field regulation during synaptogenesis and reveal a nonpathological role for nonvesicular glutamate release at the synapse. ..
  23. Chen G, Li W, Zhang Q, Regulski M, Sinha N, Barditch J, et al. Identification of synaptic targets of Drosophila pumilio. PLoS Comput Biol. 2008;4:e1000026 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the endogenous dlg1 mRNA can be regulated by Pumilio in a neuronal context, the adult mushroom bodies (MB), which is an anatomical site of memory storage. ..
  24. Ren Q, Li H, Wu Y, Ren J, Guo A. A GABAergic inhibitory neural circuit regulates visual reversal learning in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2012;32:11524-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that the APL-MB circuit plays an essential role in the resolution of conflicting reinforcement contingencies and reveals an inhibitory neural mechanism underlying flexible behavior in Drosophila. ..
  25. Diao F, Ironfield H, Luan H, Diao F, Shropshire W, Ewer J, et al. Plug-and-play genetic access to drosophila cell types using exchangeable exon cassettes. Cell Rep. 2015;10:1410-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We also introduce an exchangeable, MiMIC-like Trojan exon construct that can be targeted to coding introns using the Crispr/Cas system. ..
  26. Liu J, Gong Z, Liu L. ?-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 specifically suppresses green-light avoidance via GABAA receptors in Drosophila. J Neurochem. 2014;130:408-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms mediating green-light avoidance, which was inhibited in wild-type larvae. ..
  27. Martín Peña A, Acebes A, Rodriguez J, Chevalier V, Casas Tinto S, Triphan T, et al. Cell types and coincident synapses in the ellipsoid body of Drosophila. Eur J Neurosci. 2014;39:1586-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the EB expression domains of genetic constructs from the choline acetyl transferase (Cha), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) genes, we identified a new set of neurons with the characteristic ..
  28. Kulkarni S, Newby L, Jackson F. Drosophila GABAergic systems. II. Mutational analysis of chromosomal segment 64AB, a region containing the glutamic acid decarboxylase gene. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;243:555-64 pubmed
    The Drosophila melanogaster Gad gene maps to region 64A3-5 of chromosome 3L and encodes glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)...
  29. Enell L, Kapan N, Söderberg J, Kahsai L, Nassel D. Insulin signaling, lifespan and stress resistance are modulated by metabotropic GABA receptors on insulin producing cells in the brain of Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15780 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration of a neurotransmitter that inhibits insulin signaling in its regulation of metabolism, stress and life span in an invertebrate brain. ..
  30. Newby L, Kulkarni S, Jackson F. Transcriptional organization of a Drosophila glutamic acid decarboxylase gene. J Neurochem. 1993;60:982-9 pubmed
    ..the sequence and expression pattern of a Drosophila mRMA (Gad) that encodes the major soluble form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). We now report the transcriptional organization of the Drosophila Gad gene...
  31. Dahdal D, Reeves D, Ruben M, Akabas M, Blau J. Drosophila pacemaker neurons require g protein signaling and GABAergic inputs to generate twenty-four hour behavioral rhythms. Neuron. 2010;68:964-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Although no clock neurons produce GABA, hyperexciting GABAergic neurons disrupts behavioral rhythms and s-LN(v) molecular clocks. Therefore, s-LN(v)s require GABAergic inputs for 24 hr rhythms. ..
  32. Yuan Q, Song Y, Yang C, Jan L, Jan Y. Female contact modulates male aggression via a sexually dimorphic GABAergic circuit in Drosophila. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:81-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the GABAergic inhibition represents a critical cellular mechanism that enables prior experience to modulate aggression. ..
  33. Feng G, Deak P, Kasbekar D, Gil D, Hall L. Cytogenetic and molecular localization of tipE: a gene affecting sodium channels in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;139:1679-88 pubmed
    ..Sequencing these transcripts will elucidate the role of the tipE gene product in sodium channel functional regulation. ..
  34. Shim J, Mukherjee T, Mondal B, Liu T, Young G, Wijewarnasuriya D, et al. Olfactory control of blood progenitor maintenance. Cell. 2013;155:1141-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study links sensory perception and the effects of its deprivation on the integrity of the hematopoietic and innate immune systems in Drosophila. PAPERCLIP: ..
  35. Paranjpe P, Rodrigues V, Vijayraghavan K, Ramaswami M. Gustatory habituation in Drosophila relies on rutabaga (adenylate cyclase)-dependent plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory neurons. Learn Mem. 2012;19:627-35 pubmed publisher
    ..GABA synthesis in and release from glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD1) expressing neurons is necessary, and GABA(A) receptors on cholinergic neurons are required for ..
  36. Chavez V, Marques G, Delbecque J, Kobayashi K, Hollingsworth M, Burr J, et al. The Drosophila disembodied gene controls late embryonic morphogenesis and codes for a cytochrome P450 enzyme that regulates embryonic ecdysone levels. Development. 2000;127:4115-26 pubmed
  37. Li X, Overton I, Baines R, Keegan L, O Connell M. The ADAR RNA editing enzyme controls neuronal excitability in Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:1139-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced dosage of the Gad1 gene encoding the GABA synthetase also rescues Adar overexpression lethality...
  38. Leiss F, Groh C, Butcher N, Meinertzhagen I, Tavosanis G. Synaptic organization in the adult Drosophila mushroom body calyx. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:808-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings represent an important basis for the functional analysis of the olfactory pathway, including the formation of associative olfactory memories...
  39. Harrison S, Solomon N, Rubin G. A genetic analysis of the 63E-64A genomic region of Drosophila melanogaster: identification of mutations in a replication factor C subunit. Genetics. 1995;139:1701-9 pubmed
    ..In addition we have isolated 11 new mutant alleles of the disembodied gene. ..
  40. Nassel D, Enell L, Santos J, Wegener C, Johard H. A large population of diverse neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system expresses short neuropeptide F, suggesting multiple distributed peptide functions. BMC Neurosci. 2008;9:90 pubmed publisher
    ..To unravel possible functional diversity we have mapped the distribution of transcript of the snpf gene and its peptide products in the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila in relation to other neuronal markers...
  41. Lei Z, Chen K, Li H, Liu H, Guo A. The GABA system regulates the sparse coding of odors in the mushroom bodies of Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;436:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the sparse coding of odors in MBs is regulated by a pair of GABAergic neurons through the GABAA receptors on KCs, thus demonstrating a specific role of the inhibitory GABA system on information processing in the MB...
  42. Verstreken P, Bellen H. Meaningless minis? Mechanisms of neurotransmitter-receptor clustering. Trends Neurosci. 2002;25:383-5 pubmed
    ..The other model rules out a role for minis in initiation of clustering, and suggests a role for non-vesicular release of glutamate in receptor-field maintenance. Here, we compare and discuss the data underlying both models. ..
  43. Wu Y, Ren Q, Li H, Guo A. The GABAergic anterior paired lateral neurons facilitate olfactory reversal learning in Drosophila. Learn Mem. 2012;19:478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal that inhibitory regulation from the GABAergic APL neurons facilitates olfactory reversal learning by suppressing initial memory in Drosophila...
  44. Doll C, Broadie K. Impaired activity-dependent neural circuit assembly and refinement in autism spectrum disorder genetic models. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014;8:30 pubmed publisher
    ..The field is now poised to exploit this new Drosophila transgenic toolbox for the systematic dissection of A-D mechanisms in normal versus ASD brain development, particularly utilizing the well-established Drosophila FXS disease model. ..
  45. Braat S, Kooy R. Insights into GABAAergic system deficits in fragile X syndrome lead to clinical trials. Neuropharmacology. 2015;88:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these preclinical studies, clinical trials in patients have been initiated. ..
  46. Phillips A, Salkoff L, Kelly L. A neural gene from Drosophila melanogaster with homology to vertebrate and invertebrate glutamate decarboxylases. J Neurochem. 1993;61:1291-301 pubmed
    ..hybridization has been used to isolate a second Drosophila gene, with homology to a feline glutamate decarboxylase (Gad) cDNA...
  47. Liu X, Davis R. The GABAergic anterior paired lateral neuron suppresses and is suppressed by olfactory learning. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a mutual suppression between the GABAergic APL neuron and olfactory learning, and emphasize the functional neuroplasticity of the GABAergic system as a result of learning. ..
  48. Chin A, Lin C, Fu T, Dickson B, Chiang A. Diversity and wiring variability of visual local neurons in the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum. J Comp Neurol. 2014;522:3795-816 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum contains diverse LNs that form repeating functional modules similar to those found in the vertebrate inner plexiform layer. ..
  49. Leal S, Qian L, Lacin H, Bodmer R, Skeath J. Neuromancer1 and Neuromancer2 regulate cell fate specification in the developing embryonic CNS of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2009;325:138-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, nmr1 and nmr2 appear to act together as members of the combinatorial code of transcription factors that govern neuronal subtype identity in the CNS. ..